Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2022) | Viewed by 56205

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
Interests: optical imaging; nanomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Interests: soft matter; bioelectronics; bio-interface

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent advances in the development of functional nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties have paved the way for the design of new biosensors for biomedical applications. A variety of emerging inorganic (e.g., quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, liquid metal alloys, and rare-earth nanoparticles) and organic (e.g., polymeric nanoparticles) nanomaterials, as well as hybrid nanomaterials, have become the basis for high-performance biosensors with an enhanced sensitivity, selectivity, and robustness. Using these advanced nanomaterials as the core sensing elements, many nanosensors have been developed, including, but not limited, to silicon-based nanowire field-effect sensors for pH sensing, protein/DNA detection, and single viruses detection; carbon dots-based photoluminescence sensors, electrochemiluminescence sensors, chemiluminescence sensors, and enzyme sensors; liposome-based nano biosensors for pesticide detection; and surface-enhanced Raman scattering nano-biosensors with different nanomaterials.

This Special Issue aims to highlight the recent advances in the development of functional nanomaterials-based biosensors and their applications in the biomedical field. Original research papers, reviews, and mini-review papers are all welcome.

Dr. Ruirui Qiao
Dr. Yiliang Lin
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Biosensor Nanotechnology
  • Advanced Nanomaterials for Biosensors
  • Nanostructures Design for Biosensors
  • Nanochemistry for Biosensors
  • Wearable Nano-Biosensors
  • Biosensors for Healthcare

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2030 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Interaction between DNA Aptamers and Cytochrome C on the Surface of Lipid Films and on the MUA Monolayer: A QCM-D Study
by Marek Tatarko, Sandro Spagnolo, Martin Csiba, Veronika Šubjaková and Tibor Hianik
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020251 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
We analyzed the possibility of the detection of cytochrome c (cyt c) being physically adsorbed on lipid films or covalently bounded to 11-mercapto-1-undecanoic acid (MUA) chemisorbed on the gold layer using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The negatively charged lipid film [...] Read more.
We analyzed the possibility of the detection of cytochrome c (cyt c) being physically adsorbed on lipid films or covalently bounded to 11-mercapto-1-undecanoic acid (MUA) chemisorbed on the gold layer using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The negatively charged lipid film composed of a mixture of zwitterionic DMPC and negatively charged DMPG phospholipids at a molar ratio of 1:1 allowed the formation of a stable cyt c layer. Addition of DNA aptamers specific to cyt c, however, resulted in removal of cyt c from the surface. The interaction of cyt c with the lipid film and its removal by DNA aptamers were accompanied by changes in viscoelastic properties evaluated using the Kelvin–Voigt model. Cyt c covalently bound to MUA also provided a stable protein layer already at its relatively low concentrations (0.5 μM). A decrease in the resonant frequency following the addition of gold nanowires (AuNWs) modified by DNA aptamers was observed. The interaction of aptamers with cyt c on the surface can be a combination of specific and non-specific interactions due to electrostatic forces between negatively charged DNA aptamers and positively charged cyt c. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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13 pages, 4690 KiB  
Article
Acoustic Force-Based Cell–Matrix Avidity Measurement in High Throughput
by Yao Wang, Jasmine Jin, Haoqing Jerry Wang and Lining Arnold Ju
Biosensors 2023, 13(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13010095 - 06 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2725
Abstract
Cancer cells interacting with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the tumor microenvironment is pivotal for tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Cell–ECM adhesion has been intensively studied in cancer biology in the past decades to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the adhesion events and extracellular [...] Read more.
