Special Issue "Special Issue in Honor of Professor Bansi D. Malhotra—From Nanosystems to a Biosensing Prototype for an Efficient Diagnostic"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Nano- and Micro-Technologies in Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2023 | Viewed by 20672

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Pratima Solanki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Special Center for Nano Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
Interests: nanosensor–biosensor; microfluidic; nano-biointeraction; diagnosis
Dr. Raju Khan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIR-Advanced Materials & Processes Research Institute (AMPRI), Bhopal, MP, India
Interests: electrochemical and fluorescence-based biosensor diagnostics; biomarker detection; nanomaterials
Prof. Dr. Yogendra Kumar Mishra
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mads Clausen Institute, SDU NanoSYD, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg, Denmark
Interests: smart materials; zinc oxide tetrapods; biomaterials; nanocatalysis; green 3D nanotechnology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Sonu Gandhi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
DBT-National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (DBT-NIAB), Opp Journalist Colony, Near Gowlidoddy Extended, Wipro Cir, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, Telangana 500032, India
Interests: biosensors; bioengineering; nanomaterials; nano-carriers; diagnostics; therapy; imaging; nanoparticles and nano-energy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, the success of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)-assisted miniaturized biomedical electronics has emerged as a potential analytical tool to manage a disease. As a recent example, diagnostics of viral infectious diseases such as COVID-19 infection diagnostics seems manageable due to the collective approach of artificial intelligence (AI for predictive analysis), IoMT, rapid testing systems, performance at point of care (POC), bioinformatics sharing along with rapid analytics, and timely therapy decision. An optimized combination of nano-enabled biosensing, POC testing, support of AI, and testing interfaced with IoMT have emerged and are very useful not for efficient diagnostics but also for making disease management possible at personalized level. In addition to the desired and controlled performance, these systems need significant improvement in terms of 1) developing a sensing prototype based on smart optoelectric nanosystems to achieve high sensitivity and low detection limit, and selectivity, 2) selecting a real sample source, which requires accurate diagnostics without interferents and loss in order to validate the sensor for clinical application in a scaled up setting.  

Keeping the above into consideration, and with the aim of an intelligent approach toward a better health, this Special Issue will honor Prof. B.D. Malhotra, PhD, FNA, FNASc, to acknowledge his contribution in the field of Biosensors. Prof. Malhotra (Professor and Ex-Head, Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, India, who also served as Senior Scientist and founder of the Biomedical Instrumentation Section at National Physical Laboratory, India, and) is well known as the father of biosensors in India and a leading, accomplished scientist at the international level.

This Special Issue will be focused on collecting original research and comprehensive review articles based on the following topics:

  • Biosensors for metabolite diagnostics;
  • Biosensors for agro-food safety and quality assessment;
  • Biosensors for cancer diagnostics;
  • Biosensors for infectious disease management;
  • Lab-on-a-chip supported biosensing systems;
  • Microfluidic devices for efficient biosensing;
  • Point-of-care biosensing for disease management;
  • Efficient biosensing for brain functional assessment;
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) for intelligent healthcare;
  • Aspects of 3D and green technology for efficient biosensing.

Prof. B.D. Malhotra, Ph.D., FNA, FNASc

Dr. B.D. Malhotra received his PhD from the University of Delhi, Delhi, in 1980. He has published 330 papers in refereed international journals (Citations: 23570 -index: 83), has filed 11 patents (in India and overseas), and has co-authored a textbook on Nanomaterials for Biosensors: Fundamentals and Applications and Biosensors: Fundamentals and Applications. He is the recipient of the National Research Development Corporation Award 2005 for the invention of a ‘Blood Glucose Biochemical Analyzer’ and is a Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, the National Academy of Sciences, India, and an Academician of the Asia Pacific Academy of Materials (APAM). His current research activities include biosensors, point-of-care diagnostics, nano-biomaterials, biofuel cells, ordered molecular assemblies, conducting polymers, Langmuir–Blodgett films, self-assembled monolayers, advanced functionalized nanosystems, hybrid nanosystems, nano-biotechnology, biomedical engineering, and biomolecular electronics.

Since 1994, he has explored functional materials for biosensing applications. His efforts initiated biosensing research in India, and as a result, this field is growing rapidly nationwide. His research is multidisciplinary and focuses on detecting targeted biomarkers not only in a physiological range but at a very low level as well. Such systems are emerging as efficient analytical tools to manage disease progression, therapy decisions, and therapy assessment at POC applications. Such approaches are of tunable performance and can be optimized for diagnostics in personalized healthcare settings if supported by artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT). Dr Malhotra is currently a DST-SERB (Govt. of India) Distinguished Fellow and an Adjunct Professor with the Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India.

