Topical Collection "Feature Papers in Enzymology"

A topical collection in Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This collection belongs to the section "Enzymology".

Editor

Prof. Dr. Umesh R. Desai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
2. Drug Discovery and Development, Institute for Structural Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219, USA
Interests: drug discovery; chemical biology; biological macromolecules; glycosaminoglycans; coagulation factors; cancer; viral infection; bio-mimetic design; enzyme mechanisms; computational biology; high throughput screening

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topical Collection entitled “Feature Papers in Enzymology” aims to collect high-quality research articles, review articles, and communications on all aspects of enzymology. It is dedicated to recent advances in the broad research area of enzymology; is inclusive of papers focused on stucture, function, and properties of enzymes as well as catalytic and inhibition mechanisms of enzymes, mechanisms of drug action, and related advances on enzymes. The collection will highlight advances in all types of enzymes including hydrolases, oxidoreductases, lyases, transferases, ligases, and isomerases. Research related to cofactors (prosthetic groups, coenzymes and metal ions) will also be of interest to the collection. It will be comprised of a selection of exclusive papers from the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of the Enzymology Section, as well as invited papers from relevant experts. We also welcome senior experts in the field to make contributions to this Topical Collection. We aim to represent our section as an attractive open-access publishing platform for the enzymology research field.

Prof. Dr. Umesh R. Desai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Structure and Function
  • Enzyme catalysis
  • Enzyme inhibition
  • Enzyme mechanisms
  • Computational enzymology
  • Biophysical characterization
  • Structure determination
  • Drug action
  • Biochemical mechanisms
  • Molecular forces
  • Allosterism
  • Orthosterism

Published Papers (13 papers)

2021

Review
Regulation of the Immune Checkpoint Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Expression by Epstein–Barr Virus
Biomolecules 2021, 11(12), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11121792 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is an oncovirus ubiquitously distributed and associated with different types of cancer. The reason why only a group of infected people develop cancer is still unknown. EBV-associated cancers represent about 1.8% of all cancer deaths worldwide, with more than 150,000 [...] Read more.
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is an oncovirus ubiquitously distributed and associated with different types of cancer. The reason why only a group of infected people develop cancer is still unknown. EBV-associated cancers represent about 1.8% of all cancer deaths worldwide, with more than 150,000 new cases of cancer being reported annually. Since EBV-associated cancers are described as more aggressive and more resistant to the usual treatment compared to EBV-negative ones, the recent introduction of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting immune checkpoints (ICs) in the treatment of cancer patients represents a possible therapy for EBV-associated diseases. However, the current mAb therapies available still need improvement, since a group of patients do not respond well to treatment. Therefore, the main objective of this review is to summarize the progress made regarding the contribution of EBV infection to the expression of the IC indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) thus far. This IC has the potential to be used as a target in new immune therapies, such as mAbs. We hope that this work helps the development of future immunotherapies, improving the prognosis of EBV-associated cancer patients. Full article
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Article
Novel Bi-Modular GH19 Chitinase with Broad pH Stability from a Fibrolytic Intestinal Symbiont of Eisenia fetida, Cellulosimicrobium funkei HY-13
Biomolecules 2021, 11(11), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11111735 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Endo-type chitinase is the principal enzyme involved in the breakdown of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-based oligomeric and polymeric materials through hydrolysis. The gene (966-bp) encoding a novel endo-type chitinase (ChiJ), which is comprised of an N-terminal chitin-binding domain type 3 and a C-terminal [...] Read more.