Cancer cells interacting with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the tumor microenvironment is pivotal for tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Cell–ECM adhesion has been intensively studied in cancer biology in the past decades to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the adhesion events and extracellular mechanosensing, as well as develop therapeutic strategies targeting the cell adhesion molecules. Many methods have been established to measure the cell–ECM adhesion strength and correlate it with the metastatic potential of certain cancer types. However, those approaches are either low throughput, not quantitative, or with poor sensitivity and reproducibility. Herein, we developed a novel acoustic force spectroscopy based method to quantify the cell–ECM adhesion strength during adhesion maturation process using the emerging z-Movi® technology. This can be served as a fast, simple, and high-throughput platform for functional assessment of cell adhesion molecules in a highly predictive and reproducible manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 2165 KiB  
Article
Nanoporous ZIF-8 Microparticles as Acetylcholinesterase and Alkaline Phosphatase Mimics for the Selective and Sensitive Detection of Ascorbic Acid Oxidase and Copper Ions
by Guo-Ying Chen, Shi-Jun Yin, Li Chen, Xi Zhou and Feng-Qing Yang
Biosensors 2022, 12(11), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12111049 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
In this study, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-like activity of zeolitic-imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) is reported for the first time. Then, colorimetric sensors for the ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) and copper ion (Cu2+) detection were developed based on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE)- and ALP-like [...] Read more.
In this study, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-like activity of zeolitic-imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) is reported for the first time. Then, colorimetric sensors for the ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) and copper ion (Cu2+) detection were developed based on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE)- and ALP-like activities of ZIF-8. The ZIF-8 has good mimetic enzyme activity and exhibits high affinity to the substrates. Its AChE- and ALP-like activities also have good reusability and storage stability. Good linear dependences are obtained in the range of 1.3−250.0 μM (AChE-like activity-based) and 4.5−454.5 μM (ALP-like activity based) for Cu2+ detection. Furthermore, good linear dependence is also obtained based on the ALP-like activity of ZIF-8 for AAO detection in the range of 2.3−454.5 U/L. Their limits of detection (LODs) are calculated to be 0.7 µM, 2.8 µM, and 1.8 U/L, respectively. Finally, the sample spiked recoveries of Cu2+ in tap water, Cu2+, and AAO in human serum and rabbit plasma were measured, and the results are in the range of 80.0−119.3%. In short, the preparation of ZIF-8 is simple, environmentally friendly, and harmless, and can realize highly selective detection of AAO and Cu2+ in an efficient and fast process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 3543 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical DNA Sensor Based on Carbon Black—Poly(Methylene Blue)—Poly(Neutral Red) Composite
by Dominica Kappo, Dmitry Shurpik, Pavel Padnya, Ivan Stoikov, Alexey Rogov and Gennady Evtugyn
Biosensors 2022, 12(5), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12050329 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3239
Abstract
The detection of small molecules interacting with DNA is important for the assessment of potential hazards related to the application of rather toxic antitumor drugs, and for distinguishing the factors related to thermal and oxidative DNA damage. In this work, a novel electrochemical [...] Read more.
The detection of small molecules interacting with DNA is important for the assessment of potential hazards related to the application of rather toxic antitumor drugs, and for distinguishing the factors related to thermal and oxidative DNA damage. In this work, a novel electrochemical DNA sensor has been proposed for the determination of antitumor drugs. For DNA sensor assembling, a glassy carbon electrode was modified with carbon black dispersed in DMF. After that, pillar [5]arene was adsorbed and Methylene blue and Neutral red were consecutively electropolymerized onto the carbon black layer. To increase sensitivity of intercalator detection, DNA was first mixed with water-soluble thiacalixarene bearing quaternary ammonium groups in the substituents at the lower rim. The deposition of the mixture on the electropolymerized dyes made it possible to detect doxorubicin as model intercalator by suppression of the redox activity of the polymerization products. The DNA sensor made it possible to determine 0.5 pM–1.0 nM doxorubicin (limit of detection 0.13 pM) with 20 min of incubation. The DNA sensor was successfully tested on spiked samples of human plasma and doxorubicin medication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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14 pages, 3202 KiB  