He is a phenomenal mentor and supervisor and can be contacted via e-mail at [email protected] or [email protected]

Prof. Dr. Ajeet Kaushik
Dr. Pratima Solanki
Dr. Raju Khan
Prof. Dr. Yogendra Kumar Mishra
Dr. Sonu Gandhi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
From Nanosystems to a Biosensing Prototype for an Efficient Diagnostic: A Special Issue in Honor of Professor Bansi D. Malhotra
Biosensors 2021, 11(10), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11100359 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
It has been proven that rapid bioinformatics analysis according to patient health profiles, in addition to biomarker detection at a low level, is emerging as essential to design an analytical diagnostics system to manage health intelligently in a personalized manner. Such objectives need [...] Read more.
It has been proven that rapid bioinformatics analysis according to patient health profiles, in addition to biomarker detection at a low level, is emerging as essential to design an analytical diagnostics system to manage health intelligently in a personalized manner. Such objectives need an optimized combination of a nano-enabled sensing prototype, artificial intelligence (AI)-supported predictive analysis, and Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)-based bioinformatics analysis. Such a developed system began with a prototype demonstration of efficient diseases diagnostics performance is the future diseases management approach. To explore these aspects, the Special Issue planned for the nano-and micro-technology section of MDPI’s Biosensors journal will honor and acknowledge the contributions of Prof. B.D. Malhotra, Ph.D., FNA, FNASc has made in the field of biosensors. Full article
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Research

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Article
Perovskite Nanoparticles as an Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Detection of Warfarin
Biosensors 2022, 12(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12020092 - 03 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Chemically prepared PrAlO3 perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) were applied for the electrochemical detection of warfarin, which is commonly utilized for preventing blood clots, such as in deep vein thrombosis. PrAlO3 perovskite NPs were synthesized by the co-precipitation process at environmental conditions. Crystallographic [...] Read more.
Chemically prepared PrAlO3 perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) were applied for the electrochemical detection of warfarin, which is commonly utilized for preventing blood clots, such as in deep vein thrombosis. PrAlO3 perovskite NPs were synthesized by the co-precipitation process at environmental conditions. Crystallographic structure, phase purity, morphological structure, thermal stability, optical properties, and electrochemical characteristics were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-visible analysis, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. TEM micrographs showed the highly crystalline structure, smooth surface, irregular shape, and size of nanocrystalline particles with an average size of 20–30 nm. Particularly crystalline perovskite NPs were pasted on glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) to electrochemically detect the warfarin contents in liquid samples. The fabricated electrode was electrochemically characterized by different parameters such as different potential, scan rates, same potential with seven consecutive cycles, time response, real-time sample analysis, and as a function of warfarin concentration in phosphate buffer solution (0.1 M PBS, pH 7.2). The electrochemical electrode was further verified with various potentials of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 150 mV/s, which exhibited sequential enhancements in the potential range. For detecting warfarin over a wide concentration range (19.5 µM–5000 µM), the detection devices offered good sensitivity and a low limit of detection (19.5 µM). The time-dependent influence was examined using chronoamperometry (perovskite NPs/GCE) in the absence and presence of warfarin at four distinct voltages of +0.05 to +1.2 V from 0 to 1000 s. The repeatability and reliability of the constructed electrochemical sensing electrode were also evaluated in terms of cyclic response for 30 days, demonstrating that it is substantially more reliable for a longer period. The fabricated perovskite NPs/GCE electrodes could be employed for the rapid identification of other drugs. Full article
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Review

