Special Issue "Traditional and Innovative Approaches in Seismic Design"

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Linda Giresini

Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Constructions Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
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Interests: structural engineering; seismic vulnerability; earthquake engineering; analysis, monitoring and testings of buildings and infrastructures
Guest Editor
Dr. Francesca Taddei

Chair of Structural Mechanics, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you for a contribution to the aims and scopes of the Special Issue "Traditional and Innovative Approaches in Seismic Design".

The idea of this Special Issues focused on earthquake engineering topics emerged during the "1st International Workshop Traditional and Innovative Approaches in Seismic Design" in 2016 (TIASD 2016), where lectures and master students from different European countries met at the Technical University of Munich. This initiative was funded by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) in 2016 and the support has been confirmed for 2017. For the 2017 edition of the workshop, which will be held in Pisa, 16–18 March, we are happy to publish the contributions of the lecturers through a Special Issue of Buildings, in order to share the knowledge gained during the workshop. Moreover, we open the call for contributions to all interested scientists and experts, in order to cover a wider range of topics and bring the discussion beyond the walls of the workshop classrooms. The contributions will be published along with the workshop lectures and will offer an instrument of knowledge in the earthquake engineering field for new and existing structures.

Dr. Linda Giresini
Dr. Francesca Taddei
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • earthquake engineering
  • seismic vulnerability
  • structural dynamics
  • computational mechanics
  • soil-structure interaction
  • masonry buildings
  • historic masonry
  • r. c. buildings
  • monitoring techniques

