Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors and Healthcare".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 34803

Special Issue Editors

School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
Interests: polymer chemistry; molecular imaging probes; nanomedicines; prodrugs; aggregation-induced emission; fluorescence imaging; photoacoustic imaging; microscopy; wide-field imaging; two photon imaging; second harmonic imaging
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Co-Guest Editor
School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Interests: neural imaging and therapy; optogenetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomedicines have become competent candidates for the diagnosis and therapy of different diseases (e.g., tumors, neurodegenerative diseases, bacterial infections, cardiovascular diseases) both at bench and bedside. The state-of-the-art diagnostic modalities include fluorescence imaging, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging (US), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET), while the therapeutics are composed of chemo-, photo-, chemodyanmic-, gene-, and immunotherapy and their hybrids. Generally, nanomedicines are composed of a biocompatible matrix and diagnostic/therapeutic moieties, in which the former offers long circulation time and targeting of disease tissues, and the latter yields diagnosis and treatment functions. Moreover, smartness has been customized for nanomedicines, enabling them to selectively respond to specific diseases by physical/chemical/biochemical intereaction with the pathological microenvironment, leading to highly sensitive and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes. 

Dr. Bing Guo
Guest Editor

Prof. Dr. Chunqi Chang
Co-Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • theranostics
  • nanomedicines
  • tumors
  • diagnositics
  • therapeutics
  • drug delivery systems
  • nanotechnology

