Special Issue "Screen-Printed Electrodes and Sensors"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Donatella Albanese

Department of Industrial Engineering (DIIn), University of Salerno, Fisciano(SA), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390-8996-4129
Interests: biosensors, immunosensors, screen printed electrodes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrochemistry, immobilization techniques; food quality, food safety
Guest Editor
Dr. Roberto Pilloton

1st Researcher at CNR Institute for Atmospheric Pollution CNR - Via Salaria km 29, 300, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: electrochemistry, environmental analytical chemistry; biosensors; sensors and sensing; continuous flow monitoring; immobilization techniques; enzyme inhibitors; lab on a chip; nanostructured electrodes; screen printed electrodes; herbicides; pesticides; phenolic compounds; cholinesterases; photosystem II; laccase; tyrosinase; immobilized cells

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Screen-printing is one of the most promising approaches towards the simple, rapid, and inexpensive production of sensors and biosensors. Sensors based on screen printed electrodes (SPEs), including microelectrodes and modified electrodes, have led to new possibilities in the detection and quantitation of wide ranging molecules, of which knowledge is important in different fields (such as medicine, environment and food quality and safety). Moreover SPE-based sensors are in tune with the growing need for performing rapid and accurate in situ analysis and for the development of portable devices. This Special Issue is devoted to reviews and original research articles on advances in printed sensors, their materials, fabrication, and application.

Prof. Dr. Donatella Albanese
Dr. Roberto Pilloton
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 650 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sensor
  • biosensor
  • screen printing
  • nanomaterials
  • conductive polymers
  • environmental monitoring
  • diagnostics
  • food quality and safety