Article
Imprinted Photonic Crystal-Film-Based Smartphone-Compatible Label-Free Optical Sensor for SARS-CoV-2 Testing
by Daiki Kawasaki, Hirotaka Yamada, Kenji Sueyoshi, Hideaki Hisamoto and Tatsuro Endo
Biosensors 2022, 12(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12040200 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3618
Abstract
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic. To manage and control the spread of the infection, it is crucial to develop and implement technologies for the early identification of infected individuals and rapid informatization in communities. For the [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic. To manage and control the spread of the infection, it is crucial to develop and implement technologies for the early identification of infected individuals and rapid informatization in communities. For the realization of such a technology, a widely available and highly usable sensor for sensitive and specific assay of the virus plays a fundamental role. In this study, we developed an optical sensor based on an imprinted photonic crystal film (IPCF) for quick, simple, and cost-effective detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in artificial saliva. Our IPCF sensor enabled label-free and highly sensitive detection with a smartphone-equipped optical setup. The IPCF surface was functionalized with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody for immunoassay. We evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the IPCF sensor for quantitative detection of the spike protein in artificial saliva using simple reflectometry with a spectrometer-equipped optical setup. Specific and quantitative detection of the spike protein was successfully achieved, with a low detection limit of 429 fg/mL. In the demonstration of reflectometric detection with a smartphone-equipped setup, the sensitivity was comparable with that with a spectrometer-equipped setup. The test result is returned immediately and can be saved to cloud storage. In addition, it costs less than USD 1 for one IPCF to be used for diagnosis. Thus, the developed IPCF has the potential to realize a widely available and highly usable sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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17 pages, 3228 KiB  
Article
Powerful Electron-Transfer Screen-Printed Platforms as Biosensing Tools: The Case of Uric Acid Biosensor
by Rocco Cancelliere, Alessio Di Tinno, Antonino Cataldo, Stefano Bellucci and Laura Micheli
Biosensors 2022, 12(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12010002 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3551
Abstract
The use of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) in sensors and biosensor realization is one of the hottest topics today in analytical chemistry. In this work, a comparative in-depth study, exploiting different nanomaterial (MWNT-CO2H, -NH2, -OH and GNP) modified screen-printed electrodes [...] Read more.
The use of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) in sensors and biosensor realization is one of the hottest topics today in analytical chemistry. In this work, a comparative in-depth study, exploiting different nanomaterial (MWNT-CO2H, -NH2, -OH and GNP) modified screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), is reported. In particular, the sensitivity, the heterogeneous electron transfer constant (k0), and the peak-to-peak separation (ΔE) have been calculated and analyzed. After which, an electrochemical amperometric sensor capable of determining uric acid (UA), based on the nano-modified platforms previously characterized, is presented. The disposable UA biosensor, fabricated modifying working electrode (WE) with Prussian Blue (PB), carbon nanotubes, and uricase enzyme, showed remarkable analytical performances toward UA with high sensitivity (CO2H 418 μA μM−1 cm−2 and bare SPE-based biosensor, 33 μA μM−1 cm−2), low detection limits (CO2H 0.5 nM and bare SPE-based biosensors, 280 nM), and good repeatability (CO2H and bare SPE-based biosensors, 5% and 10%, respectively). Moreover, the reproducibility (RSD%) of these platforms in tests conducted for UA determination in buffer and urine samples results are equal to 6% and 15%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the nanoengineered electrode exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity toward UA even in the presence of interfering species, thus paving the way for its application in other bio-fluids such as simple point-of-care (POC) devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Development of an Immunoassay for the Detection of Copper Residues in Pork Tissues
by Junqiu Zhang, Liwei Xu, Hongtao Jiang, Chuanlai Xu, Wenjing Liu, Ting Wu and Hua Kuang
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11070235 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
The presence of high concentrations of copper (Cu) residues in pork is highly concerning and therefore, this study was designed to develop a high-throughput immunoassay for the detection of such residues in edible pork tissues. The Cu content in the pork samples after [...] Read more.
