Selected Papers from the 1st International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 12274

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Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
Interests: neurotransmitter release; calcium channels; presynaptic mechanisms
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

You are cordially invited to participate in the 1st International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences. This event aims to bring together researchers working in the field of neuroscience to present and discuss their recent contributions, without the need for travel. A webinar is also organized during this e-conference. The field of neuroscience is one of the last frontiers in biomedical studies, as many of the details that control brain function are still not well understood. This makes the study of the nervous system very exciting and fast-moving. This conference will address a variety of research topics, which reflect some of the current research areas of focus.

Prof. Dr. Stephen D. Meriney
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Clinical Neuroscience
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Systems Neuroscience
  • Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Environmental Neuroscience

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 961 KiB  
Article
Exploring Inflammatory Status in Febrile Seizures Associated with Urinary Tract Infections: A Two-Step Cluster Approach
by Raluca Maria Costea, Ionela Maniu, Luminita Dobrota, Rubén Pérez-Elvira, Maria Agudo, Javier Oltra-Cucarella, Andrei Dragomir, Ciprian Bacilă, Adela Banciu, Daniel Dumitru Banciu, Călin Remus Cipăian, Roxana Crișan and Bogdan Neamtu
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(9), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11091168 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3901
Abstract
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered common facilitating factors, along with other infections, in triggering febrile seizures (FS). The main purpose of our study was to identify specific inflammatory patterns of UTI cases from other infections in a specific cluster, using a [...] Read more.
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered common facilitating factors, along with other infections, in triggering febrile seizures (FS). The main purpose of our study was to identify specific inflammatory patterns of UTI cases from other infections in a specific cluster, using a combination of inflammatory biomarkers to differentiate UTIs from other bacterial diseases triggering FS. Method: This prospective study included a number of 136 patients with 197 distinct FS events, from patients hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinical Hospital Sibiu, among which 10.2% were diagnosed with UTIs. Results: In one-third of the patients with UTIs (20 cases), the symptoms were limited to fever and FS. Using two-step cluster analysis, a distinct UTI inflammatory pattern has emerged: highest platelet values (PLT), median value 331 × 103/mm3 and intermediate C-reactive protein (CRP), median value 15 mg/dL, platelet distribution width (PDW), median value 9.65%, platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR), median value 14.45%, mean platelet volume (MPV), median value 8.60 fL and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte values (NLR), median value 3.64. Furthermore, higher PDW (median value 12.25%), P-LCR (median value 28.55%), MPV (median value 10.40 fL), CRP (median value 74.00 mg/dL) and NLR values (median value 4.11) were associated mainly (85.7%) with bacterial lower respiratory infections. UTIs were highly unlikely in these patients with significantly increased CRP values and normal values of platelet indices. Conclusions: Considering the nonspecific clinical picture of UTIs at an early age, to optimize the management of FS, a fast diagnosis of UTI is mandatory. The analysis of the inflammatory biomarker clusters (rather than individual parameters) correlated with urine leukocyte and nitrite stick evaluation for specific age groups could help in identifying even oligosymptomatic UTIs patients. The study limitation (20 UTI cases) recommends future multicentric trials on larger datasets to validate the model. Full article
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11 pages, 1768 KiB  
Article
Sleep–Wake Cycle and EEG–Based Biomarkers during Late Neonate to Adult Transition
by Miguel A. Herrero, Rebeca Gallego, Milagros Ramos, Juan Manuel Lopez, Guillermo de Arcas and Daniel Gonzalez-Nieto
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(3), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030298 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
During the transition from neonate to adulthood, brain maturation establishes coherence between behavioral states—wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement, and rapid eye movement sleep. In animal models few studies have characterized and analyzed cerebral rhythms and the sleep–wake cycle in early ages, in relation to [...] Read more.