Endo-type chitinase is the principal enzyme involved in the breakdown of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-based oligomeric and polymeric materials through hydrolysis. The gene (966-bp) encoding a novel endo-type chitinase (ChiJ), which is comprised of an N-terminal chitin-binding domain type 3 and a C-terminal catalytic glycoside hydrolase family 19 domain, was identified from a fibrolytic intestinal symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Cellulosimicrobium funkei HY-13. The highest endochitinase activity of the recombinant enzyme (rChiJ: 30.0 kDa) toward colloidal shrimp shell chitin was found at pH 5.5 and 55 °C and was considerably stable in a wide pH range (3.5–11.0). The enzyme exhibited the highest biocatalytic activity (338.8 U/mg) toward ethylene glycol chitin, preferentially degrading chitin polymers in the following order: ethylene glycol chitin > colloidal shrimp shell chitin > colloidal crab shell chitin. The enzymatic hydrolysis of N-acetyl-β-d-chitooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization from two to six and colloidal shrimp shell chitin yielded primarily N,N-diacetyl-β-d-chitobiose together with a small amount of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. The high chitin-degrading ability of inverting rChiJ with broad pH stability suggests that it can be exploited as a suitable biocatalyst for the preparation of N,N-diacetyl-β-d-chitobiose, which has been shown to alleviate metabolic dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Article
Kinetic Analysis of the Interaction of Nicking Endonuclease BspD6I with DNA
Biomolecules 2021, 11(10), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11101420 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Nicking endonucleases (NEs) are enzymes that incise only one strand of the duplex to produce a DNA molecule that is ‘nicked’ rather than cleaved in two. Since these precision tools are used in genetic engineering and genome editing, information about their mechanism of [...] Read more.
Nicking endonucleases (NEs) are enzymes that incise only one strand of the duplex to produce a DNA molecule that is ‘nicked’ rather than cleaved in two. Since these precision tools are used in genetic engineering and genome editing, information about their mechanism of action at all stages of DNA recognition and phosphodiester bond hydrolysis is essential. For the first time, fast kinetics of the Nt.BspD6I interaction with DNA were studied by the stopped-flow technique, and changes of optical characteristics were registered for the enzyme or DNA molecules. The role of divalent metal cations was estimated at all steps of Nt.BspD6I–DNA complex formation. It was demonstrated that divalent metal ions are not required for the formation of a non-specific complex of the protein with DNA. Nt.BspD6I bound five-fold more efficiently to its recognition site in DNA than to a random DNA. DNA bending was confirmed during the specific binding of Nt.BspD6I to a substrate. The optimal size of Nt.BspD6I’s binding site in DNA as determined in this work should be taken into account in methods of detection of nucleic acid sequences and/or even various base modifications by means of NEs. Full article
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Review
Amylomaltases in Extremophilic Microorganisms
Biomolecules 2021, 11(9), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11091335 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
Amylomaltases (4-α-glucanotransferases, E.C. 2.4.1.25) are enzymes which can perform a double-step catalytic process, resulting in a transglycosylation reaction. They hydrolyse glucosidic bonds of α-1,4′-d-glucans and transfer the glucan portion with the newly available anomeric carbon to the 4′-position of an α-1,4′- [...] Read more.
Amylomaltases (4-α-glucanotransferases, E.C. 2.4.1.25) are enzymes which can perform a double-step catalytic process, resulting in a transglycosylation reaction. They hydrolyse glucosidic bonds of α-1,4′-d-glucans and transfer the glucan portion with the newly available anomeric carbon to the 4′-position of an α-1,4′-d-glucan acceptor. The intramolecular reaction produces a cyclic α-1,4′-glucan. Amylomaltases can be found only in prokaryotes, where they are involved in glycogen degradation and maltose metabolism. These enzymes are being studied for possible biotechnological applications, such as the production of (i) sugar substitutes; (ii) cycloamyloses (molecules larger than cyclodextrins), which could potentially be useful as carriers and encapsulating agents for hydrophobic molecules and also as effective protein chaperons; and (iii) thermoreversible starch gels, which could be used as non-animal gelatin substitutes. Extremophilic prokaryotes have been investigated for the identification of amylomaltases to be used in the starch modifying processes, which require high temperatures or extreme conditions. The aim of this article is to present an updated overview of studies on amylomaltases from extremophilic Bacteria and Archaea, including data about their distribution, activity, potential industrial application and structure. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Lung Proteases on Snake-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides
Biomolecules 2021, 11(8), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081106 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Respiratory infections are a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality and are of significant concern for individuals with chronic inflammatory lung diseases. There is an urgent need for novel antimicrobials. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring innate immune response peptides with therapeutic [...] Read more.
