Special Issue "Non-Coding RNAs in Cancers"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paolo Fortina

Cancer Genomics and Bioinformatics, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center Department of Cancer Biology Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
E-Mail
Fax: +1-215-503-9142
Interests: genomics; next-generation sequencing; DNA probe assays; analytical microchips; circulating tumor cells; direct to consumer testing
Guest Editor
Dr. Eric Londin

Computational Medicine Center, Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cellular Biology Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
E-Mail
Phone: +1 215-503-0454
Fax: +1-215-503-0466
Interests: next-generation sequencing; microRNAs; non-coding RNAs; transcriptome; bioinformatics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent evidence shows that non-coding RNA (i.e., RNA molecules that are not translated into proteins) play essential roles in the cellular development, physiology, and pathologies of human diseases, including cancer. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that regulate non-coding RNA expression during cancer progression is important for the development of effective therapeutic and diagnostic regimens. While microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most frequently studied, they represent only a small portion of cellular non-coding RNAs. Additional short and long non-coding RNAs are expressed; these play key roles in the biology of oncogenesis, cancer progression, and metastasis. Both long and short non-coding RNAs represent new avenues of investigation for drug discovery. These avenues have several advantages over traditional protein-based targets. However, they come with their own unique set of challenges. This Special Issue will offer an overview of non-coding RNAs, their importance, and their potential role in understanding the molecular basis of cancer and its treatment.

Prof. Dr. Paolo Fortina
Dr. Eric Londin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • short and long non-coding RNA
  • miRNA gene expression
  • transcriptome analysis
  • oncogenesis
  • metastasis

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Exploration of Deregulated Long Non-Coding RNAs in Association with Hepatocarcinogenesis and Survival
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1847-1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030865
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 2 September 2015 / Published: 10 September 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are larger than 200 nucleotides in length and pervasively expressed across the genome. An increasing number of studies indicate that lncRNA transcripts play integral regulatory roles in cellular growth, division, differentiation and apoptosis. Deregulated lncRNAs have been observed in [...] Read more.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are larger than 200 nucleotides in length and pervasively expressed across the genome. An increasing number of studies indicate that lncRNA transcripts play integral regulatory roles in cellular growth, division, differentiation and apoptosis. Deregulated lncRNAs have been observed in a variety of human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We determined the expression profiles of 90 lncRNAs for 65 paired HCC tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues, and 55 lncRNAs were expressed in over 90% of samples. Eight lncRNAs were significantly down-regulated in HCC tumor compared to non-tumor tissues (p < 0.05), but no lncRNA achieved statistical significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Within tumor tissues, carrying more aberrant lncRNAs (6–7) was associated with a borderline significant reduction Cancers 2015, 7 1848 in survival (HR = 8.5, 95% CI: 1.0–72.5). The predictive accuracy depicted by the AUC was 0.93 for HCC survival when using seven deregulated lncRNAs (likelihood ratio test p = 0.001), which was similar to that combining the seven lncRNAs with tumor size and treatment (AUC = 0.96, sensitivity = 87%, specificity = 87%). These data suggest the potential association of deregulated lncRNAs with hepatocarcinogenesis and HCC survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Cancers)
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA Polymorphisms in Cancer: A Literature Analysis
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1806-1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030863
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 26 August 2015 / Accepted: 2 September 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miRNA) genes (miR-SNPs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their involvement in the development of various types of cancer. Therefore, a systematic review on this topic was needed. From 55 scientific publications we [...] Read more.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miRNA) genes (miR-SNPs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their involvement in the development of various types of cancer. Therefore, a systematic review on this topic was needed. From 55 scientific publications we collected 20 SNPs, which are located within 18 miRNA encoding genes and have been associated with 16 types of cancer. Among 20 miRNA gene polymorphisms 13 are located within the premature miRNA region, five within mature, and two within mature seed miRNA region. We graphically visualized a network of miRNA-cancer associations which revealed miRNA genes and cancer types with the highest number of connections. Our study showed that, despite a large number of variations currently known to be located within miRNA genes in humans, most of them have not yet been tested for association with cancer. MicroRNA SNPs collected in this study represent only 0.43% of known miRNA gene variations (20/4687). Results of the present study will be useful to researchers investigating the clinical use of miRNAs, such as the roles of miRNAs as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Cancers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Oncogenic MicroRNAs: Key Players in Malignant Transformation
Cancers 2015, 7(4), 2466-2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7040904
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of non-coding RNAs that exert pivotal roles in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs are involved in many biological processes and slight modulations in their expression have been correlated with the occurrence of different [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of non-coding RNAs that exert pivotal roles in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs are involved in many biological processes and slight modulations in their expression have been correlated with the occurrence of different diseases. In particular, alterations in the expression of miRNAs with oncogenic or tumor suppressor functions have been associated with carcinogenesis, malignant transformation, metastasis and response to anticancer treatments. This review will mainly focus on oncogenic miRNAs whose aberrant expression leads to malignancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Cancers)
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Open AccessReview MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1643-1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030855
Received: 25 May 2015 / Revised: 4 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs [...] Read more.
In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Cancers)
Open AccessReview Long Non-Coding RNAs: The Key Players in Glioma Pathogenesis
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1406-1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030843
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a novel class of RNAs with no functional protein-coding ability, yet it has become increasingly clear that interactions between lncRNAs with other molecules are responsible for important gene regulatory functions in various contexts. Given their relatively high expressions [...] Read more.
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a novel class of RNAs with no functional protein-coding ability, yet it has become increasingly clear that interactions between lncRNAs with other molecules are responsible for important gene regulatory functions in various contexts. Given their relatively high expressions in the brain, lncRNAs are now thought to play important roles in normal brain development as well as diverse disease processes including gliomagenesis. Intriguingly, certain lncRNAs are closely associated with the initiation, differentiation, progression, recurrence and stem-like characteristics in glioma, and may therefore be exploited for the purposes of sub-classification, diagnosis and prognosis. LncRNAs may also serve as potential therapeutic targets as well as a novel biomarkers in the treatment of glioma. In this article, the functional aspects of lncRNAs, particularly within the central nervous system (CNS), will be briefly discussed, followed by highlights of the important roles of lncRNAs in mediating critical steps during glioma development. In addition, the key lncRNA players and their possible mechanistic pathways associated with gliomagenesis will be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Cancers)
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Open AccessReview MicroRNAs in Cancer: A Historical Perspective on the Path from Discovery to Therapy
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1388-1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030842
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 27 July 2015
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent progress in microRNA (miRNA) therapeutics has been strongly dependent on multiple seminal discoveries in the area of miRNA biology during the past two decades. In this review, we focus on the historical discoveries that collectively led to transitioning miRNAs into the clinic. [...] Read more.
Recent progress in microRNA (miRNA) therapeutics has been strongly dependent on multiple seminal discoveries in the area of miRNA biology during the past two decades. In this review, we focus on the historical discoveries that collectively led to transitioning miRNAs into the clinic. We highlight the pivotal studies that identified the first miRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans to the more recent reports that have fueled the quest to understand the use of miRNAs as markers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, we provide insights as to how unraveling basic miRNA biology has provided a solid foundation for advancing miRNAs, such as miR-34a, therapeutically. We conclude with a brief examination of the current challenges that still need to be addressed to accelerate the path of miRNAs to the clinic: including delivery vehicles, miRNA- and delivery-associated toxicity, dosage, and off target effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Cancers)
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