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Experimental Tests on a Dowel-Type Timber Connection and Validation of Numerical Models
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040116
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines the dynamic behaviour of timber framed buildings under wind and dynamic loads, focusing on the role of connections being experimentally tested. The main aim of this manuscript is to analyze the in-service dynamic behaviour of a semi-rigid moment-resisting dowel-type connection
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This paper examines the dynamic behaviour of timber framed buildings under wind and dynamic loads, focusing on the role of connections being experimentally tested. The main aim of this manuscript is to analyze the in-service dynamic behaviour of a semi-rigid moment-resisting dowel-type connection between timber beam and column. For this purpose, two laboratory tests have been performed, the first on a connection and another one on a portal frame. The results are used to validate a numerical model of the simple portal frame, analyzed in OpenSees. The obtained relationships are also discussed and compared with Eurocode rules. The main result is that the joint stiffness is calculated through the Eurocode (EC) formulation underestimates the experimental one. A mutual agreement is obtained between the numerical model, validated from the experimental stiffness value for the connections, and the experimental results on the portal frame. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Directional Seismic Assessment of Historical Masonry Buildings by Means of Macro-Element Modelling: Application to a Building Damaged during the L’Aquila Earthquake (Italy)
Buildings 2017, 7(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7040106
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The experience of the recent earthquakes in Italy caused a shocking impact in terms of loss of human life and damage in buildings. In particular, when it comes to ancient constructions, their cultural and historical value overlaps with the economic and social one.
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The experience of the recent earthquakes in Italy caused a shocking impact in terms of loss of human life and damage in buildings. In particular, when it comes to ancient constructions, their cultural and historical value overlaps with the economic and social one. Among the historical structures, churches have been the object of several studies which identified the main characteristics of the seismic response and the most probable collapse mechanisms. More rarely, academic studies have been devoted to ancient palaces, since they often exhibit irregular and complicated arrangement of the resisting elements, which makes their response very difficult to predict. In this paper, a palace located in L’Aquila, severely damaged by the seismic event of 2009 is the object of an accurate study. A historical reconstruction of the past strengthening interventions as well as a detailed geometric relief is performed to implement detailed numerical models of the structure. Both global and local models are considered and static nonlinear analyses are performed considering the influence of the input direction on the seismic vulnerability of the building. The damage pattern predicted by the numerical models is compared with that observed after the earthquake. The seismic vulnerability assessments are performed in terms of ultimate peak ground acceleration (PGA) using capacity curves and the Italian code spectrum. The results are compared in terms of ultimate ductility demand evaluated performing nonlinear dynamic analyses considering the actual registered seismic input of L’Aquila earthquake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nonlinear Modelling of Curved Masonry Structures after Seismic Retrofit through FRP Reinforcing
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A reliable numerical evaluation of the nonlinear behaviour of historical masonry structures, before and after a seismic retrofitting, is a fundamental issue in the design of the structural retrofitting. Many strengthening techniques have been introduced aimed at improving the structural performance of existing
[...] Read more.
A reliable numerical evaluation of the nonlinear behaviour of historical masonry structures, before and after a seismic retrofitting, is a fundamental issue in the design of the structural retrofitting. Many strengthening techniques have been introduced aimed at improving the structural performance of existing structures that, if properly designed and applied, provide an effective contribution to the preservation of their cultural value. Among these strategies, the use of fabric-reinforced polymeric (FRP) materials on masonry surface is being widely adopted for practical engineering purposes. The application of strips or 2D grid composite layers is a low invasive and easy to apply retrofitting strategy, that is able to improve both the in-plane and the out of plane behaviour of masonry elements also in the presence of complex geometries thanks to their flexibility. For this reason, these techniques are frequently employed for reinforcing masonry curved elements, such as arches and vaults. In this paper, taking advantage of an existing general framework based on a discrete element approach previously introduced by the authors, a discrete element conceived for modelling the interaction between masonry and FRP reinforcement is applied to different curved masonry vaults typologies. This model, already used for evaluating the nonlinear behaviour of masonry arches, is here employed for the first time to evaluate the effectiveness of FRP reinforcements on double curvature elements. After a theoretical description of the proposed strategy, two applications relative to an arch and a dome, subjected to seismic loads, with different reinforced conditions, are presented. The benefit provided by the application of FRP strips is also compared with that associated to traditional retrofitting techniques. A sensitivity study is performed with respect to the structure scale factor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment Method for Combined Structural and Energy Retrofitting in Masonry Buildings
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The retrofitting of existing masonry buildings is now a crucial problem for Europe. Indeed, structural safety and energy efficiency should represent the target of any renovation. The proposal of a new synthetic performance parameter is presented and discussed. Following this approach, in this
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The retrofitting of existing masonry buildings is now a crucial problem for Europe. Indeed, structural safety and energy efficiency should represent the target of any renovation. The proposal of a new synthetic performance parameter is presented and discussed. Following this approach, in this paper, after a review of the main studies available in the literature, a proposal of a new performance parameter approach is presented and discussed. It is capable of taking into account both the structural and thermal aspects of masonry retrofitting. An emblematic set of reinforcements and energy improvements for masonry walls is examined. An example, generalized formulas, and a simultaneous evaluation of the role of multiple structural and thermal parameters on masonry buildings are proposed, with a view to optimize several categories of costs related to the intervention. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Rocking and Kinematic Approaches for Rigid Block Analysis of Masonry Walls: State of the Art and Recent Developments
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The assessment of the rocking and overturning response of rigid blocks to earthquakes is a complex task, due to its high sensitivity to the input motion, variations in geometry and dissipation issues. This paper presents a literature review dealing with classical and advanced
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The assessment of the rocking and overturning response of rigid blocks to earthquakes is a complex task, due to its high sensitivity to the input motion, variations in geometry and dissipation issues. This paper presents a literature review dealing with classical and advanced approaches on rocking motion with particular reference to masonry walls characterized by a monolithic behavior. Firstly, the pioneering work of Housner based on the concept of the inverted pendulum is discussed in terms of the most significant parameters, i.e., the size and slenderness of the blocks, the coefficient of restitution and ground motion properties. Free and restrained rocking blocks are considered. Then, static force-based approaches and performance-based techniques, mostly based on limit analysis theory, are presented to highlight the importance of investigating the evolution of the rocking mechanisms by means of pushover curves characterized by negative stiffness. From a dynamic perspective, a review of probabilistic approaches is also presented, evaluating the cumulative probability of exceedance of any response level by considering different earthquake time histories. Some recent simplified approaches based on the critical rocking response and the worst-case scenario are illustrated, as well. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effect of Material Variability and Mechanical Eccentricity on the Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Buildings
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