Respiratory infections are a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality and are of significant concern for individuals with chronic inflammatory lung diseases. There is an urgent need for novel antimicrobials. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring innate immune response peptides with therapeutic potential. However, therapeutic development has been hindered by issues with stability and cytotoxicity. Availing of direct drug delivery to the affected site, for example the lung, can reduce unwanted systemic side effects and lower the required dose. As cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lungs typically exhibit elevated protease levels, the aim of this study was to assess their impact on snake-derived AMPs. Peptide cleavage was determined using SDS-PAGE and antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of neutrophil elastase (NE)-incubated peptides were assessed using a radial diffusion assay (RDA) and an in vitro LPS-induced inflammation model, respectively. Although the snake-derived AMPs were found to be susceptible to cleavage by lung proteases including NE, several retained their function following NE-incubation. This facilitated the design of novel truncated derivatives that retained functionality following NE incubation. Snake-derived AMPs are tractable candidate treatments for use in environments that feature elevated NE levels, such as the CF airways. Full article
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Article
Novel Anti-Fungal d-Laminaripentaose-Releasing Endo-β-1,3-glucanase with a RICIN-like Domain from Cellulosimicrobium funkei HY-13
Biomolecules 2021, 11(8), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081080 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
Endo-β-1,3-glucanase plays an essential role in the deconstruction of β-1,3-d-glucan polysaccharides through hydrolysis. The gene (1650-bp) encoding a novel, bi-modular glycoside hydrolase family 64 (GH64) endo-β-1,3-glucanase (GluY) with a ricin-type β-trefoil lectin domain (RICIN)-like domain from Cellulosimicrobium funkei HY-13 was identified [...] Read more.
Endo-β-1,3-glucanase plays an essential role in the deconstruction of β-1,3-d-glucan polysaccharides through hydrolysis. The gene (1650-bp) encoding a novel, bi-modular glycoside hydrolase family 64 (GH64) endo-β-1,3-glucanase (GluY) with a ricin-type β-trefoil lectin domain (RICIN)-like domain from Cellulosimicrobium funkei HY-13 was identified and biocatalytically characterized. The recombinant enzyme (rGluY: 57.5 kDa) displayed the highest degradation activity for laminarin at pH 4.5 and 40 °C, while the polysaccharide was maximally decomposed by its C-terminal truncated mutant enzyme (rGluYΔRICIN: 42.0 kDa) at pH 5.5 and 45 °C. The specific activity (26.0 U/mg) of rGluY for laminarin was 2.6-fold higher than that (9.8 U/mg) of rGluYΔRICIN for the same polysaccharide. Moreover, deleting the C-terminal RICIN domain in the intact enzyme caused a significant decrease (>60%) of its ability to degrade β-1,3-d-glucans such as pachyman and curdlan. Biocatalytic degradation of β-1,3-d-glucans by inverting rGluY yielded predominantly d-laminaripentaose. rGluY exhibited stronger growth inhibition against Candida albicans in a dose-dependent manner than rGluYΔRICIN. The degree of growth inhibition of C. albicans by rGluY (approximately 1.8 μM) was approximately 80% of the fungal growth. The superior anti-fungal activity of rGluY suggests that it can potentially be exploited as a supplementary agent in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
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Review
Neutrophil Elastase and Chronic Lung Disease
Biomolecules 2021, 11(8), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081065 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a major inflammatory protease released by neutrophils and is present in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, non-CF bronchiectasis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Although NE facilitates leukocyte transmigration to the site of infection and [...] Read more.
Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a major inflammatory protease released by neutrophils and is present in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, non-CF bronchiectasis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Although NE facilitates leukocyte transmigration to the site of infection and is required for clearance of Gram-negative bacteria, it also activates inflammation when released into the airway milieu in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. NE exposure induces airway remodeling with increased mucin expression and secretion and impaired ciliary motility. NE interrupts epithelial repair by promoting cellular apoptosis and senescence and it activates inflammation directly by increasing cytokine expression and release, and indirectly by triggering extracellular trap release and exosome release, which magnify protease activity and inflammation in the airway. NE inhibits innate immune function by digesting opsonins and opsonin receptors, degrading innate immune proteins such as lactoferrin, and inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis. Importantly, NE-directed therapies have not yet been effective in preventing the pathologic sequelae of NE exposure, but new therapies are being developed that offer both direct antiprotease activity and multifunctional anti-inflammatory properties. Full article
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Article
Credentialing and Pharmacologically Targeting PTP4A3 Phosphatase as a Molecular Target for Ovarian Cancer
Biomolecules 2021, 11(7), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11070969 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
High grade serous ovarian cancer (OvCa) frequently becomes drug resistant and often recurs. Consequently, new drug targets and therapies are needed. Bioinformatics-based studies uncovered a relationship between high Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver-3 (PRL3 also known as PTP4A3) expression and poor patient [...] Read more.
High grade serous ovarian cancer (OvCa) frequently becomes drug resistant and often recurs. Consequently, new drug targets and therapies are needed. Bioinformatics-based studies uncovered a relationship between high Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver-3 (PRL3 also known as PTP4A3) expression and poor patient survival in both early and late stage OvCa. PTP4A3 mRNA levels were 5–20 fold higher in drug resistant or high grade serous OvCa cell lines compared to nonmalignant cells. JMS-053 is a potent allosteric small molecule PTP4A3 inhibitor and to explore further the role of PTP4A3 in OvCa, we synthesized and interrogated a series of JMS-053-based analogs in OvCa cell line-based phenotypic assays. While the JMS-053 analogs inhibit in vitro PTP4A3 enzyme activity, none were superior to JMS-053 in reducing high grade serous OvCa cell survival. Because PTP4A3 controls cell migration, we interrogated the effect of JMS-053 on this cancer-relevant process. Both JMS-053 and CRISPR/Cas9 PTP4A3 depletion blocked cell migration. The inhibition caused by JMS-053 required the presence of PTP4A3. JMS-053 caused additive or synergistic in vitro cytotoxicity when combined with paclitaxel and reduced in vivo OvCa dissemination. These results indicate the importance of PTP4A3 in OvCa and support further investigations of the lead inhibitor, JMS-053. Full article
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Article
A Pan-Inhibitor for Protein Arginine Methyltransferase Family Enzymes
Biomolecules 2021, 11(6), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11060854 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) play important roles in transcription, splicing, DNA damage repair, RNA biology, and cellular metabolism. Thus, PRMTs have been attractive targets for various diseases. In this study, we reported the design and synthesis of a potent pan-inhibitor for PRMTs that [...] Read more.
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) play important roles in transcription, splicing, DNA damage repair, RNA biology, and cellular metabolism. Thus, PRMTs have been attractive targets for various diseases. In this study, we reported the design and synthesis of a potent pan-inhibitor for PRMTs that tethers a thioadenosine and various substituted guanidino groups through a propyl linker. Compound II757 exhibits a half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) value of 5 to 555 nM for eight tested PRMTs, with the highest inhibition for PRMT4 (IC50 = 5 nM). The kinetic study demonstrated that II757 competitively binds at the SAM binding site of PRMT1. Notably, II757 is selective for PRMTs over a panel of other methyltransferases, which can serve as a general probe for PRMTs and a lead for further optimization to increase the selectivity for individual PRMT. Full article
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Article
Identification and Characterization of a Novel, Cold-Adapted d-Xylobiose- and d-Xylose-Releasing Endo-β-1,4-Xylanase from an Antarctic Soil Bacterium, Duganella sp. PAMC 27433
Biomolecules 2021, 11(5), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050680 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Endo-β-1,4-xylanase is a key enzyme in the degradation of β-1,4-d-xylan polysaccharides through hydrolysis. A glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) endo-β-1,4-xylanase (XylR) from Duganella sp. PAMC 27433, an Antarctic soil bacterium, was identified and functionally characterized. The XylR gene (1122-bp) encoded an [...] Read more.
