Special Issue "Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2022 | Viewed by 26735

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ruirui Qiao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
Interests: inorganic nanomaterials; polymers; molecular imaging; nanomedicine
Dr. Yiliang Lin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Interests: soft matter; bioelectronics; bio-interface

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent advances in the development of functional nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties have paved the way for the design of new biosensors for biomedical applications. A variety of emerging inorganic (e.g., quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, liquid metal alloys, and rare-earth nanoparticles) and organic (e.g., polymeric nanoparticles) nanomaterials, as well as hybrid nanomaterials, have become the basis for high-performance biosensors with an enhanced sensitivity, selectivity, and robustness. Using these advanced nanomaterials as the core sensing elements, many nanosensors have been developed, including, but not limited, to silicon-based nanowire field-effect sensors for pH sensing, protein/DNA detection, and single viruses detection; carbon dots-based photoluminescence sensors, electrochemiluminescence sensors, chemiluminescence sensors, and enzyme sensors; liposome-based nano biosensors for pesticide detection; and surface-enhanced Raman scattering nano-biosensors with different nanomaterials.

This Special Issue aims to highlight the recent advances in the development of functional nanomaterials-based biosensors and their applications in the biomedical field. Original research papers, reviews, and mini-review papers are all welcome.

Dr. Ruirui Qiao
Dr. Yiliang Lin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biosensor Nanotechnology
  • Advanced Nanomaterials for Biosensors
  • Nanostructures Design for Biosensors
  • Nanochemistry for Biosensors
  • Wearable Nano-Biosensors
  • Biosensors for Healthcare