The presence of high concentrations of copper (Cu) residues in pork is highly concerning and therefore, this study was designed to develop a high-throughput immunoassay for the detection of such residues in edible pork tissues. The Cu content in the pork samples after digestion with HNO3 and H2O2 was measured using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a Cu (II)–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) complex. The resulting solution was neutralized using NaOH at pH 7 and the free metal ions in the solution were chelated with EDTA for the immunoassay detection. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) method was developed for Cu ion analysis. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of the mAb against Cu (II)–EDTA was 5.36 ng/mL, the linear detection range varied between 1.30 and 27.0 ng/mL, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.43 μg/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.42 μg/kg. The performances of the immunoassay were evaluated using fortified pig serum, liver, and pork samples and had a recovery rate of 94.53–102.24%. Importantly, the proposed immunoassay was compared with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to measure its performance. The detection correlation coefficients of the three types of samples (serum, pork, and liver) were 0.967, 0.976, and 0.983, respectively. Thirty pork samples and six pig liver samples were collected from local markets and Cu was detected with the proposed ic-ELISA. The Cu content was found to be 37.31~85.36 μg/kg in pork samples and 1.04–1.9 mg/kg in liver samples. Furthermore, we detected the Cu content in pigs with feed supplemented with tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) and copper sulfate (CS) (60, 110, and 210 mg/kg in feed). There was no significant difference in Cu accumulation in pork tissues between the TBCC and CS groups, while a remarkable Cu accumulation was found for the CS group in liver at 210 mg/kg, representing more than a two-fold higher level than seen in the TBCC group. Therefore, the proposed immunoassay was found to be robust and sensitive for the detection of Cu, providing a cost effective and practical tool for its detection in food and other complicated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 4248 KiB  
Article
Rapid Detection of Glucose on Nanostructured Gold Film Biosensor by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
by Cheng-Ju Sung, Szu-Han Chao and Shih-Chieh Hsu
Biosensors 2021, 11(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020054 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2896
Abstract
In this report, we summarized our development of biosensors for Rhodamine 6G and in vitro glucose detection based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology. For the detection of both Rhodamine 6G and in vitro glucose, a nature-patterned substrate with gold films over nanostructures (NPS-AuFON) [...] Read more.
In this report, we summarized our development of biosensors for Rhodamine 6G and in vitro glucose detection based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology. For the detection of both Rhodamine 6G and in vitro glucose, a nature-patterned substrate with gold films over nanostructures (NPS-AuFON) was used as the surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor platform. The enhancement factor was calculated at 9 × 107. In the processing of the substrate, cyclic voltammetry was used to form nano-gold particles under different conditions. The Rhodamine 6G and glucose detection were then achieved on this substrate. Furthermore, we combined the potentiostatic technique and electrochemical adsorption to best detect glucose in low concentrations. The glucose oxidation potential (100 mV) was used to capture glucose close to the surface of the NPS-AuFON. The quantitative detection of glucose in solution and in situ inspection were confirmed. Further, we determined that this surface modification technology can reach the goal of experiments set by the World Health Organization to judge whether or not a patient is a diabetic by detecting a glucose concentration of 11.1 mmol/L (mg/dL) at a minimum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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21 pages, 5489 KiB  
Review
Photoacoustic Imaging Probes for Theranostic Applications
by Cailing He, Jiayuan Zhu, Huayue Zhang, Ruirui Qiao and Run Zhang
Biosensors 2022, 12(11), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12110947 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI), an emerging biomedical imaging technology, capitalizes on a wide range of endogenous chromophores and exogenous contrast agents to offer detailed information related to the functional and molecular content of diseased biological tissues. Compared with traditional imaging technologies, PAI offers outstanding [...] Read more.