Endo-β-1,4-xylanase is a key enzyme in the degradation of β-1,4-d-xylan polysaccharides through hydrolysis. A glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) endo-β-1,4-xylanase (XylR) from Duganella sp. PAMC 27433, an Antarctic soil bacterium, was identified and functionally characterized. The XylR gene (1122-bp) encoded an acidic protein containing a single catalytic GH10 domain that was 86% identical to that of an uncultured bacterium BLR13 endo-β-1,4-xylanase (ACN58881). The recombinant enzyme (rXylR: 42.0 kDa) showed the highest beechwood xylan-degrading activity at pH 5.5 and 40 °C, and displayed 12% of its maximum activity even at 4 °C. rXylR was not only almost completely inhibited by 5 mM N-bromosuccinimide or metal ions (each 1 mM) including Hg2+, Ca2+, or Cu2+ but also significantly suppressed by 1 mM Ni2+, Zn2+, or Fe2+. However, its enzyme activity was upregulated (>1.4-fold) in the presence of 0.5% Triton X-100 or Tween 80. The specific activities of rXylR toward beechwood xylan, birchwood xylan, oat spelts xylan, and p-nitrophenyl-β-d-cellobioside were 274.7, 103.2, 35.6, and 365.1 U/mg, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of birchwood xylan and d-xylooligosaccharides yielded d-xylose and d-xylobiose as the end products. The results of the present study suggest that rXylR is a novel cold-adapted d-xylobiose- and d-xylose-releasing endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Full article
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Article
Novel Chemically Modified Curcumin (CMC) Derivatives Inhibit Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Synthesis in B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells
Biomolecules 2021, 11(5), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050674 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Skin hyperpigmentation disorders arise due to excessive production of the macromolecular pigment melanin catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosinase. Recently, the therapeutic use of curcumin for inhibiting tyrosinase activity and production of melanin have been recognized, but poor stability and solubility have limited its [...] Read more.
Skin hyperpigmentation disorders arise due to excessive production of the macromolecular pigment melanin catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosinase. Recently, the therapeutic use of curcumin for inhibiting tyrosinase activity and production of melanin have been recognized, but poor stability and solubility have limited its use, which has inspired synthesis of curcumin analogs. Here, we investigated four novel chemically modified curcumin (CMC) derivatives (CMC2.14, CMC2.5, CMC2.23 and CMC2.24) and compared them to the parent compound curcumin (PC) for inhibition of in vitro tyrosinase activity using two substrates for monophenolase and diphenolase activities of the enzyme and for diminution of cellular melanogenesis. Enzyme kinetics were analyzed using Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots and nonlinear curve-fitting to determine the mechanism for tyrosinase inhibition. Copper chelating activity, using pyrocatechol violet dye indicator assay, and antioxidant activity, using a DPPH radical scavenging assay, were also conducted. Next, the capacity of these derivatives to inhibit tyrosinase-catalyzed melanogenesis was studied in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and the mechanisms of inhibition were elucidated. Inhibition mechanisms were studied by measuring intracellular tyrosinase activity, cell-free and intracellular α-glucosidase enzyme activity, and effects on MITF protein level and cAMP maturation factor. Our results showed that CMC2.24 showed the greatest efficacy as a tyrosinase inhibitor of all the CMCs and was better than PC as well as a popular tyrosinase inhibitor-kojic acid. Both CMC2.24 and CMC2.23 inhibited tyrosinase enzyme activity by a mixed mode of inhibition with a predominant competitive mode. In addition, CMC2.24 as well as CMC2.23 showed a comparable robust efficacy in inhibiting melanogenesis in cultured melanocytes. Furthermore, after removal of CMC2.24 or CMC2.23 from the medium, we could demonstrate a partial recovery of the suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity in the melanocytes. Our results provide a proof-of-principle for the novel use of the CMCs that shows them to be far superior to the parent compound, curcumin, for skin depigmentation. Full article
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Article
Conformational Plasticity-Rigidity Axis of the Coagulation Factor VII Zymogen Elucidated by Atomistic Simulations of the N-Terminally Truncated Factor VIIa Protease Domain
Biomolecules 2021, 11(4), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040549 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
The vast majority of coagulation factor VII (FVII), a trypsin-like protease, circulates as the inactive zymogen. Activated FVII (FVIIa) is formed upon proteolytic activation of FVII, where it remains in a zymogen-like state and it is fully activated only when bound to tissue [...] Read more.
