Special Issue "Advances in Experimental Radiotherapy"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Rob P. Coppes
Website
Guest Editor
1. Section Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells & Systems, FB30, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 196, 9700 AD, Groningen, The Netherlands
2. Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 196, 9700 AD, Groningen, The Netherlands
Interests: radiation biology; normal tissue effects; stem cells; organoids; predictive modeling; stemness signaling
Prof. Dr. Marc A.G.G. Vooijs
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Radiotherapy (MAASTRO)/GROW, School for Developmental Biology and Oncology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
Interests: tumor microenvironment and treatment resistance; hypoxia; HIF; Notch signaling; cancer stem cells
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Radiotherapy remains one of the most common and rapidly evolving treatments for cancer. However, currently, radiotherapy is rarely given as a single treatment but increasingly in combination with biologicals and taking into account biological mechanisms. More accurate therapies such as proton and carbon therapy have opened novel avenues for alternative dose planning/distribution, but biological and mechanistic differences in the cellular response between photon and particle treatment need further elucidation. Combination therapies involving hyperthermia, immune checkpoint inhibitors DDR inhibitors, and (stem cell) metabolism interference are currently finding their way to the clinic. In addition to these, modulation and prediction of response to radiation involving cancer therapies will optimize current empirical data-driven models based on dose distribution and clinical outcome. (Cancer) stem cell response, circulating biomarkers, and the microbiome have large implications on the prediction and adaptation of the radiation response.

This Special Issue of Cancers on “Advances in Experimental Radiotherapy” features the current standing of the field of radiotherapy and the application and potential emerging biological approaches to improve treatment outcome in radiotherapy. For ultimate clinical application of combination treatments, we must better understand the biology of the radiation response and ways to predict and develop novel ways to modulate both tumor and normal tissue responses. Those factors will ultimately increase tumor control and quality of life of the patients.

Prof. Dr. Rob P. Coppes
Prof. Dr. Marc A.G.G. Vooijs
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • radiotherapy
  • immunotherapy
  • stem cells
  • hyperthermia
  • protons
  • carbons
  • metabolism
  • DNA damage response
  • biomarkers
  • microbiome

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Neuroprotection of Radiosensitive Juvenile Mice by Ultra-High Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061671 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Major advances in high precision treatment delivery and imaging have greatly improved the tolerance of radiotherapy (RT); however, the selective sparing of normal tissue and the reduction of neurocognitive side effects from radiation-induced toxicities remain significant problems for pediatric patients with brain tumors. [...] Read more.
Major advances in high precision treatment delivery and imaging have greatly improved the tolerance of radiotherapy (RT); however, the selective sparing of normal tissue and the reduction of neurocognitive side effects from radiation-induced toxicities remain significant problems for pediatric patients with brain tumors. While the overall survival of pediatric patients afflicted with medulloblastoma (MB), the most common type primary brain cancer in children, remains high (≥80%), lifelong neurotoxic side-effects are commonplace and adversely impact patients’ quality of life. To circumvent these clinical complications, we have investigated the capability of ultra-high dose rate FLASH-radiotherapy (FLASH-RT) to protect the radiosensitive juvenile mouse brain from normal tissue toxicities. Compared to conventional dose rate (CONV) irradiation, FLASH-RT was found to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in multiple independent behavioral paradigms, preserve developing and mature neurons, minimize microgliosis and limit the reduction of the plasmatic level of growth hormone. The protective “FLASH effect” was pronounced, especially since a similar whole brain dose of 8 Gy delivered with CONV-RT caused marked reductions in multiple indices of behavioral performance (objects in updated location, novel object recognition, fear extinction, light-dark box, social interaction), reductions in the number of immature (doublecortin+) and mature (NeuN+) neurons and increased neuroinflammation, adverse effects that were not found with FLASH-RT. Our data point to a potentially innovative treatment modality that is able to spare, if not prevent, many of the side effects associated with long-term treatment that disrupt the long-term cognitive and emotional well-being of medulloblastoma survivors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental Radiotherapy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Regional Responses in Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Damage
Cancers 2021, 13(3), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030367 - 20 Jan 2021
Abstract
Normal tissue side effects remain a major concern in radiotherapy. The improved precision of radiation dose delivery of recent technological developments in radiotherapy has the potential to reduce the radiation dose to organ regions that contribute the most to the development of side [...] Read more.
Normal tissue side effects remain a major concern in radiotherapy. The improved precision of radiation dose delivery of recent technological developments in radiotherapy has the potential to reduce the radiation dose to organ regions that contribute the most to the development of side effects. This review discusses the contribution of regional variation in radiation responses in several organs. In the brain, various regions were found to contribute to radiation-induced neurocognitive dysfunction. In the parotid gland, the region containing the major ducts was found to be critical in hyposalivation. The heart and lung were each found to exhibit regional responses while also mutually affecting each other’s response to radiation. Sub-structures critical for the development of side effects were identified in the pancreas and bladder. The presence of these regional responses is based on a non-uniform distribution of target cells or sub-structures critical for organ function. These characteristics are common to most organs in the body and we therefore hypothesize that regional responses in radiation-induced normal tissue damage may be a shared occurrence. Further investigations will offer new opportunities to reduce normal tissue side effects of radiotherapy using modern and high-precision technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental Radiotherapy)
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Open AccessReview
Radio-Resistance and DNA Repair in Pediatric Diffuse Midline Gliomas
Cancers 2020, 12(10), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102813 - 30 Sep 2020
Abstract
Malignant gliomas (MG) are among the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumors. Although radiotherapy (RT) is the most effective nonsurgical therapy, recurrence is universal. Dysregulated DNA damage response pathway (DDR) signaling, rampant genomic instability, and radio-resistance are among the hallmarks of [...] Read more.
Malignant gliomas (MG) are among the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumors. Although radiotherapy (RT) is the most effective nonsurgical therapy, recurrence is universal. Dysregulated DNA damage response pathway (DDR) signaling, rampant genomic instability, and radio-resistance are among the hallmarks of MGs, with current therapies only offering palliation. A subgroup of pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG) is characterized by H3K27M mutation, which drives global loss of di- and trimethylation of histone H3K27. Here, we review the most recent literature and discuss the key studies dissecting the molecular biology of H3K27M-mutated gliomas in children. We speculate that the aberrant activation and/or deactivation of some of the key components of DDR may be synthetically lethal to H3K27M mutation and thus can open novel avenues for effective therapeutic interventions for patients suffering from this deadly disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental Radiotherapy)
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