During the transition from neonate to adulthood, brain maturation establishes coherence between behavioral states—wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement, and rapid eye movement sleep. In animal models few studies have characterized and analyzed cerebral rhythms and the sleep–wake cycle in early ages, in relation to adulthood. Since the analysis of sleep in early ages can be used as a predictive model of brain development and the subsequent emergence of neural disturbances in adults, we performed a study on late neonatal mice, an age not previously characterized. We acquired longitudinal 24 h electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings and performed time and spectral analyses. We compared both age groups and found that late neonates: (i) spent more time in wakefulness and less time in non-rapid eye movement sleep, (ii) showed an increased relative band power in delta, which, however, reduced in theta during each behavioral state, (iii) showed a reduced relative band power in beta during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep, and (iv) manifested an increased total power over all frequencies. The data presented here might have implications expanding our knowledge of cerebral rhythms in early ages for identification of potential biomarkers in preclinical models of neurodegeneration. Full article
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12 pages, 1955 KiB  
Article
Individual Cerebral Blood Flow Responses to Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation at Various Intensities
by Craig D. Workman, Alexandra C. Fietsam, Laura L. Boles Ponto, John Kamholz and Thorsten Rudroff
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(11), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110855 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to alter cortical excitability. However, it is increasingly accepted that tDCS has high inter- and intra-subject response variability, which currently limits broad application and has prompted some to doubt if the current can reach the [...] Read more.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to alter cortical excitability. However, it is increasingly accepted that tDCS has high inter- and intra-subject response variability, which currently limits broad application and has prompted some to doubt if the current can reach the brain. This study reports individual cerebral blood flow responses in people with multiple sclerosis and neurologically healthy subjects that experienced 5 min of anodal tDCS at 1 mA, 2 mA, 3 mA, and 4 mA over either the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or the primary motor cortex (M1). The most notable results indicated anticipated changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in two regions of one DLPFC subject (2 mA condition), and expected changes in one M1 subject in the 2 mA and 4 mA conditions and in another M1 subject in the 2 mA condition. There were also changes contrary to the expected direction in one DLPFC subject and in two M1 subjects. These data suggest the effects of tDCS might be site-specific and highlight the high variability and individualized responses increasingly reported in tDCS literature. Future studies should use longer stimulation durations and image at various time points after stimulation cessation when exploring the effects of tDCS on cerebral blood flow (CBF). Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 6277 KiB  
Review
Inflammatory Biomarkers in Febrile Seizure: A Comprehensive Bibliometric, Review and Visualization Analysis
by Ionela Maniu, Raluca Costea, George Maniu and Bogdan Mihai Neamtu
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(8), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11081077 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3424
Abstract
Background: Inflammatory markers association with many diseases is the subject of many articles and reviews. This study presents a comprehensive bibliometric review and visualization analysis of inflammatory biomarkers (IB) in the context of febrile seizure (FS) patients. Methods: The study focused on IB [...] Read more.
Background: Inflammatory markers association with many diseases is the subject of many articles and reviews. This study presents a comprehensive bibliometric review and visualization analysis of inflammatory biomarkers (IB) in the context of febrile seizure (FS) patients. Methods: The study focused on IB in FS using (1) bibliometric analysis specific indicators and maps in order to analyze and present the network of authors, journals, universities, and countries, and (2) automated literature screening and unsupervised clustering approach for filtering and topic cluster identification. Results: We conducted a literature mining search on FS research, specifically IB in the context of FS, using the automated tools VOSviewer and Bibliometrix. Indices of the inflammatory response (in the context of febrile seizures) identified by the literature mining are (pro/anti-inflammatory) cytokines, such as interleukin IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, I-10, IL-22, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet count (PLT), and red blood cell distribution width (RDW). The resulted bibliometric maps and topic clusters offer a comprehensive overview, the status and leading trends on existing research of inflammatory biomarkers in FS. Conclusion: The analysis using bibliometrics and review with graphical presentations can be useful in investigating and (better) understanding the relationship between FS and IB. Full article
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