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 5559 KiB  
Article
Eu2O3@Cr2O3 Nanoparticles-Modified Carbon Paste Electrode for Efficient Electrochemical Sensing of Neurotransmitters Precursor L-DOPA
by Aleksandar Mijajlović, Miloš Ognjanović, Dragan Manojlović, Filip Vlahović, Slađana Đurđić, Vesna Stanković and Dalibor Stanković
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020201 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
There are ten million people in the world who have Parkinson’s disease. The most potent medicine for Parkinson’s disease is levodopa (L-DOPA). However, long-term consumption of L-DOPA leads to the appearance of side effects, as a result of which the control and monitoring [...] Read more.
There are ten million people in the world who have Parkinson’s disease. The most potent medicine for Parkinson’s disease is levodopa (L-DOPA). However, long-term consumption of L-DOPA leads to the appearance of side effects, as a result of which the control and monitoring of its concentrations are of great importance. In this work, we have designed a new electrochemical sensor for detecting L-DOPA using a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with Eu2O3@Cr2O3 composite nanoparticles. Rare earth elements, including Eu, are increasingly used to design new electrode nanocomposites with enhanced electrocatalytic properties. Europium has been considered a significant lanthanide element with greater redox reaction behavior. We conducted a hydrothermal synthesis of Eu2O3@Cr2O3 and, for the first time, the acquired nanoparticles were used to modify CPE. The proposed Eu2O3@Cr2O3/CPE electrode was investigated in terms of its electrocatalytic properties and then used to develop an analytical method for detecting and quantifying L-DOPA. The proposed sensor offers a wide linear range (1–100 µM), high sensitivity (1.38 µA µM−1 cm−2) and a low detection limit (0.72 µM). The practical application of the proposed sensor was investigated by analyzing commercially available pharmaceutical tablets of L-DOPA. The corresponding results indicate the excellent potential of the Eu2O3@Cr2O3/CPE sensor for application in real-time L-DOPA detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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19 pages, 20164 KiB  
Article
Flexible Label-Free Platinum and Bio-PET-Based Immunosensor for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2
by Rodrigo Vieira Blasques, Paulo Roberto de Oliveira, Cristiane Kalinke, Laís Canniatti Brazaca, Robert D. Crapnell, Juliano Alves Bonacin, Craig E. Banks and Bruno Campos Janegitz
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020190 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2358
Abstract
The demand for new devices that enable the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at a relatively low cost and that are fast and feasible to be used as point-of-care is required overtime on a large scale. In this sense, the use [...] Read more.
The demand for new devices that enable the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at a relatively low cost and that are fast and feasible to be used as point-of-care is required overtime on a large scale. In this sense, the use of sustainable materials, for example, the bio-based poly (ethylene terephthalate) (Bio-PET) can be an alternative to current standard diagnostics. In this work, we present a flexible disposable printed electrode based on a platinum thin film on Bio-PET as a substrate for the development of a sensor and immunosensor for the monitoring of COVID-19 biomarkers, by the detection of L-cysteine and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, respectively. The electrode was applied in conjunction with 3D printing technology to generate a portable and easy-to-analyze device with a low sample volume. For the L-cysteine determination, chronoamperometry was used, which achieved two linear dynamic ranges (LDR) of 3.98−39.0 μmol L−1 and 39.0−145 μmol L−1, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.70 μmol L−1. The detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was achieved by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by a label-free immunosensor, using potassium ferro-ferricyanide solution as the electrochemical probe. An LDR of 0.70−7.0 and 1.0−30 pmol L−1, with an LOD of 0.70 and 1.0 pmol L−1 were obtained by SWV and EIS, respectively. As a proof of concept, the immunosensor was successfully applied for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in enriched synthetic saliva samples, which demonstrates the potential of using the proposed sensor as an alternative platform for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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13 pages, 4052 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Determination of Morphine in Urine Samples by Tailoring FeWO4/CPE Sensor
by Miloš Ognjanović, Katarina Nikolić, Marko Bošković, Ferenc Pastor, Nina Popov, Marijan Marciuš, Stjepko Krehula, Bratislav Antić and Dalibor M. Stanković
Biosensors 2022, 12(11), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12110932 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Morphine (MORPH) is natural alkaloid and mainly used as a pain reliever. Its monitoring in human body fluids is crucial for modern medicine. In this paper, we have developed an electrochemical sensor for submicromolar detection of MORPH. The sensor is based on modified [...] Read more.
Morphine (MORPH) is natural alkaloid and mainly used as a pain reliever. Its monitoring in human body fluids is crucial for modern medicine. In this paper, we have developed an electrochemical sensor for submicromolar detection of MORPH. The sensor is based on modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) by investigating the FexW1-xO4 ratio in iron tungstate (FeWO4), as well as the ratio of this material in CPE. For the first time, the effect of the iron–tungsten ratio in terms of achieving the best possible electrochemical characteristics for the detection of an important molecule for humans was examined. Morphological and electrochemical characteristics of materials were studied. The best results were obtained using Fe1W3 and 7.5% of modifier in CPE. For MORPH detection, square wave voltammetry (SWV) was optimized. Under the optimized conditions, Fe1W3@CPE resulted in limit of detection (LOD) of the method of 0.58 µM and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.94 µM. The linear operating range between 5 and 85 µM of MORPH in the Britton–Robinson buffer solution (BRBS) at pH 8 as supporting electrolyte was obtained. The Fe1W3@CPE sensor resulted in good selectivity and excellent repeatability with relative standard deviation (RSD) and was applied in real-world samples of human urine. Application for direct MORPH detection, without tedious sample pretreatment procedures, suggests that developed electrochemical sensor has appeared to be a suitable competitor for efficient, precise, and accurate monitoring of the MORPH in biological fluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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18 pages, 4676 KiB  
Article
Amelioration of Full-Thickness Wound Using Hesperidin Loaded Dendrimer-Based Hydrogel Bandages
by Praveen Gupta, Afsana Sheikh, Mohammed A. S. Abourehab and Prashant Kesharwani
Biosensors 2022, 12(7), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12070462 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
Wound healing is a complex biological phenomenon, having different but overlapping stages to obtained complete re-epithelization. The aim of the current study was to develop a dendrimer-based hydrogel bandage, to ameliorate full-thickness wounds. Hesperidin, a bioflavonoid found in vegetables and citrus fruits, is [...] Read more.
Wound healing is a complex biological phenomenon, having different but overlapping stages to obtained complete re-epithelization. The aim of the current study was to develop a dendrimer-based hydrogel bandage, to ameliorate full-thickness wounds. Hesperidin, a bioflavonoid found in vegetables and citrus fruits, is used for treatment of wounds; however, its therapeutic use is limited, due to poor water solubility and poor bioavailability. This issue was overcome by incorporating hesperidin in the inner core of a dendrimer. Hence, a dendrimer-based hydrogel bandage was prepared, and the wound healing activity was determined. A hemolysis study indicated that the hesperidin-loaded dendrimer was biocompatible and can be used for wound healing. The therapeutic efficacy of the prepared formulation was evaluated on a full-thickness wound, using an animal model. H&E staining of the control group showed degenerated neutrophils and eosinophils, while 10% of the formulation showed wound closure, formation of the epidermal layer, and remodeling. The MT staining of the 10% formulation showed better collagen synthesis compared to the control group. In vivo results showed that the preparation had better wound contraction activity compared to the control group; after 14 days, the control group had 79 ± 1.41, while the 10% of formulation had 98.9 ± 0.42. In a nutshell, Hsp-P-Hyd 10% showed the best overall performance in amelioration of full-thickness wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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Review