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Electrochemical DNA Sensor Based on Carbon Black—Poly(Methylene Blue)—Poly(Neutral Red) Composite
Biosensors 2022, 12(5), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12050329 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 1535
Abstract
The detection of small molecules interacting with DNA is important for the assessment of potential hazards related to the application of rather toxic antitumor drugs, and for distinguishing the factors related to thermal and oxidative DNA damage. In this work, a novel electrochemical [...] Read more.
The detection of small molecules interacting with DNA is important for the assessment of potential hazards related to the application of rather toxic antitumor drugs, and for distinguishing the factors related to thermal and oxidative DNA damage. In this work, a novel electrochemical DNA sensor has been proposed for the determination of antitumor drugs. For DNA sensor assembling, a glassy carbon electrode was modified with carbon black dispersed in DMF. After that, pillar [5]arene was adsorbed and Methylene blue and Neutral red were consecutively electropolymerized onto the carbon black layer. To increase sensitivity of intercalator detection, DNA was first mixed with water-soluble thiacalixarene bearing quaternary ammonium groups in the substituents at the lower rim. The deposition of the mixture on the electropolymerized dyes made it possible to detect doxorubicin as model intercalator by suppression of the redox activity of the polymerization products. The DNA sensor made it possible to determine 0.5 pM–1.0 nM doxorubicin (limit of detection 0.13 pM) with 20 min of incubation. The DNA sensor was successfully tested on spiked samples of human plasma and doxorubicin medication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Imprinted Photonic Crystal-Film-Based Smartphone-Compatible Label-Free Optical Sensor for SARS-CoV-2 Testing
Biosensors 2022, 12(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12040200 - 28 Mar 2022
Viewed by 960
Abstract
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic. To manage and control the spread of the infection, it is crucial to develop and implement technologies for the early identification of infected individuals and rapid informatization in communities. For the [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic. To manage and control the spread of the infection, it is crucial to develop and implement technologies for the early identification of infected individuals and rapid informatization in communities. For the realization of such a technology, a widely available and highly usable sensor for sensitive and specific assay of the virus plays a fundamental role. In this study, we developed an optical sensor based on an imprinted photonic crystal film (IPCF) for quick, simple, and cost-effective detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in artificial saliva. Our IPCF sensor enabled label-free and highly sensitive detection with a smartphone-equipped optical setup. The IPCF surface was functionalized with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody for immunoassay. We evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the IPCF sensor for quantitative detection of the spike protein in artificial saliva using simple reflectometry with a spectrometer-equipped optical setup. Specific and quantitative detection of the spike protein was successfully achieved, with a low detection limit of 429 fg/mL. In the demonstration of reflectometric detection with a smartphone-equipped setup, the sensitivity was comparable with that with a spectrometer-equipped setup. The test result is returned immediately and can be saved to cloud storage. In addition, it costs less than USD 1 for one IPCF to be used for diagnosis. Thus, the developed IPCF has the potential to realize a widely available and highly usable sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Powerful Electron-Transfer Screen-Printed Platforms as Biosensing Tools: The Case of Uric Acid Biosensor
Biosensors 2022, 12(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12010002 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
The use of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) in sensors and biosensor realization is one of the hottest topics today in analytical chemistry. In this work, a comparative in-depth study, exploiting different nanomaterial (MWNT-CO2H, -NH2, -OH and GNP) modified screen-printed electrodes [...] Read more.
The use of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) in sensors and biosensor realization is one of the hottest topics today in analytical chemistry. In this work, a comparative in-depth study, exploiting different nanomaterial (MWNT-CO2H, -NH2, -OH and GNP) modified screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), is reported. In particular, the sensitivity, the heterogeneous electron transfer constant (k0), and the peak-to-peak separation (ΔE) have been calculated and analyzed. After which, an electrochemical amperometric sensor capable of determining uric acid (UA), based on the nano-modified platforms previously characterized, is presented. The disposable UA biosensor, fabricated modifying working electrode (WE) with Prussian Blue (PB), carbon nanotubes, and uricase enzyme, showed remarkable analytical performances toward UA with high sensitivity (CO2H 418 μA μM−1 cm−2 and bare SPE-based biosensor, 33 μA μM−1 cm−2), low detection limits (CO2H 0.5 nM and bare SPE-based biosensors, 280 nM), and good repeatability (CO2H and bare SPE-based biosensors, 5% and 10%, respectively). Moreover, the reproducibility (RSD%) of these platforms in tests conducted for UA determination in buffer and urine samples results are equal to 6% and 15%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the nanoengineered electrode exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity toward UA even in the presence of interfering species, thus paving the way for its application in other bio-fluids such as simple point-of-care (POC) devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Development of an Immunoassay for the Detection of Copper Residues in Pork Tissues
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11070235 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 881
Abstract
The presence of high concentrations of copper (Cu) residues in pork is highly concerning and therefore, this study was designed to develop a high-throughput immunoassay for the detection of such residues in edible pork tissues. The Cu content in the pork samples after [...] Read more.
The presence of high concentrations of copper (Cu) residues in pork is highly concerning and therefore, this study was designed to develop a high-throughput immunoassay for the detection of such residues in edible pork tissues. The Cu content in the pork samples after digestion with HNO3 and H2O2 was measured using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a Cu (II)–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) complex. The resulting solution was neutralized using NaOH at pH 7 and the free metal ions in the solution were chelated with EDTA for the immunoassay detection. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) method was developed for Cu ion analysis. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of the mAb against Cu (II)–EDTA was 5.36 ng/mL, the linear detection range varied between 1.30 and 27.0 ng/mL, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.43 μg/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.42 μg/kg. The performances of the immunoassay were evaluated using fortified pig serum, liver, and pork samples and had a recovery rate of 94.53–102.24%. Importantly, the proposed immunoassay was compared with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to measure its performance. The detection correlation coefficients of the three types of samples (serum, pork, and liver) were 0.967, 0.976, and 0.983, respectively. Thirty pork samples and six pig liver samples were collected from local markets and Cu was detected with the proposed ic-ELISA. The Cu content was found to be 37.31~85.36 μg/kg in pork samples and 1.04–1.9 mg/kg in liver samples. Furthermore, we detected the Cu content in pigs with feed supplemented with tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) and copper sulfate (CS) (60, 110, and 210 mg/kg in feed). There was no significant difference in Cu accumulation in pork tissues between the TBCC and CS groups, while a remarkable Cu accumulation was found for the CS group in liver at 210 mg/kg, representing more than a two-fold higher level than seen in the TBCC group. Therefore, the proposed immunoassay was found to be robust and sensitive for the detection of Cu, providing a cost effective and practical tool for its detection in food and other complicated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Rapid Detection of Glucose on Nanostructured Gold Film Biosensor by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Biosensors 2021, 11(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020054 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
In this report, we summarized our development of biosensors for Rhodamine 6G and in vitro glucose detection based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology. For the detection of both Rhodamine 6G and in vitro glucose, a nature-patterned substrate with gold films over nanostructures (NPS-AuFON) [...] Read more.
In this report, we summarized our development of biosensors for Rhodamine 6G and in vitro glucose detection based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology. For the detection of both Rhodamine 6G and in vitro glucose, a nature-patterned substrate with gold films over nanostructures (NPS-AuFON) was used as the surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor platform. The enhancement factor was calculated at 9 × 107. In the processing of the substrate, cyclic voltammetry was used to form nano-gold particles under different conditions. The Rhodamine 6G and glucose detection were then achieved on this substrate. Furthermore, we combined the potentiostatic technique and electrochemical adsorption to best detect glucose in low concentrations. The glucose oxidation potential (100 mV) was used to capture glucose close to the surface of the NPS-AuFON. The quantitative detection of glucose in solution and in situ inspection were confirmed. Further, we determined that this surface modification technology can reach the goal of experiments set by the World Health Organization to judge whether or not a patient is a diabetic by detecting a glucose concentration of 11.1 mmol/L (mg/dL) at a minimum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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Review
Recent Advances in Single Fe-Based Nanoagents for Photothermal–Chemodynamic Cancer Therapy
Biosensors 2022, 12(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12020086 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Monomodal cancer therapies are often unsatisfactory, leading to suboptimal treatment effects that result in either an inability to stop growth and metastasis or prevent relapse. Thus, synergistic strategies that combine different therapeutic modalities to improve performance have become the new research trend. In [...] Read more.
Monomodal cancer therapies are often unsatisfactory, leading to suboptimal treatment effects that result in either an inability to stop growth and metastasis or prevent relapse. Thus, synergistic strategies that combine different therapeutic modalities to improve performance have become the new research trend. In this regard, the integration of photothermal therapy (PTT) with chemodynamic therapy (CDT), especially PTT/CDT in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) biowindow, has been demonstrated to be a highly efficient and relatively safe concept. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, nanoparticles can be designed from specific elements, such as Fe, that are equipped with both PTT and CDT therapeutic functions. In this review, we provide an update on the recent advances in Fe-based nanoplatforms for combined PTT/CDT. The perspectives on further improvement of the curative efficiency are described, highlighting the important scientific obstacles that require resolution in order to reach greater heights of clinical success. We hope this review will inspire the interest of researchers in developing novel Fe-based nanomedicines for multifunctional theranostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Review
FRET Ratiometric Nanoprobes for Nanoparticle Monitoring
Biosensors 2021, 11(12), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11120505 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 17637
Abstract
Fluorescence labelling is often used for tracking nanoparticles, providing a convenient assay for monitoring nanoparticle drug delivery. However, it is difficult to be quantitative, as many factors affect the fluorescence intensity. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), taking advantage of the energy transfer from [...] Read more.
Fluorescence labelling is often used for tracking nanoparticles, providing a convenient assay for monitoring nanoparticle drug delivery. However, it is difficult to be quantitative, as many factors affect the fluorescence intensity. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), taking advantage of the energy transfer from a donor fluorophore to an acceptor fluorophore, provides a distance ruler to probe NP drug delivery. This article provides a review of different FRET approaches for the ratiometric monitoring of the self-assembly and formation of nanoparticles, their in vivo fate, integrity and drug release. We anticipate that the fundamental understanding gained from these ratiometric studies will offer new insights into the design of new nanoparticles with improved and better-controlled properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Review
Recent Development of Nanomaterials-Based Cytosensors for the Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells
Biosensors 2021, 11(8), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11080281 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
The accurate analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) holds great promise in early diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. However, the extremely low abundance of CTCs in peripheral blood samples limits the practical utility of the traditional methods for CTCs detection. Thus, novel and [...] Read more.
The accurate analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) holds great promise in early diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. However, the extremely low abundance of CTCs in peripheral blood samples limits the practical utility of the traditional methods for CTCs detection. Thus, novel and powerful strategies have been proposed for sensitive detection of CTCs. In particular, nanomaterials with exceptional physical and chemical properties have been used to fabricate cytosensors for amplifying the signal and enhancing the sensitivity. In this review, we summarize the recent development of nanomaterials-based optical and electrochemical analytical techniques for CTCs detection, including fluorescence, colorimetry, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, chemiluminescence, electrochemistry, electrochemiluminescence, photoelectrochemistry and so on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Tentative Title: The simultaneous voltammetric detection of guanine and inosine using a hybrid multi-walled carbon nanotube-magnetite nanocomposite
Authors: Niloufar Soltani, Meissam Noroozifar, Kagan Kerman 
Affiliations: Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, M1C 1A4, Canada 

