Special Issue "Catalytic Methods in Flow Chemistry"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Christophe Len

PSL Research University, IRCP, UMR 8247 CNRS Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris, France
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Interests: green chemistry; organic chemistry; catalysis
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Renzo Luisi

Department of Pharmacy – Drug Sciences, University of Bari “A. Moro” via E. Orabona 4, 70125 – Bari - Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: flow chemistry; microreactor technology; organometallic chemistry (lithium, magnesium); carbenoids; boron-, fluorine-, sulfur-chemistry; NMR spectroscopy; molecular dynamics; asymmetric synthesis; heterocyclic chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The chemical industry generates a large variety of products, including (i) basic chemicals, e.g., polymers, petrochemicals, and basic inorganics; (ii) specialty chemicals for crop protection, paints, inks, colorants, textiles, paper and engineering; and (iii) consumer chemicals, including detergents, soaps, etc. Aiming to improve the intensification of the process, chemists have recently established chemical reactions based on catalysis, as well as alternative technologies, such as continuous flow.

The aim of this Special Issue is to cover promising recent research and novel trends in the field of novel catalytic reactions (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic, as well as their combinations) in continuous flow chemistry. Recent conversion of starting material issued from petroleum resources or biomass into high-added value chemicals will be reported. 

Prof. Dr. Christophe Len
Prof. Dr. Renzo Luisi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Catalysis
  • Continuous flow reaction
  • Chemical catalysis
  • Enzymatic catalysis
  • Chemical engineering
  • Biomass valorization
  • Petroleum resources
  • Alternative technology
  • Microwave chemistry
  • Ultrasound chemistry
  • Photochemistry