The present paper deals with the influence of material variability on the seismic vulnerability assessment of reinforced concrete buildings. Existing r.c. buildings are affected by a strong dispersion of material strengths of both the base materials. This influences the seismic response in linear
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The present paper deals with the influence of material variability on the seismic vulnerability assessment of reinforced concrete buildings. Existing r.c. buildings are affected by a strong dispersion of material strengths of both the base materials. This influences the seismic response in linear and nonlinear static analysis. For this reason, it is useful to define a geometrical parameter called “material eccentricity”. As a reference model, an analysis of a two storey building is presented with a symmetrical plan but asymmetrical material distribution. Furthermore, an analysis of two real buildings with a similar issue is performed. Experimental data generate random material distributions to carry out a probabilistic analysis. By rotating the vector that defines the position of the center of strength it is possible to describe a strength domain that is characterized by equipotential lines in terms of the Risk Index. Material eccentricity is related to the Ultimate Shear of non-linear static analyses. This relevant uncertainty, referred to as the variation of the center of strength, is not considered in the current European and Italian Standards. The “material eccentricity” therefore reveals itself to be a relevant parameter to considering how material variability affects such a variation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Analysis of Cylindrical Granular Material Silos under Seismic Excitation
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 2 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silos generally work as storage structures between supply and demand for various goods, and their structural safety has long been of interest to the civil engineering profession. This is especially true for dynamically loaded silos, e.g., in case of seismic excitation. Particularly thin-walled
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Silos generally work as storage structures between supply and demand for various goods, and their structural safety has long been of interest to the civil engineering profession. This is especially true for dynamically loaded silos, e.g., in case of seismic excitation. Particularly thin-walled cylindrical silos are highly vulnerable to seismic induced pressures, which can cause critical buckling phenomena of the silo shell. The analysis of silos can be carried out in two different ways. In the first, the seismic loading is modeled through statically equivalent loads acting on the shell. Alternatively, a time history analysis might be carried out, in which nonlinear phenomena due to the filling as well as the interaction between the shell and the granular material are taken into account. The paper presents a comparison of these approaches. The model used for the nonlinear time history analysis considers the granular material by means of the intergranular strain approach for hypoplasticity theory. The interaction effects between the granular material and the shell is represented by contact elements. Additionally, soil–structure interaction effects are taken into account. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Seismic Reinforcement of a R.C. School Structure with Strength Irregularities throughout External Bracing Walls
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
PDF Full-text (13436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of irregularities due to the non-uniform distribution of material properties on structural elements of a significant real case is here investigated. Mechanical tests performed on a typical Italian reinforced concrete (r.c.) school building built in the 1960s showed irregularity in the
[...] Read more.
The effect of irregularities due to the non-uniform distribution of material properties on structural elements of a significant real case is here investigated. Mechanical tests performed on a typical Italian reinforced concrete (r.c.) school building built in the 1960s showed irregularity in the distribution of compression strength in columns, even though the construction is featured by substantially symmetric distribution of the frames. Extreme scenarios in the distribution of irregularities in compression strength of concrete columns are analyzed, with the hypothesis of rigid or deformable slabs. The seismic analysis showed the influence of the response due to the irregular distributions of concrete strength. A proposal of equivalent “material eccentricity” is shown to account for the mentioned irregularity. Furthermore, the practical solution of reinforcement to mitigate the effects of irregularities is also described. It consists of couple of external r.c. walls stiffened by r.c. buttresses added to the building, connected by transverse slabs. An extensive reduction of material eccentricity is achieved, together with a relevant improvement in seismic capacity. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The TVT Glass Pavilion: Theoretical Study on a Highly Transparent Building Made with Long-Spanned TVT Portals Braced with Hybrid Glass-Steel Panels
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (24629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In contemporary buildings, the architectural demand for a complete dematerialisation of load bearing structures can be satisfied only in limited cases with the exclusive structural use of glass. Otherwise, for challenging applications such as long spanned or high-rise structures, the use of hybrid
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In contemporary buildings, the architectural demand for a complete dematerialisation of load bearing structures can be satisfied only in limited cases with the exclusive structural use of glass. Otherwise, for challenging applications such as long spanned or high-rise structures, the use of hybrid glass-steel systems is mandatory. Glass, fragile but highly compressive resistant, is associated with steel, ductile and tensile resistant. The present research shows the feasibility study for a fully glazed pavilion made of six TVT (Travi Vitree Tensegrity) portal frames longitudinally braced by pre-stressed hybrid glass panels. The frames are about 20 m in span and 8 m in height. Appropriate multiscalar FEM numerical analyses, calibrated on the collapse tests performed on previous TVT large-scale prototypes, stated that the structural performance would be able to withstand heavy static and dynamic loads and stated the observance of the Fail-Safe Design principles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Strengthening Masonry Arches with Lime-Based Mortar Composite
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (8771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent decades, many strengthening interventions on masonry elements were performed by using fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs). These advanced materials proved to be effective to increase the load-carrying capacity of masonry elements and to improve their structural behavior, avoiding the most critical failure
[...] Read more.
In recent decades, many strengthening interventions on masonry elements were performed by using fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs). These advanced materials proved to be effective to increase the load-carrying capacity of masonry elements and to improve their structural behavior, avoiding the most critical failure modes. Despite the advantages of this technique compared to more traditional methods, FRP systems have disadvantages related to their low resistance to high temperatures, impossibility of application on wet surfaces, low permeability, and poor compatibility with masonry supports. Therefore, composite materials made of a fiber textile embedded in an inorganic matrix were recently proposed as alternatives to FRPs for strengthening historic masonry constructions. These composite materials are easier to install, have higher resistance to high temperatures, and permit higher vapor permeability than FRPs. The inorganic matrix is frequently a cement-based mortar, and the composite materials made of a fiber textile embedded in a cement-based mortar are usually identified as FRCM (fabric reinforced cementitious matrix) composites. More recently, the use of natural lime mortar as an inorganic matrix has been proposed as an alternative to cement-based mortars when historic compatibility with the substrate is strictly required, as in case of restoration of historic buildings. In this paper, the effectiveness of a fabric made of basalt fibers embedded in lime mortar matrix (Basalt-FRLM) for the strengthening of masonry arches is investigated. An experimental investigation was performed on 1:2 scaled brick masonry arches strengthened at the extrados with a layer of Basalt-FRLM and tested under vertical load. The results obtained are compared with previous results obtained by the authors by testing masonry arches strengthened at their extrados with FRCM and FRP composites. This investigation highlights the effectiveness of Basalt-FRLM in increasing load-currying and the displacement capacities of masonry arches. The Basalt-FRLM-strengthened arch exhibited higher displacement capacity when compared to arches strengthened with polymeric and cementitious matrix composites. Full article
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