Anti-tumor Immune Responses: Mechanisms and Escape Mechanisms

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 5452

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Dermatology, Translational Skin Cancer Research, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) Partner Site Essen/Düsseldorf, University Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Essen, Germany
2. Translational Skin Cancer Research, DKTK Site Essen, ED03, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Interests: tumor immunology; melanoma; non-melanoma skin cancer; Merkel cell carcinoma; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibition; immune evasion
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Guest Editor
Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, BioClinicum, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 64 Solna, Sweden
Interests: Merkel cell carcinoma, immune checkpoint molecules, immune evasion, microRNA, autophagy, Merkel cell polyomavirus, gene regulation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The immune system is critical in controlling cancer. During the early stages of tumor development, immune cells can recognize and eliminate immunogenic cancer cells; in most cases, the cancer never becomes clinically evident. However, in cases where neoplastic disease is clinically evident, during the tumor evolution cancer cells developed different strategies to evade the immune surveillance. A non-exhaustive list of possible immune-escape mechanisms of cancer cells include the impairment of antigen processing and presentation, the overexpression of co-inhibitory ligands, and the secretion/release of immune-suppressive molecules. Some tumors may also recruit immunosuppressive immune cells or polarize cells infiltrating the tumor (e.g., regulatory T and B cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor-associated macrophages) to establish a microenvironment that represses anti-tumor immunity. Previous studies of these mechanisms allowed the development of therapeutic approaches such as immune-checkpoint inhibition (ICI) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies. Although these approaches have markedly improved patient survival in various cancer types, responses are heterogeneous, and many are not always durable. This resistance to immunotherapies can probably be explained by additional immunological mechanisms that also develop in the face of therapeutic interventions.

Thus, understanding the mechanisms of anti-tumor immune response and immune evasion is critical for selecting patients who are most likely to benefit from immunotherapy, and for developing effective therapeutic strategies to overcome primary and secondary resistance.

This Special Issue pursues this goal by bringing together high-quality contributions that highlight recent developments in immuno-oncology. These studies may be based on in vitro, preclinical in vivo, translational, or clinical work. Likewise, there are no restrictions on the tumor entities investigated or the type of immune response or its modulation, as our goal is to generate a comprehensive view.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Molecular mechanisms, translational and clinical research in tumor immunology;
  • Modulation of adaptive and innate immune responses by immunotherapy;
  • Biomarkers for predicting immunotherapy response;
  • Mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy;
  • Therapeutic approaches for overcoming resistance to immunotherapy.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Jürgen C. Becker
Dr. Weng-Onn Lui
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tumor immunity

  • immune escape
  • immunosurveillance
  • immunoediting
  • antigens
  • immune-checkpoint blockade
  • immunotherapy

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 3084 KiB  
Article
The Immune Checkpoint Receptor CD96: A Local and Systemic Immune Modulator in Oral Cancer?
by Leah Trumet, Manuel Weber, Alina Hahn, Lina Kunater, Carol Geppert, Jacek Glajzer, Ann-Kristin Struckmeier, Tobias Möst, Rainer Lutz, Marco Kesting and Jutta Ries
Cancers 2023, 15(7), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15072126 - 2 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
Background: As immunotherapy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), using PD1 inhibitors, is only efficient in a small proportion of patients, additional immune checkpoints need to be identified as potential therapeutic targets. There is evidence that a blockade of CD96 might positively [...] Read more.
Background: As immunotherapy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), using PD1 inhibitors, is only efficient in a small proportion of patients, additional immune checkpoints need to be identified as potential therapeutic targets. There is evidence that a blockade of CD96 might positively affect the anti-tumor immune response. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene and protein expression of CD96 in the tissue and peripheral blood of OSCC patients compared to healthy controls, while also checking for potential associations with a differential expression to the histomorphological parameters. In addition, possible correlations with the expression of PD1 and PD-L1 as well as the macrophage markers CD68 and CD163 should be tested to obtain further insights into the potential effectiveness of combined checkpoint blockage. Material and Methods: For real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a total of 183 blood and tissue samples, divided into a patient and a control group, were included. Additionally, 141 tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The relative expression differences between the groups were calculated using statistical tests including the Mann–Whitney U test and AUC method. The Chi-square test was used to determine whether CD96 overexpression in individual samples is associated with malignancy. Correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation test. Results: There was a significant CD96 mRNA and protein overexpression in the OSCC group compared to the controls (p = 0.001). In contrast, CD96 mRNA expression in the peripheral blood of the OSCC patients was significantly lower compared to the control group (p = 0.007). In the Chi-square test, the OSCC tissue samples showed a highly significant upregulation of CD96 mRNA expression (p < 0.001) and protein expression (p = 0.005) compared to the healthy mucosa. CD96 mRNA and protein expression correlated significantly (p = 0.005). In addition, there was a significant positive correlation of CD96 expression with PD1 (p ≤ 0.001), PD-L1 (p ≤ 0.001), and CD163 (p = 0.006) at the mRNA level. Conclusions: CD96 expression in the tumor tissue and peripheral blood of OSCC patients is differentially regulated and appears to be a relevant immune checkpoint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-tumor Immune Responses: Mechanisms and Escape Mechanisms)
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Review

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28 pages, 1947 KiB  
Review
Immune Checkpoint and Other Receptor-Ligand Pairs Modulating Macrophages in Cancer: Present and Prospects
by Yuanyuan Yang, Weijie Zhang and Peixiang Lan
Cancers 2022, 14(23), 5963; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14235963 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2826
Abstract
Immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint blocking, has become the primary anti-tumor treatment in recent years. However, the current immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is far from satisfactory. Macrophages are a key component of anti-tumor immunity as they are a common immune cell subset in [...] Read more.
Immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint blocking, has become the primary anti-tumor treatment in recent years. However, the current immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is far from satisfactory. Macrophages are a key component of anti-tumor immunity as they are a common immune cell subset in tumor tissues and act as a link between innate and adaptive immunity. Hence, understanding the regulation of macrophage activation in tumor tissues by receptor-ligand interaction will provide promising macrophage-targeting strategies to complement current adaptive immunity-based immunotherapy and traditional anti-tumor treatment. This review aims to offer a systematic summary of the current advances in number, structure, expression, biological function, and interplay of immune checkpoint and other receptor-ligand between macrophages and tumor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-tumor Immune Responses: Mechanisms and Escape Mechanisms)
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