Hypothalamic Control in Inflammation and Metabolic Functions

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Systems Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 December 2022) | Viewed by 2649

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Associate Professor, Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology, Unit of Dietetics and Sports Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: diet; nutrition; orexin; adiponectin; neuropeptides
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hypothalamic inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes and hypertension. In fact, malnutrition and aging lead to hypothalamic inflammation. Such hypothalamic inflammation affects not only neuroendocrine signaling, but also the connections between the hypothalamus and the autonomic nervous system, leading to an increase in sympathetic outflow. As a result, autonomous control over peripheral organs, including liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, and the cardiovascular system, is impaired, resulting in impaired glucose regulation, insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and increased blood pressure, which are expected to contribute chronically to the development of diabetes and hypertension. It is known that there is an important and intricate relationship between the immune system and the nervous system. These systems are in communication through the production of molecules such as cytokines. In this context, many cytokines and neuropeptides, such as orexin-A, adiponectin, leptin, and other neuropeptides, can be key factors that link the immune system, metabolism, and CNS functions. Recent reports have shown that calorie restriction can significantly increase overall survival in several experimental animal models of autoimmune diseases. More specifically, calorie restriction has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects that could be instrumental in improving clinical outcomes in many immune diseases. It is important to understand the molecular pathways and biological mechanisms that undergo strong interaction between the central nervous system, immune system, and metabolic functions to use new therapeutic approaches, more targeted and specific to metabolic and immune diseases.

Prof. Dr. Giovanni Messina
Prof. Dr. Antonietta Messina
Prof. Dr. Rita Polito
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • central nervous system
  • immune system
  • metabolic functions
  • orexin-A
  • adiponectin
  • inflammation
  • obesity
  • metabolic syndrome
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • type II diabetes
  • immune diseases
  • caloric restriction

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

12 pages, 343 KiB  
Article
Executive Functions in Overweight and Obese Treatment-Seeking Patients: Cross-Sectional Data and Longitudinal Perspectives
by Marco La Marra, Ines Villano, Ciro Rosario Ilardi, Mario Carosella, Maria Staiano, Alessandro Iavarone, Sergio Chieffi, Giovanni Messina, Rita Polito, Chiara Porro, Alessia Scarinci, Vincenzo Monda, Marco Carotenuto, Girolamo Di Maio and Antonietta Messina
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060777 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
Background: Recent evidence suggests that a higher body weight may be linked to cognitive impairment in different domains involving executive/frontal functioning. However, challenging results are also available. Accordingly, our study was designed to verify whether (i) poor executive functions are related to a [...] Read more.
Background: Recent evidence suggests that a higher body weight may be linked to cognitive impairment in different domains involving executive/frontal functioning. However, challenging results are also available. Accordingly, our study was designed to verify whether (i) poor executive functions are related to a higher body weight and (ii) executive functioning could contribute to weight loss in treatment-seeking overweight and obese patients. Methods: We examined general executive functioning, inhibitory control, verbal fluency, and psychomotor speed in a sample including 104 overweight and obese patients. Forty-eight normal-weight subjects participated in the study as controls. Results: Univariate Analysis of Variance showed that obese patients obtained lower scores than overweight and normal-weight subjects in all executive measures, except for errors in the Stroop test. However, when sociodemographic variables entered the model as covariates, no between-group difference was detected. Furthermore, an adjusted multiple linear regression model highlighted no relationship between weight loss and executive scores at baseline. Conclusions: Our results provide further evidence for the lack of association between obesity and the executive domains investigated. Conflicting findings from previous literature may likely be due to the unchecked confounding effects exerted by sociodemographic variables and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypothalamic Control in Inflammation and Metabolic Functions)
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