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Review
Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Nanodiagnostics for Human and Gut Metabolites Diagnostics: Recent Advances and Challenges
Biosensors 2022, 12(9), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12090733 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Metabolites are the intermediatory products of metabolic processes catalyzed by numerous enzymes found inside the cells. Detecting clinically relevant metabolites is important to understand their physiological and biological functions along with the evolving medical diagnostics. Rapid advances in detecting the tiny metabolites such [...] Read more.
Metabolites are the intermediatory products of metabolic processes catalyzed by numerous enzymes found inside the cells. Detecting clinically relevant metabolites is important to understand their physiological and biological functions along with the evolving medical diagnostics. Rapid advances in detecting the tiny metabolites such as biomarkers that signify disease hallmarks have an immense need for high-performance identifying techniques. Low concentrations are found in biological fluids because the metabolites are difficult to dissolve in an aqueous medium. Therefore, the selective and sensitive study of metabolites as biomarkers in biological fluids is problematic. The different non-electrochemical and conventional methods need a long time of analysis, long sampling, high maintenance costs, and costly instrumentation. Hence, employing electrochemical techniques in clinical examination could efficiently meet the requirements of fully automated, inexpensive, specific, and quick means of biomarker detection. The electrochemical methods are broadly utilized in several emerging and established technologies, and electrochemical biosensors are employed to detect different metabolites. This review describes the advancement in electrochemical sensors developed for clinically associated human metabolites, including glucose, lactose, uric acid, urea, cholesterol, etc., and gut metabolites such as TMAO, TMA, and indole derivatives. Different sensing techniques are evaluated for their potential to achieve relevant degrees of multiplexing, specificity, and sensitivity limits. Moreover, we have also focused on the opportunities and remaining challenges for integrating the electrochemical sensor into the point-of-care (POC) devices. Full article
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Review
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) Assisted Biomedical Systems for Intelligent Healthcare
Biosensors 2022, 12(8), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080562 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4504
Abstract
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a modern approach based on computer science that develops programs and algorithms to make devices intelligent and efficient for performing tasks that usually require skilled human intelligence. AI involves various subsets, including machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), conventional [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a modern approach based on computer science that develops programs and algorithms to make devices intelligent and efficient for performing tasks that usually require skilled human intelligence. AI involves various subsets, including machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), conventional neural networks, fuzzy logic, and speech recognition, with unique capabilities and functionalities that can improve the performances of modern medical sciences. Such intelligent systems simplify human intervention in clinical diagnosis, medical imaging, and decision-making ability. In the same era, the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) emerges as a next-generation bio-analytical tool that combines network-linked biomedical devices with a software application for advancing human health. In this review, we discuss the importance of AI in improving the capabilities of IoMT and point-of-care (POC) devices used in advanced healthcare sectors such as cardiac measurement, cancer diagnosis, and diabetes management. The role of AI in supporting advanced robotic surgeries developed for advanced biomedical applications is also discussed in this article. The position and importance of AI in improving the functionality, detection accuracy, decision-making ability of IoMT devices, and evaluation of associated risks assessment is discussed carefully and critically in this review. This review also encompasses the technological and engineering challenges and prospects for AI-based cloud-integrated personalized IoMT devices for designing efficient POC biomedical systems suitable for next-generation intelligent healthcare. Full article
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Review
Current Scenario of Pathogen Detection Techniques in Agro-Food Sector
Biosensors 2022, 12(7), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12070489 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Over the past-decade, agricultural products (such as vegetables and fruits) have been reported as the major vehicles for foodborne diseases, which are limiting food resources. The spread of infectious diseases due to foodborne pathogens poses a global threat to human health and the [...] Read more.
Over the past-decade, agricultural products (such as vegetables and fruits) have been reported as the major vehicles for foodborne diseases, which are limiting food resources. The spread of infectious diseases due to foodborne pathogens poses a global threat to human health and the economy. The accurate and timely detection of infectious disease and of causative pathogens is crucial in the prevention and treatment of disease. Negligence in the detection of pathogenic substances can be catastrophic and lead to a pandemic. Despite the revolution in health diagnostics, much attention has been paid to the agro-food sector regarding the detection of food contaminants (such as pathogens). The conventional analytical techniques for pathogen detection are reliable and still in operation. However, laborious procedures and time-consuming detection via these approaches emphasize the need for simple, easy-to-use, and affordable detection techniques. The rapid detection of pathogens from food is essential to avoid the morbidity and mortality originating from the suboptimal nature of empiric pathogen treatment. This review critically discusses both the conventional and emerging bio-molecular approaches for pathogen detection in agro-food. Full article
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Review
Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors for the Detection of Salmonellosis: Current Prospective and Challenges
Biosensors 2022, 12(6), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12060365 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
Salmonellosis is a major cause of foodborne infections, caused by Salmonella, posing a major health risk. It possesses the ability to infiltrate the food supply chain at any point throughout the manufacturing, distribution, processing or quality control process. Salmonella infection has increased [...] Read more.