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Mg-Catalyzed OPPenauer Oxidation—Application to the Flow Synthesis of a Natural Pheromone
Catalysts 2018, 8(11), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8110529
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract
The so-called OPPenauer oxidation is well known for its ability to oxidize valuable alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. In particular, it has proven to be extremely successful in the oxidation of sterols. On the other hand, its application—in the original formulation—to
[...] Read more.
The so-called OPPenauer oxidation is well known for its ability to oxidize valuable alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. In particular, it has proven to be extremely successful in the oxidation of sterols. On the other hand, its application—in the original formulation—to the obtainment of ketones outside the field of steroids met a more limited success because of less favorable thermodynamics and side reactions. To circumvent these issues, the first example of magnesium-catalyzed OPPenauer oxidation is described. The oxidation of primary and secondary alcohol was performed using pivaldehyde or bromaldehyde as the oxidant and cheap magnesium tert-butoxide as catalyst. Decent to excellent yields were obtained using reasonable catalytic charge. The synthesis of a pheromone stemming from the Rhynchophorus ferrugineus was obtained by tandem addition-oxidation of 2-methylpentanal and the process was successfully applied to continuous flow on a multigram scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Methods in Flow Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of In-Situ Gasification Chemical Looping Combustion Effects of Operating Conditions
Catalysts 2018, 8(11), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8110526
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) has been considered as one of the most promising technologies to implement CO2 capture with low energy penalty. A comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model integrating gas–solid flow and reactions, based on the authors’ previous work (Energy Fuels 2013, 27,
[...] Read more.
Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) has been considered as one of the most promising technologies to implement CO2 capture with low energy penalty. A comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model integrating gas–solid flow and reactions, based on the authors’ previous work (Energy Fuels 2013, 27, 2173–2184), is applied to simulate the in-situ Gasification Chemical Looping Combustion (iG-CLC) process in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser fuel reactor. Extending from the previous work, the present study further validates the model and investigates the effects of several important operating conditions, i.e., solids flux, steam flow and operating pressure, on the gas–solid flow behaviors, CO2 concentration and fuel conversion, comprehensively. The simulated fuel reactor has a height of 5 m and an internal diameter of 60 mm. The simulated oxygen carrier is a Norwegian ilmenite and the simulated fuel is a Colombian bituminous coal. The results of this simulation work have shown that an increase in the solids flux can promote CO2 concentration, but may also have a negative effect on carbon conversion. A decrease in the steam flow leads to positive effects on not only the CO2 concentration but also the carbon conversion. However, the reduction of steam flow is limited by the CFB operation process. An increase in the operating pressure can improve both the CO2 concentration and carbon conversion and therefore, the CFB riser fuel reactor of a practical iG-CLC system is recommended to be designed and operated under a certain pressurized conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Methods in Flow Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Method for the Prediction of Erosion Evolution Process Based on Dynamic Mesh and Its Applications
Catalysts 2018, 8(10), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8100432
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
Particle erosion is a commonly occurring phenomenon, and it plays a significantly important role in service life. However, few simulations have replicated erosion, especially the detailed evolution process. To address this complex issue, a new method for establishing the solution of the erosion
[...] Read more.
Particle erosion is a commonly occurring phenomenon, and it plays a significantly important role in service life. However, few simulations have replicated erosion, especially the detailed evolution process. To address this complex issue, a new method for establishing the solution of the erosion evolution process was developed. The approach is introduced with the erosion model and the dynamic mesh. The erosion model was applied to estimate the material removal of erosion, and the dynamic mesh technology was used to demonstrate the surface profile of erosion. Then, this method was applied to solve a typical case—the erosion surface deformation and the expiry period of an economizer bank in coal-fired power plants. The mathematical models were set up, including gas motion, particle motion, particle-wall collision, and erosion. Such models were solved by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software (ANSYS FLUENT), which describes the evolution process of erosion based on the dynamic mesh. The results indicate that: (1) the prediction of the erosion profile calculated by the dynamic mesh is in good agreement with that on-site; (2) the global/local erosion loss and the maximum erosion depth is linearly related to the working time at the earlier stage, but the growth of the maximum erosion depth slows down gradually in the later stage; (3) the reason for slowing down is that the collision point trajectory moves along the increasing direction of the absolute value of θ as time increases; and (4) the expiry period is shortened as the ash diameter increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Methods in Flow Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle From a Sequential Chemo-Enzymatic Approach to a Continuous Process for HMF Production from Glucose
Catalysts 2018, 8(8), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8080335
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Notably available from the cellulose contained in lignocellulosic biomass, glucose is a highly attractive substrate for eco-efficient processes towards high-value chemicals. A recent strategy for biomass valorization consists on combining biocatalysis and chemocatalysis to realise the so-called chemo-enzymatic or hybrid catalysis. Optimisation of
