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FRET Ratiometric Nanoprobes for Nanoparticle Monitoring

by 1,2, 1, 1 and 1,2,3,*
Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
ARC Centre of Excellence for Enabling Eco-Efficient Beneficiation of Minerals, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2021, 11(12), 505;
Received: 29 October 2021 / Revised: 1 December 2021 / Accepted: 3 December 2021 / Published: 9 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
Fluorescence labelling is often used for tracking nanoparticles, providing a convenient assay for monitoring nanoparticle drug delivery. However, it is difficult to be quantitative, as many factors affect the fluorescence intensity. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), taking advantage of the energy transfer from a donor fluorophore to an acceptor fluorophore, provides a distance ruler to probe NP drug delivery. This article provides a review of different FRET approaches for the ratiometric monitoring of the self-assembly and formation of nanoparticles, their in vivo fate, integrity and drug release. We anticipate that the fundamental understanding gained from these ratiometric studies will offer new insights into the design of new nanoparticles with improved and better-controlled properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfluidics; nanoparticles; nanomedicine; drug delivery; lipid; polymer microfluidics; nanoparticles; nanomedicine; drug delivery; lipid; polymer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, G.; Liu, Y.; Teng, J.; Zhao, C.-X. FRET Ratiometric Nanoprobes for Nanoparticle Monitoring. Biosensors 2021, 11, 505.

AMA Style

Yang G, Liu Y, Teng J, Zhao C-X. FRET Ratiometric Nanoprobes for Nanoparticle Monitoring. Biosensors. 2021; 11(12):505.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Guangze, Yun Liu, Jisi Teng, and Chun-Xia Zhao. 2021. "FRET Ratiometric Nanoprobes for Nanoparticle Monitoring" Biosensors 11, no. 12: 505.

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