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39 pages, 9967 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors and Theranostic Nanomedicine for Bladder Cancer
by Fan-Xin Song, Xiaojian Xu, Hengze Ding, Le Yu, Haochen Huang, Jinting Hao, Chenghao Wu, Rui Liang and Shaohua Zhang
Biosensors 2023, 13(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13010106 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3076
Abstract
Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most expensive and common malignancies in the urinary system due to its high progression and recurrence rate. Although there are various methods, including cystoscopy, biopsy, and cytology, that have become the standard diagnosis methods for BCa, [...] Read more.
Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most expensive and common malignancies in the urinary system due to its high progression and recurrence rate. Although there are various methods, including cystoscopy, biopsy, and cytology, that have become the standard diagnosis methods for BCa, their intrinsic invasive and inaccurate properties need to be overcome. The novel urine cancer biomarkers are assisted by nanomaterials-based biosensors, such as field-effect transistors (FETs) with high sensitivity and specificity, which may provide solutions to these problems. In addition, nanomaterials can be applied for the advancement of next-generation optical imaging techniques and the contrast agents of conventional techniques; for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of BCa. Regarding BCa therapy, nanocarriers, including mucoadhesive nanoparticles and other polymeric nanoparticles, successfully overcome the disadvantages of conventional intravesical instillation and improve the efficacy and safety of intravesical chemotherapy for BCa. Aside from chemotherapy, nanomedicine-based novel therapies, including photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy (PTT), chemodynamic therapy (CDT), sonodynamic therapy (SDT), and combination therapy, have afforded us new ways to provide BC therapy and hope, which can be translated into the clinic. In addition, nanomotors and the nanomaterials-based solid tumor disassociation strategy provide new ideas for future research. Here, the advances in BCa diagnosis and therapy mentioned above are reviewed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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29 pages, 6456 KiB  
Review
State-of-the-Art Advances of Nanomedicine for Diagnosis and Treatment of Bladder Cancer
by Chenfan Kong, Shaohua Zhang, Qifang Lei and Song Wu
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100796 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2854
Abstract
Bladder cancer is a common malignant tumor of the urinary system. Cystoscopy, urine cytology, and CT are the routine diagnostic methods. However, there are some problems such as low sensitivity and difficulty in staging, which must be urgently supplemented by novel diagnostic methods. [...] Read more.
Bladder cancer is a common malignant tumor of the urinary system. Cystoscopy, urine cytology, and CT are the routine diagnostic methods. However, there are some problems such as low sensitivity and difficulty in staging, which must be urgently supplemented by novel diagnostic methods. Surgery, intravesical instillation, systemic chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are the main clinical treatments for bladder cancer. It is difficult for conventional treatment to deal with tumor recurrence, progression and drug resistance. In addition, the treatment agents usually have the defects of poor specific distribution ability to target tumor tissues and side effects. The rapid development of nanomedicine has brought hope for the treatment of bladder cancer in reducing side effects, enhancing tumor inhibition effects, and anti-drug resistance. Overall, we review the new progression of nano-platforms in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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23 pages, 4064 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Early Diagnosis of Viruses Associated with Gastroenteritis by Biosensors
by Abouzar Babaei, Nastaran Rafiee, Behnaz Taheri, Hessamaddin Sohrabi and Ahad Mokhtarzadeh
Biosensors 2022, 12(7), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12070499 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2598
Abstract
Gastroenteritis, as one of the main worldwide health challenges, especially in children, leads to 3–6 million deaths annually and causes nearly 20% of the total deaths of children aged ˂5 years, of which ~1.5 million gastroenteritis deaths occur in developing nations. Viruses are [...] Read more.
Gastroenteritis, as one of the main worldwide health challenges, especially in children, leads to 3–6 million deaths annually and causes nearly 20% of the total deaths of children aged ˂5 years, of which ~1.5 million gastroenteritis deaths occur in developing nations. Viruses are the main causative agent (~70%) of gastroenteritis episodes and their specific and early diagnosis via laboratory assays is very helpful for having successful antiviral therapy and reduction in infection burden. Regarding this importance, the present literature is the first review of updated improvements in the employing of different types of biosensors such as electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric for sensitive, simple, cheap, rapid, and specific diagnosis of human gastroenteritis viruses. The Introduction section is a general discussion about the importance of viral gastroenteritis, types of viruses that cause gastroenteritis, and reasons for the combination of conventional diagnostic tests with biosensors for fast detection of viruses associated with gastroenteritis. Following the current laboratory detection tests for human gastroenteritis viruses and their limitations (with subsections: Electron Microscope (EM), Cell Culture, Immunoassay, and Molecular Techniques), structural features and significant aspects of various biosensing methods are discussed in the Biosensor section. In the next sections, basic information on viruses causing gastroenteritis and recent developments for fabrication and testing of different biosensors for each virus detection are covered, and the prospect of future developments in designing different biosensing platforms for gastroenteritis virus detection is discussed in the Conclusion and Future Directions section as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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33 pages, 8375 KiB  
Review
Targeted Molecular Imaging Probes Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Diagnosis and Treatment