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Sensors Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes: The Use of Phthalocyanine Derivatives for Application in VFA Detection
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6030046
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3880 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Here, we report on the use of electrochemical methods for the detection of volatiles fatty acids (VFAs), namely acetic acid. We used tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine (PcH2-tBu) as the sensing material and investigated its electroanalytical properties by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and
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Here, we report on the use of electrochemical methods for the detection of volatiles fatty acids (VFAs), namely acetic acid. We used tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine (PcH2-tBu) as the sensing material and investigated its electroanalytical properties by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). To realize the electrochemical sensing system, the PcH2-tBu has been dropcast-deposited on carbon (C) orgold (Au)screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) and characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM analysis reveals that the PcH2-tBu forms mainly aggregates on the SPEs. The modified electrodes are used for the detection of acetic acid and present a linear current increase when the acetic acid concentration increases. The Cmodified electrode presents a limit of detection (LOD) of 25.77 mM in the range of 100 mM–400 mM, while the Aumodified electrode presents an LOD averaging 40.89 mM in the range of 50 mM–300 mM. When the experiment is realized in a buffered condition, theCmodified electrode presents a lower LOD, which averagesthe 7.76 mM. A pronounced signal decay attributed to an electrode alteration is observed in the case of the gold electrode. This electrode alteration severely affects the coating stability. This alteration is less perceptible in the case of the carbon electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Pencil It in: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-Drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and Their Direct Comparison to Screen-Printed Electrodes
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6030045
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 29 August 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We explore the fabrication, physicochemical characterisation (SEM, Raman, EDX and XPS) and electrochemical application of hand-drawn pencil electrodes (PDEs) upon an ultra-flexible polyester substrate; investigating the number of draws (used for their fabrication), the pencil grade utilised (HB to 9B) and the electrochemical
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We explore the fabrication, physicochemical characterisation (SEM, Raman, EDX and XPS) and electrochemical application of hand-drawn pencil electrodes (PDEs) upon an ultra-flexible polyester substrate; investigating the number of draws (used for their fabrication), the pencil grade utilised (HB to 9B) and the electrochemical properties of an array of batches (i.e, pencil boxes). Electrochemical characterisation of the PDEs, using different batches of HB grade pencils, is undertaken using several inner- and outer-sphere redox probes and is critically compared to screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electrochemical sensing of dopamine and acetaminophen using PDEs, which are found to exhibit competitive limits of detection (3σ) upon comparison to SPEs. Nonetheless, it is important to note that a clear lack of reproducibility was demonstrated when utilising these PDEs fabricated using the HB pencils from different batches. We also explore the suitability and feasibility of a pencil-drawn reference electrode compared to screen-printed alternatives, to see if one can draw the entire sensing platform. This article reports a critical assessment of these PDEs against that of its screen-printed competitors, questioning the overall feasibility of PDEs’ implementation as a sensing platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Exploiting Chemistry to Improve Performance of Screen-Printed, Bismuth Film Electrodes (SP-BiFE)
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6030038
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mercury substitution is a big issue in electroanalysis, and the search for a suitable, and less toxic, replacement is still under development. Of all the proposed alternatives, bismuth films appear to be the most viable solution, although they are still suffering some drawbacks,
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Mercury substitution is a big issue in electroanalysis, and the search for a suitable, and less toxic, replacement is still under development. Of all the proposed alternatives, bismuth films appear to be the most viable solution, although they are still suffering some drawbacks, particularly the influence of deposition conditions and linearity at low concentrations. In this paper, the most promising strategies for bismuth film deposition on screen-printed electrodes (surface modifications, polymeric film deposition, insoluble salt precursors) will be evaluated for trace metal analysis. Particular attention will be devoted to bismuth chemistry, aiming to rationalize their electroanalytic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6030036
Received: 22 May 2016 / Revised: 1 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 18 July 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates
[...] Read more.
Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Impedimetric Label-Free Immunosensor on Disposable Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes for Ochratoxin A
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6030033
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 23 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An impedimetric label-free immunosensor on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) for quantitative determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been developed. After modification of the SPCE surface with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anti-OTA was immobilized on the working electrode through a cysteamine layer. After
[...] Read more.
An impedimetric label-free immunosensor on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) for quantitative determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been developed. After modification of the SPCE surface with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anti-OTA was immobilized on the working electrode through a cysteamine layer. After each coating step, the modified surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The capacitance was chosen as the best parameter that describes the reproducible change in electrical properties of the electrode surface at different OTA concentrations and it was used to investigate the analytical parameters of the developed immunosensor. Under optimized conditions, the immunosensor showed a linear relationship between 0.3 and 20 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL, making it suitable to control OTA content in many common food products. Lastly, the immunosensor was used to measure OTA in red wine samples and the results were compared with those registered with a competitive ELISA kit. The immunosensor was sensitive to OTA lower than 2 μg/kg, which represents the lower acceptable limit of OTA established by European legislation for common food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6030031
Received: 18 March 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 12 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted
[...] Read more.
A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Improved Manufacturing Performance of Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes through Material Formulation
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6030030
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 4 June 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 27 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Printed carbon graphite materials are the primary common component in the majority of screen printed sensors. Screen printing allows a scalable manufacturing solution, accelerating the means by which novel sensing materials can make the transition from laboratory material to commercial product. A common
[...] Read more.
Printed carbon graphite materials are the primary common component in the majority of screen printed sensors. Screen printing allows a scalable manufacturing solution, accelerating the means by which novel sensing materials can make the transition from laboratory material to commercial product. A common bottleneck in any thick film printing process is the controlled drying of the carbon paste material. A study has been undertaken which examines the interaction between material solvent, printed film conductivity and process consistency. The study illustrates that it is possible to reduce the solvent boiling point to significantly increase process productivity while maintaining process consistency. The lower boiling point solvent also has a beneficial effect on the conductivity of the film, reducing the sheet resistance. It is proposed that this is a result of greater film stressing increasing charge percolation through greater inter particle contact. Simulations of material performance and drying illustrate that a multi layered printing provides a more time efficient manufacturing method. The findings have implications for the volume manufacturing of the carbon sensor electrodes but also have implications for other applications where conductive carbon is used, such as electrical circuits and photovoltaic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes and Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Biosensing with Paper-Based Miniaturized Printed Electrodes–A Modern Trend
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6040051
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
From the bench-mark work on microfluidics from the Whitesides’s group in 2007, paper technology has experienced significant growth, particularly regarding applications in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. Besides the structural properties supporting microfluidics, other advantageous features of paper materials, including their versatility, disposability
[...] Read more.
From the bench-mark work on microfluidics from the Whitesides’s group in 2007, paper technology has experienced significant growth, particularly regarding applications in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. Besides the structural properties supporting microfluidics, other advantageous features of paper materials, including their versatility, disposability and low cost, show off the great potential for the development of advanced and eco-friendly analytical tools. Consequently, paper was quickly employed in the field of electrochemical sensors, being an ideal material for producing custom, tailored and miniaturized devices. Stencil-, inkjet-, or screen-printing are the preferential techniques for electrode manufacturing. Not surprisingly, we witnessed a rapid increase in the number of publications on paper based screen-printed sensors at the turn of the past decade. Among the sensing strategies, various biosensors, coupling electrochemical detectors with biomolecules, have been proposed. This work provides a critical review and a discussion on the future progress of paper technology in the context of miniaturized printed electrochemical biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes and Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in the Fabrication and Application of Screen-Printed Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors Based on Carbon Materials for Biomedical, Agri-Food and Environmental Analyses
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6040050
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review describes recent advances in the fabrication of electrochemical (bio)sensors based on screen-printing technology involving carbon materials and their application in biomedical, agri-food and environmental analyses. It will focus on the various strategies employed in the fabrication of screen-printed (bio)sensors, together with
[...] Read more.
This review describes recent advances in the fabrication of electrochemical (bio)sensors based on screen-printing technology involving carbon materials and their application in biomedical, agri-food and environmental analyses. It will focus on the various strategies employed in the fabrication of screen-printed (bio)sensors, together with their performance characteristics; the application of these devices for the measurement of selected naturally occurring biomolecules, environmental pollutants and toxins will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes and Sensors)
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