Special Issue "Advances in Multiple Sclerosis Research—Series II"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 7046

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. John Matsoukas
E-Mail
Guest Editor
NewDrug, Patras Science Park, Patras, Greece
Interests: medicinal chemistry; autoimmunity; NMR; modelling; organic chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Vasso Apostolopoulos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
Interests: cancer; autoimmunity; mental health; vaccines; exercise
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Designing immunotherapeutics, drugs, and anti-inflammatory reagents has been at the forefront of autoimmune research, in particular for multiple sclerosis, for over 20 years. Delivery methods that are used to modulate effective and long-lasting immune responses have been the major focus. This Special Issue will focus on delivery methods to be used for vaccines, immunotherapeutic approaches, drug design, and anti-inflammatories and their outcomes in preclinical studies and clinical trials.

We invite you read the Special Issue "Advances in Multiple Sclerosis Research—Series I" at mdpi.com/si/30935

Prof. Dr. John Matsoukas
Prof. Dr. Vasso Apostolopoulos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Human Myelin Proteome and Sub-Metalloproteome Interaction Map: Relevance to Myelin-Related Neurological Diseases
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(4), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12040434 - 24 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Myelin in humans is composed of about 80% lipids and 20% protein. Initially, myelin protein composition was considered low, but various recent proteome analyses have identified additional myelin proteins. Although, the myelin proteome is qualitatively and quantitatively identified through complementary proteomic approaches, the [...] Read more.
Myelin in humans is composed of about 80% lipids and 20% protein. Initially, myelin protein composition was considered low, but various recent proteome analyses have identified additional myelin proteins. Although, the myelin proteome is qualitatively and quantitatively identified through complementary proteomic approaches, the corresponding Protein–Protein Interaction (PPI) network of myelin is not yet available. In the present work, the PPI network was constructed based on available experimentally supported protein interactions of myelin in PPI databases. The network comprised 2017 PPIs between 567 myelin proteins. Interestingly, structure-based in silico analysis revealed that 20% of the myelin proteins that are interconnected in the proposed PPI network are metal-binding proteins/enzymes that construct the main sub-PPI network of myelin proteome. Finally, the PPI networks of the myelin proteome and sub-metalloproteome were analyzed ontologically to identify the biochemical processes of the myelin proteins and the interconnectivity of myelin-associated diseases in the interactomes. The presented PPI dataset could provide a useful resource to the scientific community to further our understanding of human myelin biology and serve as a basis for future studies of myelin-related neurological diseases and particular autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis where myelin epitopes are implicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis Research—Series II)
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Article
Influenza Vaccine Hesitancy in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Monocentric Observational Study
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(7), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11070890 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Background. The so-called “vaccine hesitancy” still represents a common phenomenon that undermines the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns. In 2020, the Italian Medicines Agency recommended to bring forward the flu vaccination campaign, whose importance was also emphasized for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We [...] Read more.
Background. The so-called “vaccine hesitancy” still represents a common phenomenon that undermines the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns. In 2020, the Italian Medicines Agency recommended to bring forward the flu vaccination campaign, whose importance was also emphasized for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We aimed to assess vaccination behavior in patients with MS to prepare for the upcoming SARS-CoV-2 vaccination challenge. Methods. This is an observational study carried out in one MS clinical Centre that enrolled all MS patients who were eligible for any of the flu vaccines recommended by the Italian medicines Agency. Results. 194 patients were enrolled. Patients’ mean age was 43.9 years and 66% were female. Comorbidities, mainly represented by non-autoimmune diseases, were identified in 52% of patients. Almost all patients were receiving a DMT during the study period, mainly dimethyl fumarate, natalizumab, teriflunomide, and interferon. Out of 194 patients, 58.2% accepted to be vaccinated. No statistically significant differences were found, except for the use of natalizumab, which was higher among vaccinated patients. Conclusion. The results of our study emphasize the importance of education and communication campaigns addressed both to healthcare providers and patients with MS, especially considering that MS patients are currently receiving COVID-19 vaccinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis Research—Series II)

Review

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Review
Novel Approaches in the Immunotherapy of Multiple Sclerosis: Cyclization of Myelin Epitope Peptides and Conjugation with Mannan
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(12), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11121583 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a serious autoimmune disease. The patient in an advanced state of the disease has restrained mobility and remains handicapped. It is therefore understandable that there is a great need for novel drugs and vaccines for the treatment of MS. [...] Read more.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a serious autoimmune disease. The patient in an advanced state of the disease has restrained mobility and remains handicapped. It is therefore understandable that there is a great need for novel drugs and vaccines for the treatment of MS. Herein we summarise two major approaches applied for the treatment of the disease using peptide molecules alone or conjugated with mannan. The first approach focuses on selective myelin epitope peptide or peptide mimetic therapy alone or conjugated with mannan, and the second on immune-therapy by preventing or controlling disease through the release of appropriate cytokines. In both approaches the use of cyclic peptides offers the advantage of increased stability from proteolytic enzymes. In these approaches, the synthesis of myelin epitope peptides conjugated to mannan is of particular interest as this was found to protect mice against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, in prophylactic and therapeutic protocols. Protection was peptide-specific and associated with reduced antigen-specific T cell proliferation. The aim of the studies of these peptide epitope analogs is to understand their molecular basis of interactions with human autoimmune T-cell receptor and a MS-associated human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR2b. This knowledge will lead the rational design to new beneficial non-peptide mimetic analogs for the treatment of MS. Some issues of the use of nanotechnology will also be addressed as a future trend to tackle the disease. We highlight novel immunomodulation and vaccine-based research against MS based on myelin epitope peptides and strategies developed in our laboratories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis Research—Series II)
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Review
Anti-CD20 Agents for Multiple Sclerosis: Spotlight on Ocrelizumab and Ofatumumab
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(10), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100758 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3901
Abstract
Until recently, in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the contribution of B cells has been largely underestimated, and the disease was considered a T-cell-mediated disorder. However, newer evidence shows that B cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS via [...] Read more.
Until recently, in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the contribution of B cells has been largely underestimated, and the disease was considered a T-cell-mediated disorder. However, newer evidence shows that B cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS via antigen-driven autoantibody responses and through the cross regulation of T-helper cells. As B cells express the surface molecule CD20 at all points of differentiation, it provides a specific target for monoclonal antibodies, and the development and clinical testing of anti-CD20 antibody treatments for MS have been successful. After some observations, some small clinical trials found positive effects for the first anti-CD20 therapeutic rituximab in MS; newer agents have been specifically evaluated, resulting in the development of ocrelizumab and ofatumumab. Ocrelizumab, a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, was approved in March 2017 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is also the first proven therapy to reduce disability progression in primary progressive MS. This is particularly significant considering that disease-modifying treatment options are few for both primary and secondary progressive MS. Ofatumumab, a fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, that binds a distinct epitope, has been further investigated in phase 3 trials for relapsing forms of MS. In this review, we discuss in detail these two anti-CD20 agents and their advent for treatment of MS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis Research—Series II)
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