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI), an emerging biomedical imaging technology, capitalizes on a wide range of endogenous chromophores and exogenous contrast agents to offer detailed information related to the functional and molecular content of diseased biological tissues. Compared with traditional imaging technologies, PAI offers outstanding advantages, such as a higher spatial resolution, deeper penetrability in biological tissues, and improved imaging contrast. Based on nanomaterials and small molecular organic dyes, a huge number of contrast agents have recently been developed as PAI probes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we report the recent advances in the development of nanomaterials and organic dye-based PAI probes. The current challenges in the field and future research directions for the designing and fabrication of PAI probes are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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16 pages, 4255 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Single Fe-Based Nanoagents for Photothermal–Chemodynamic Cancer Therapy
by Li Zhang, Helen Forgham, Ao Shen, Ruirui Qiao and Bing Guo
Biosensors 2022, 12(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12020086 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3648
Abstract
Monomodal cancer therapies are often unsatisfactory, leading to suboptimal treatment effects that result in either an inability to stop growth and metastasis or prevent relapse. Thus, synergistic strategies that combine different therapeutic modalities to improve performance have become the new research trend. In [...] Read more.
Monomodal cancer therapies are often unsatisfactory, leading to suboptimal treatment effects that result in either an inability to stop growth and metastasis or prevent relapse. Thus, synergistic strategies that combine different therapeutic modalities to improve performance have become the new research trend. In this regard, the integration of photothermal therapy (PTT) with chemodynamic therapy (CDT), especially PTT/CDT in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) biowindow, has been demonstrated to be a highly efficient and relatively safe concept. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, nanoparticles can be designed from specific elements, such as Fe, that are equipped with both PTT and CDT therapeutic functions. In this review, we provide an update on the recent advances in Fe-based nanoplatforms for combined PTT/CDT. The perspectives on further improvement of the curative efficiency are described, highlighting the important scientific obstacles that require resolution in order to reach greater heights of clinical success. We hope this review will inspire the interest of researchers in developing novel Fe-based nanomedicines for multifunctional theranostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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24 pages, 6925 KiB  
Review
FRET Ratiometric Nanoprobes for Nanoparticle Monitoring
by Guangze Yang, Yun Liu, Jisi Teng and Chun-Xia Zhao
Biosensors 2021, 11(12), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11120505 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 22263
Abstract
Fluorescence labelling is often used for tracking nanoparticles, providing a convenient assay for monitoring nanoparticle drug delivery. However, it is difficult to be quantitative, as many factors affect the fluorescence intensity. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), taking advantage of the energy transfer from [...] Read more.
Fluorescence labelling is often used for tracking nanoparticles, providing a convenient assay for monitoring nanoparticle drug delivery. However, it is difficult to be quantitative, as many factors affect the fluorescence intensity. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), taking advantage of the energy transfer from a donor fluorophore to an acceptor fluorophore, provides a distance ruler to probe NP drug delivery. This article provides a review of different FRET approaches for the ratiometric monitoring of the self-assembly and formation of nanoparticles, their in vivo fate, integrity and drug release. We anticipate that the fundamental understanding gained from these ratiometric studies will offer new insights into the design of new nanoparticles with improved and better-controlled properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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42 pages, 11286 KiB  
Review
Recent Development of Nanomaterials-Based Cytosensors for the Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells
by Zhi-Fang Sun, Yong Chang and Ning Xia
Biosensors 2021, 11(8), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11080281 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4086
Abstract
The accurate analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) holds great promise in early diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. However, the extremely low abundance of CTCs in peripheral blood samples limits the practical utility of the traditional methods for CTCs detection. Thus, novel and [...] Read more.
The accurate analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) holds great promise in early diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. However, the extremely low abundance of CTCs in peripheral blood samples limits the practical utility of the traditional methods for CTCs detection. Thus, novel and powerful strategies have been proposed for sensitive detection of CTCs. In particular, nanomaterials with exceptional physical and chemical properties have been used to fabricate cytosensors for amplifying the signal and enhancing the sensitivity. In this review, we summarize the recent development of nanomaterials-based optical and electrochemical analytical techniques for CTCs detection, including fluorescence, colorimetry, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, chemiluminescence, electrochemistry, electrochemiluminescence, photoelectrochemistry and so on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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