The vast majority of coagulation factor VII (FVII), a trypsin-like protease, circulates as the inactive zymogen. Activated FVII (FVIIa) is formed upon proteolytic activation of FVII, where it remains in a zymogen-like state and it is fully activated only when bound to tissue factor (TF). The catalytic domains of trypsin-like proteases adopt strikingly similar structures in their fully active forms. However, the dynamics and structures of the available corresponding zymogens reveal remarkable conformational plasticity of the protease domain prior to activation in many cases. Exactly how ligands and cofactors modulate the conformational dynamics and function of these proteases is not entirely understood. Here, we employ atomistic simulations of FVIIa (and variants hereof, including a TF-independent variant and N-terminally truncated variants) to provide fundamental insights with atomistic resolution into the plasticity-rigidity interplay of the protease domain conformations that appears to govern the functional response to proteolytic and allosteric activation. We argue that these findings are relevant to the FVII zymogen, whose structure has remained elusive despite substantial efforts. Our results shed light on the nature of FVII and demonstrate how conformational dynamics has played a crucial role in the evolutionary adaptation of regulatory mechanisms that were not present in the ancestral trypsin. Exploiting this knowledge could lead to engineering of protease variants for use as next-generation hemostatic therapeutics. Full article
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Article
Substrate-Dependent Sensitivity of SIRT1 to Nicotinamide Inhibition
Biomolecules 2021, 11(2), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020312 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1280
Abstract
SIRT1 is the most extensively studied human sirtuin with a broad spectrum of endogenous targets. It has been implicated in the regulation of a myriad of cellular events, such as gene transcription, mitochondria biogenesis, insulin secretion as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. [...] Read more.
SIRT1 is the most extensively studied human sirtuin with a broad spectrum of endogenous targets. It has been implicated in the regulation of a myriad of cellular events, such as gene transcription, mitochondria biogenesis, insulin secretion as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. From a mechanistic perspective, nicotinamide (NAM), a byproduct of a sirtuin-catalyzed reaction, reverses a reaction intermediate to regenerate NAD+ through “base exchange”, leading to the inhibition of the forward deacetylation. NAM has been suggested as a universal sirtuin negative regulator. Sirtuins have evolved different strategies in response to NAM regulation. Here, we report the detailed kinetic analysis of SIRT1-catalyzed reactions using endogenous substrate-based synthetic peptides. A novel substrate-dependent sensitivity of SIRT1 to NAM inhibition was observed. Additionally, SIRT1 demonstrated pH-dependent deacetylation with normal solvent isotope effects (SIEs), consistent with proton transfer in the rate-limiting step. Base exchange, in contrast, was insensitive to pH changes with no apparent SIEs, indicative of lack of proton transfer in the rate-limiting step. Consequently, NAM inhibition was attenuated at a high pH in proteated buffers. Our study provides new evidence for “activation by de-repression” as an effective sirtuin activation strategy. Full article
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