Salmonellosis is a major cause of foodborne infections, caused by Salmonella, posing a major health risk. It possesses the ability to infiltrate the food supply chain at any point throughout the manufacturing, distribution, processing or quality control process. Salmonella infection has increased severely and requires effective and efficient methods for early monitoring and detection. Traditional methods, such as real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture plate, consume a lot of time and are labor-intensive. Therefore, new quick detection methods for on-field applications are urgently needed. Biosensors provide consumer-friendly approaches for quick on-field diagnoses. In the last few years, there has been a surge in research into the creation of reliable and advanced electrochemical sensors for the detection of Salmonella strains in food samples. Electrochemical sensors provide extensive accuracy and reproducible results. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of electrochemical sensors for the detection of Salmonella by focusing on various mechanisms of electrochemical transducer. Further, we explain new-generation biosensors (microfluidics, CRISPR- and IOT-based) for point-of care applications. This review also highlights the limitations of developing biosensors in Salmonella detection and future possibilities. Full article
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Review
Current Advancements and Future Road Map to Develop ASSURED Microfluidic Biosensors for Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases
Biosensors 2022, 12(5), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12050357 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Better diagnostics are always essential for the treatment and prevention of a disease. Existing technologies for detecting infectious and non-infectious diseases are mostly tedious, expensive, and do not meet the World Health Organization’s (WHO) ASSURED (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free, [...] Read more.
Better diagnostics are always essential for the treatment and prevention of a disease. Existing technologies for detecting infectious and non-infectious diseases are mostly tedious, expensive, and do not meet the World Health Organization’s (WHO) ASSURED (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free, and deliverable to end user) criteria. Hence, more accurate, sensitive, and faster diagnostic technologies that meet the ASSURED criteria are highly required for timely and evidenced-based treatment. Presently, the diagnostics industry is finding interest in microfluidics-based biosensors, as this integration comprises all qualities, such as reduction in the size of the equipment, rapid turnaround time, possibility of parallel multiple analysis or multiplexing, etc. Microfluidics deal with the manipulation/analysis of fluid within micrometer-sized channels. Biosensors comprise biomolecules immobilized on a physicochemical transducer for the detection of a specific analyte. In this review article, we provide an outline of the history of microfluidics, current practices in the selection of materials in microfluidics, and how and where microfluidics-based biosensors have been used for the diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Our inclination in this review article is toward the employment of microfluidics-based biosensors for the improvement of already existing/traditional methods in order to reduce efforts without compromising the accuracy of the diagnostic test. This article also suggests the possible improvements required in microfluidic chip-based biosensors in order to meet the ASSURED criteria. Full article
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Review
Using Graphene-Based Biosensors to Detect Dopamine for Efficient Parkinson’s Disease Diagnostics
Biosensors 2021, 11(11), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11110433 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3182
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) depletes due to the progressive loss of nigrostriatal neurons. Therefore, DA measurement might be a useful diagnostic tool for targeting the early stages of PD, as well as helping to [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) depletes due to the progressive loss of nigrostriatal neurons. Therefore, DA measurement might be a useful diagnostic tool for targeting the early stages of PD, as well as helping to optimize DA replacement therapy. Moreover, DA sensing appears to be a useful analytical tool in complex biological systems in PD studies. To support the feasibility of this concept, this mini-review explores the currently developed graphene-based biosensors dedicated to DA detection. We discuss various graphene modifications designed for high-performance DA sensing electrodes alongside their analytical performances and interference studies, which we listed based on their limit of detection in biological samples. Moreover, graphene-based biosensors for optical DA detection are also presented herein. Regarding clinical relevance, we explored the development trends of graphene-based electrochemical sensing of DA as they relate to point-of-care testing suitable for the site-of-location diagnostics needed for personalized PD management. In this field, the biosensors are developed into smartphone-connected systems for intelligent disease management. However, we highlighted that the focus should be on the clinical utility rather than analytical and technical performance. Full article
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Review
Functional Ionic Liquids Decorated Carbon Hybrid Nanomaterials for the Electrochemical Biosensors
Biosensors 2021, 11(11), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11110414 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Ionic liquids are gaining high attention due to their extremely unique physiochemical properties and are being utilized in numerous applications in the field of electrochemistry and bio-nanotechnology. The excellent ionic conductivity and the wide electrochemical window open a new avenue in the construction [...] Read more.
Ionic liquids are gaining high attention due to their extremely unique physiochemical properties and are being utilized in numerous applications in the field of electrochemistry and bio-nanotechnology. The excellent ionic conductivity and the wide electrochemical window open a new avenue in the construction of electrochemical devices. On the other hand, carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene (GR), graphene oxide (GO), carbon dots (CDs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are highly utilized in electrochemical applications. Since they have a large surface area, high conductivity, stability, and functionality, they are promising in biosensor applications. Nevertheless, the combination of ionic liquids (ILs) and carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) results in the functional ILs-CNMs hybrid nanocomposites with considerably improved surface chemistry and electrochemical properties. Moreover, the high functionality and biocompatibility of ILs favor the high loading of biomolecules on the electrode surface. They extremely enhance the sensitivity of the biosensor that reaches the ability of ultra-low detection limit. This review aims to provide the studies of the synthesis, properties, and bonding of functional ILs-CNMs. Further, their electrochemical sensors and biosensor applications for the detection of numerous analytes are also discussed. Full article
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