Special Issue "Plant-Based Biomolecules—Potential Effects on Degenerative Diseases"

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Bio-inspired Molecules".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Carmen Socaciu
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Calea Mănăştur 3-5, 400372, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: food chemistry; infrared spectroscopy; food biochemistry; food science; plant physiology; antioxidants; polyphenols; anthocyanins; high pressure liquid chromatography
Dr. Zorita Diaconeasa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Calea Mănăştur 3-5, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: phenolic compounds; anthocyanins; melanoma; chromatography; food chemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, a wide number studies are focused on finding methods for degenerative disease prevention. It is generally accepted that due to their high content in phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, fruits and vegetables from a daily diet are preventing a vast array of human diseases, including cancers and diabetes. Incontrovertible evidence regarding various health benefits from including polyphenols in human diet has been presented by many researchers in studies made in the last decade. Currently, the potential health benefits of these molecules are strongly related to their powerful antioxidant activity. Latter studies involving plant biomolecules-based extracts carried in vitro, and in vivo, together with epidemiological studies, have accounted for these pigments’ potentially anticarcinogenic properties.

This Special Issue of Biomolecules entitled “Plant-Based Biomolecules—Potential Effects on Degenerative Diseases” welcomes original research and reviews with a particular focus on the extraction and phytochemical characterization of plant biomolecules, including polyphenols, flavonoids, or anthocyanidins, and their potential use as prevention vectors for degenerative diseases, including cancer or diabetes.

Prof. Dr. Carmen Socaciu
Dr. Zorita Diaconeasa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • bioactive compounds
  • degenerative diseases
  • health benefits
  • phytochemistry
  • plant pigments
  • prevention

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Association Between Dietary Flavonoids Intake and Cognitive Function in an Italian Cohort
Biomolecules 2020, 10(9), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091300 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
Background: Diet is one of the leading factors contributing to the prevalence of non-communicable diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Dietary polyphenols, antioxidant components and anti-inflammatory agents of plant-based foods rich diets have been shown to modulate neuro-inflammation, adult neurogenesis and brain signaling, all of [...] Read more.
Background: Diet is one of the leading factors contributing to the prevalence of non-communicable diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Dietary polyphenols, antioxidant components and anti-inflammatory agents of plant-based foods rich diets have been shown to modulate neuro-inflammation, adult neurogenesis and brain signaling, all of which are linked to cognitive function. As epidemiological evidence is limited and the results are contradictory, the aim of this study is to explore the association between dietary flavonoid intake and cognitive health among the adult population living in the Mediterranean area. Methods: The demographic and dietary habits of 808 adults living in southern Italy were analyzed. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used to assess dietary intake. Data on the polyphenol content in foods were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. The Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire was used as a screening tool for cognitive status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations. Results: A significant inverse association between higher dietary intake of total flavonoids (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.15, 1.00) and impaired cognitive status was found. Among individual subclasses of flavonoids, flavan-3-ols (Q3 vs. Q1: OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.76), catechins (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.72), anthocyanins (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14, 1.00) and flavonols (Q3 vs. Q1: OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.76) were associated with cognitive health. Among individual polyphenols, only quercetin was associated with cognitive health (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.91). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that higher dietary intake of flavonoids may be associated with better cognitive health among adult individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Biomolecules—Potential Effects on Degenerative Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Natural Polymeric Compound Based on High Thermal Stability Catechin from Green Tea
Biomolecules 2020, 10(8), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10081191 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 676
Abstract
Catechin is a plant polyphenol with valuable antioxidant and health-promoting properties. Polymerization is one way to stabilize flavonoids and may cause changes in their specific properties. The aim of this study is to obtain a polymeric complex catechin compound with high thermal stability. [...] Read more.
Catechin is a plant polyphenol with valuable antioxidant and health-promoting properties. Polymerization is one way to stabilize flavonoids and may cause changes in their specific properties. The aim of this study is to obtain a polymeric complex catechin compound with high thermal stability. As a result of polymerization, a condensed and cross-linked catechin structure was obtained, which guaranteed high thermal resistance and, moreover, the phosphorus groups added in the second step of polymerization ensured that the compound obtained had thermal stability higher than natural condensed tannins. The first step of self-polymerization of (+)-catechin may be an easy way to obtain proanthocyanidins with greater antioxidant activity. The second step of the polymerization obtained a polymeric complex catechin compound that showed better thermal stability than catechin. This compound can potentially be used as a new pro-ecological thermal stabilizer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Biomolecules—Potential Effects on Degenerative Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Affecting the Retention Efficiency and Physicochemical Properties of Spray Dried Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Lippia sidoides Essential Oil
Biomolecules 2020, 10(5), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10050693 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are widely used in various industrial sectors but can present several instability problems when exposed to environmental factors. Encapsulation technologies are effective solutions to improve EOs properties and stability. Currently, the encapsulation in lipid nanoparticles has received significant attention, due [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are widely used in various industrial sectors but can present several instability problems when exposed to environmental factors. Encapsulation technologies are effective solutions to improve EOs properties and stability. Currently, the encapsulation in lipid nanoparticles has received significant attention, due to the several recognized advantages over conventional systems. The study aimed to investigate the influence of the lipid matrix composition and spray-drying process on the physicochemical properties of the lipid-based nanoparticles loaded with Lippia sidoides EO and their retention efficiency for the oil. The obtained spray-dried products were characterized by determination of flow properties (Carr Index: from 25.0% to 47.93%, and Hausner ratio: from 1.25 to 1.38), moisture (from 3.78% to 5.20%), water activity (<0.5), and powder morphology. Zeta potential, mean particle size and polydispersity index, of the redispersed dried product, fell between −25.9 mV and −30.9 mV, 525.3 nm and 1143 nm, and 0.425 and 0.652, respectively; showing slight differences with the results obtained prior to spray-drying (from −16.4 mV to −31.6 mV; 147 nm to 1531 nm; and 0.459 to 0.729). Thymol retention in the dried products was significantly lower than the values determined for the liquid formulations and was affected by the drying of nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Biomolecules—Potential Effects on Degenerative Diseases)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Secondary Metabolites from Plants Possessing Inhibitory Properties against Beta-Amyloid Aggregation as Revealed by Thioflavin-T Assay and Correlations with Investigations on Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer’s Disease
Biomolecules 2020, 10(6), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10060870 - 06 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder for which there is a continuous search of drugs able to reduce or stop the cognitive decline. Beta-amyloid peptides are composed of 40 and 42 amino acids and are considered a major cause of neuronal toxicity. They [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder for which there is a continuous search of drugs able to reduce or stop the cognitive decline. Beta-amyloid peptides are composed of 40 and 42 amino acids and are considered a major cause of neuronal toxicity. They are prone to aggregation, yielding oligomers and fibrils through the inter-molecular binding between the amino acid sequences (17–42) of multiple amyloid-beta molecules. Additionally, amyloid deposition causes cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The present study aims to identify, in the existing literature, natural plant derived products possessing inhibitory properties against aggregation. The studies searched proved the anti-aggregating effects by the thioflavin T assay and through behavioral, biochemical, and histological analysis carried out upon administration of natural chemical compounds to transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. According to our present study results, fifteen secondary metabolites from plants were identified which presented both evidence coming from the thioflavin T assay and transgenic mouse models developing Alzheimer’s disease and six additional metabolites were mentioned due to their inhibitory effects against fibrillogenesis. Among them, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, luteolin, myricetin, and silibinin were proven to lower the aggregation to less than 40%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Biomolecules—Potential Effects on Degenerative Diseases)
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