by Dongxu Zhao, Jian Cao, Lei Zhang, Shaohua Zhang and Song Wu
Biosensors 2022, 12(5), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12050342 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3311
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most commonly malignant tumor and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, and the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with HCC is core in improving its prognosis. The early diagnosis of HCC depends [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most commonly malignant tumor and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, and the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with HCC is core in improving its prognosis. The early diagnosis of HCC depends largely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI has good soft-tissue resolution, which is the international standard method for the diagnosis of HCC. However, MRI is still insufficient in the diagnosis of some early small HCCs and malignant nodules, resulting in false negative results. With the deepening of research on HCC, researchers have found many specific molecular biomarkers on the surface of HCC cells, which may assist in diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, molecular imaging has progressed rapidly in recent years, especially in the field of cancer theranostics. Hence, the preparation of molecular imaging probes that can specifically target the biomarkers of HCC, combined with MRI testing in vivo, may achieve the theranostic purpose of HCC in the early stage. Therefore, in this review, taking MR imaging as the basic point, we summarized the recent progress regarding the molecular imaging targeting various types of biomarkers on the surface of HCC cells to improve the theranostic rate of HCC. Lastly, we discussed the existing obstacles and future prospects of developing molecular imaging probes as HCC theranostic nanoplatforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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23 pages, 3487 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances of Mesoporous Silica as a Platform for Cancer Immunotherapy
by Albert Yu, Xiaoyong Dai, Zixian Wang, Huaqing Chen, Bing Guo and Laiqiang Huang
Biosensors 2022, 12(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12020109 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4301 | Correction
Abstract
Immunotherapy is a promising modality of treatment for cancer. Immunotherapy is comprised of systemic and local treatments that induce an immune response, allowing the body to fight back against cancer. Systemic treatments such as cancer vaccines harness antigen presenting cells (APCs) to activate [...] Read more.
Immunotherapy is a promising modality of treatment for cancer. Immunotherapy is comprised of systemic and local treatments that induce an immune response, allowing the body to fight back against cancer. Systemic treatments such as cancer vaccines harness antigen presenting cells (APCs) to activate T cells with tumor-associated antigens. Small molecule inhibitors can be employed to inhibit immune checkpoints, disrupting tumor immunosuppression and immune evasion. Despite the current efficacy of immunotherapy, improvements to delivery can be made. Nanomaterials such as mesoporous silica can facilitate the advancement of immunotherapy. Mesoporous silica has high porosity, decent biocompatibility, and simple surface functionalization. Mesoporous silica can be utilized as a versatile carrier of various immunotherapeutic agents. This review gives an introduction on mesoporous silica as a nanomaterial, briefly covering synthesis and biocompatibility, and then an overview of the recent progress made in the application of mesoporous silica to cancer immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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35 pages, 4754 KiB  
Review
Nucleic Acids and Their Analogues for Biomedical Applications
by Fei Wang, Pan Li, Hoi Ching Chu and Pik Kwan Lo
Biosensors 2022, 12(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12020093 - 4 Feb 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6362
Abstract
Nucleic acids are emerging as powerful and functional biomaterials due to their molecular recognition ability, programmability, and ease of synthesis and chemical modification. Various types of nucleic acids have been used as gene regulation tools or therapeutic agents for the treatment of human [...] Read more.
Nucleic acids are emerging as powerful and functional biomaterials due to their molecular recognition ability, programmability, and ease of synthesis and chemical modification. Various types of nucleic acids have been used as gene regulation tools or therapeutic agents for the treatment of human diseases with genetic disorders. Nucleic acids can also be used to develop sensing platforms for detecting ions, small molecules, proteins, and cells. Their performance can be improved through integration with other organic or inorganic nanomaterials. To further enhance their biological properties, various chemically modified nucleic acid analogues can be generated by modifying their phosphodiester backbone, sugar moiety, nucleobase, or combined sites. Alternatively, using nucleic acids as building blocks for self-assembly of highly ordered nanostructures would enhance their biological stability and cellular uptake efficiency. In this review, we will focus on the development and biomedical applications of structural and functional natural nucleic acids, as well as the chemically modified nucleic acid analogues over the past ten years. The recent progress in the development of functional nanomaterials based on self-assembled DNA-based platforms for gene regulation, biosensing, drug delivery, and therapy will also be presented. We will then summarize with a discussion on the advanced development of nucleic acid research, highlight some of the challenges faced and propose suggestions for further improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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Other

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1 pages, 163 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Yu et al. Recent Advances of Mesoporous Silica as a Platform for Cancer Immunotherapy. Biosensors 2022, 12, 109
by Albert Yu, Xiaoyong Dai, Zixian Wang, Huaqing Chen, Bing Guo and Laiqiang Huang
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100794 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
In the published publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicines for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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