[...] Read more.
Notably available from the cellulose contained in lignocellulosic biomass, glucose is a highly attractive substrate for eco-efficient processes towards high-value chemicals. A recent strategy for biomass valorization consists on combining biocatalysis and chemocatalysis to realise the so-called chemo-enzymatic or hybrid catalysis. Optimisation of the glucose conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is the object of many research efforts. HMF can be produced by chemo-catalyzed fructose dehydration, while fructose can be selectively obtained from enzymatic glucose isomerization. Despite recent advances in HMF production, a fully integrated efficient process remains to be demonstrated. Our innovative approach consists on a continuous process involving enzymatic glucose isomerization, selective arylboronic-acid mediated fructose complexation/transportation, and chemical fructose dehydration to HMF. We designed a novel reactor based on two aqueous phases dynamically connected via an organic liquid membrane, which enabled substantial enhancement of glucose conversion (70%) while avoiding intermediate separation steps. Furthermore, in the as-combined steps, the use of an immobilized glucose isomerase and an acidic resin facilitates catalyst recycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Methods in Flow Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Selective Reduction of Ketones and Aldehydes in Continuous-Flow Microreactor—Kinetic Studies
Catalysts 2018, 8(5), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8050221
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
In this work, the kinetics of Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley chemoselective reduction of carbonyl compounds was studied in monolithic continuous-flow microreactors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the MPV reaction kinetics performed in a flow process. The microreactors are a
[...] Read more.
In this work, the kinetics of Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley chemoselective reduction of carbonyl compounds was studied in monolithic continuous-flow microreactors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the MPV reaction kinetics performed in a flow process. The microreactors are a very attractive alternative to the batch reactors conventionally used in this process. The proposed micro-flow system for synthesis of unsaturated secondary alcohols proved to be very efficient and easily controlled. The microreactors had reactive cores made of zirconium-functionalized silica monoliths of excellent catalytic properties and flow characteristics. The catalytic experiments were carried out with the use of 2-butanol as a hydrogen donor. Herein, we present the kinetic parameters of cyclohexanone reduction in a flow reactor and data on the reaction rate for several important ketones and aldehydes. The lack of diffusion constraints in the microreactors was demonstrated. Our results were compared with those from other authors and demonstrate the great potential of microreactor applications in fine chemical and complex intermediate manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Methods in Flow Chemistry)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Continuous flow hydrogenation of methyl levulinate promoted by Zr-based mesoporous materials
Authors: Noelia Lázaroa, Ana Francoa, Weiyi Ouyanga, Alina M. Balua, Antonio A. Romeroa, Rafael Luqueab, Antonio Pinedaa*
Affiliations: a Departamento de Química Orgánica Universidad de Córdoba, Edificio Marie Curie (C 3), Campus de Rabanales, Ctra Nnal IV-A, Km 396, E14014, Cordoba, Spain
b Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6 Miklukho-Maklaya str. 117198, Moscow, Russia
Abstract: ϒ-Valerolactone (GVL) is an important molecule derived from lignocellulosic biomass that can be obtained through the catalytic hydrogenation of methyl levulinate esters. Herein we report the preparation of several Zr-based mesoporous catalyst such as ZrO2, Zr-SBA-15 (with different Si/Zr molar ratio) as catalyst for the synthesis of GVL through the hydrogenation of methyl levulinate. The physicochemical properties of the synthesised materials were deeply investigated through the use of nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and DRIFTs of pyridine adsorption, among other techniques. All catalysts employed in this work exhibited good catalytic activities in the continuous flow hydrogenation of methyl levulinate using isopropyl alcohol as hydrogen donor solvent, with conversion values in the 15-89% range and high selectivities to ϒ‑valerolactone in the range of 76-100% along the experiment. ZrO2 was found to be the optimum catalyst system providing a higher conversion correlated with the content of zirconium, that catalyses the reaction according to the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley mechanism, and higher selectivity towards GVL due its low Bronsted acidity, which is the responsible of possible side reactions such as transesterification.

Title: Micro-Reaction Technology: Flow Chemistry Impact on Applied Catalysis
Authors:
Hany A. Elazab*, M. A. Radwan*, M. A. Sadek *
Affiliation: * Chemical Engineering Department, The British University in Egypt, BUE, Cairo, EGYPT
Abstract: The micro reaction technology has emerged over the past two decades as one of the promising synthetic tools that can create new horizons in many industrial and catalysis applications. There are many crucial issues that could simply be solved by adopting the approach of micro reaction technology. Those issues are including harmful environmental impact which could be minimized through integrated separation techniques and reagent recycling used in microreactors. There are also other issues including kinetic, thermodynamic, and process safety concerns. Moreover, chemical manufacturing has been enhanced through running reactions in continuous mode using flow chemistry. This lead to a great enhancement and improvement in solving many concerns related to particle size distribution, energy efficiency, surface to volume ratio, mass and heat transfer limitations, selectivity, high pressure, optimizing reaction conditions, scale-up issues, reproducibility, conversion, yield, process reliability, catalyst deactivation and recovery.
Keywords: Micro reactor Technology, Flow reactor, synthesis, catalysis, continuous mode.

 

 

 

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