Abstract: 

In this proof-of-concept study, a graphite paste electrode (MGPE) was modified with a novel hybrid nanocomposite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and magnetite nanoparticles (MGPE/MWCNT-Fe3O4NPs) for the simultaneous voltammetric detection of guanine (G) and inosine (INO). The nanocomposite was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The incorporation of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) with MWCNTs to the MGPE provided an enhanced electrocatalytic activity as studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The linearity ranges were 0.1-9.0 µM and 0.5-55 µM with a detection limit of 0.05 µM and 0.12 µM for G and INO, respectively. Moreover, chronoamperometric studies were carried out for the determination of diffusion coefficients (D), and heterogenous rate constants (Kh) for G and INO. The sensor was also used for the simultaneous detection of G and INO in bovine serum samples with recovery values ranging from 96% to 103.8%. We envisage the nanocomposite-modified sensor provides a promising platform for the detection of G and INO as biomarkers of DNA damage related to cancer research.

 

Tentative Title: Electrochemical characterization of 2D and 3D screen printed electrodes based on carbon materials towards sensing of halogenated nucleobases

Ana Casanova1, Alicia Gomis-Berenguer1 , Craig E Bank3 and Jesus Iniesta1,2

1 Institute of Electrochemistry, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain
2 Physical Chemistry Department, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain
3 Department of Natural Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom

The nucleobases are fundamental units of the genetic code; adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) are found in DNA, while (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and uracil (U) are present in RNA. DNA modification plays an important role in several biological processes and diseases, including development, aging, cancer, etc. Similarly, cellular RNA is also decorated with diverse chemical modifications which affect RNA metabolism. Different types of bases epigenetic modifications can occur such as methylation, oxidation, and halogenation, so interest in the fast and simple techniques for the detection of the DNA and RNA bases modifications are growing during the last decades with the aim to achieve a useful tool for early detection of diseases or dysfunctions. This work will deal with the use of some additive manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of miniaturized electrochemical sensors and their applications in the detection of epigenetic modifications in nucleobases. To do that, the electrochemical characterization of two- and three‑dimensional screen printed platforms has been addressed i.e., - graphite and graphene films-. All carbon-based films have been used for the qualitative determination of various halocytosines, haloguanines and halouraciles, and the electrochemical sensors have been partially validated.

Keywords: Carbon-based screen printed electrodes, electrochemical sensing, halogenated nucleobases.

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