Special Issue "Bone Formation: A Balanced Equilibrium between Osteoblastic and Osteoclastic Activities"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2021) | Viewed by 6456

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Nadia Lampiasi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council, Institute for Research and BioMedical Innovation “IRIB”, Via U. La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy
Interests: inflammation and innate immunity; macrophages polarization; osteoimmunology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

It is well-known that bone formation is a multifactorial process that originates from an equilibrium between factors promoting or inhibiting osteogenesis. Elucidating the biologic pathways involved and their depletion is important in understanding bone physiology and predicting potential therapeutic targets to modulate bone loss.

Dr. Nadia Lampiasi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • osteogenesis
  • osteoblasts
  • osteoclasts
  • bone physiology
  • bone loss
  • osteoporosis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
MiRNAs Expression Profiling in Raw264.7 Macrophages after Nfatc1-Knockdown Elucidates Potential Pathways Involved in Osteoclasts Differentiation
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111080 - 22 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Differentiation of macrophages toward osteoclasts is crucial for bone homeostasis but can be detrimental in disease states, including osteoporosis and cancer. Therefore, understanding the osteoclast differentiation process and the underlying regulatory mechanisms may facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets. Hereby, we tried [...] Read more.
Differentiation of macrophages toward osteoclasts is crucial for bone homeostasis but can be detrimental in disease states, including osteoporosis and cancer. Therefore, understanding the osteoclast differentiation process and the underlying regulatory mechanisms may facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets. Hereby, we tried to reveal new miRNAs potentially involved in the regulation of early steps of osteoclastogenesis, with a particular focus on those possibly correlated with NFATc1 expression, by studying miRNAs profiling. During the first 24 h of osteoclastogenesis, 38 miRNAs were differentially expressed between undifferentiated and RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, while 10 miRNAs were differentially expressed between RANKL-stimulated cells transfected with negative control or NFATc1-siRNAs. Among others, the expression levels of miR-411, miR-144 and members of miR-29, miR-30, and miR-23 families changed after RANKL stimulation. Moreover, the potential role of miR-124 during osteoclastogenesis was explored by transient cell transfection with anti-miR-124 or miR-124-mimic. Two relatively unknown miRNAs, miR-880-3p and miR-295-3p, were differentially expressed between RANKL-stimulated/wild-type and RANKL-stimulated/NFATc1-silenced cells, suggesting their possible correlation with NFATc1. KEGG enrichment analyses showed that kinase and phosphatase enzymes were among the predicted targets for many of the studied miRNAs. In conclusion, our study provides new data on the potential role and possible targets of new miRNAs during osteoclastogenesis. Full article
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Article
Acid Dentin Lysate Failed to Modulate Bone Formation in Rat Calvaria Defects
Biology 2021, 10(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10030196 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
Autogenous tooth roots are increasingly applied as a grafting material in alveolar bone augmentation. Since tooth roots undergo creeping substitution similar to bone grafts, it can be hypothesized that osteoclasts release the growth factors stored in the dentin thereby influencing bone formation. To [...] Read more.
Autogenous tooth roots are increasingly applied as a grafting material in alveolar bone augmentation. Since tooth roots undergo creeping substitution similar to bone grafts, it can be hypothesized that osteoclasts release the growth factors stored in the dentin thereby influencing bone formation. To test this hypothesis, collagen membranes were either soaked in acid dentin lysates (ADL) from extracted porcine teeth or serum–free medium followed by lyophilization. Thereafter, these membranes covered standardized 5-mm-diameter critical-size defects in calvarial bone on rats. After four weeks of healing, micro-computed tomography and histological analyses using undecalcified thin ground sections were performed. Micro-computed tomography of the inner 4.5 mm calvaria defects revealed a median bone defect coverage of 91% (CI: 87–95) in the ADL group and 94% (CI: 65–100) in the control group, without significant differences between the groups (intergroup p > 0.05). Furthermore, bone volume (BV) was similar between ADL group (5.7 mm3, CI: 3.4–7.1) and control group (5.7 mm3, CI: 2.9–9.7). Histomorphometry of the defect area confirmed these findings with bone area values amounting to 2.1 mm2 (CI: 1.2–2.6) in the ADL group and 2.0 mm2 (CI: 1.1–3.0) in the control group. Together, these data suggest that acid dentin lysate lyophilized onto collagen membranes failed to modulate the robust bone formation when placed onto calvarial defects. Full article
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Review

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Review
Use of PRP, PRF and CGF in Periodontal Regeneration and Facial Rejuvenation—A Narrative Review
Biology 2021, 10(4), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10040317 - 10 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3232
Abstract
Growth factors (GFs) play a vital role in cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and angiogenesis. Autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) which contain high levels of GFs make them especially suitable for periodontal regeneration and facial rejuvenation. The main generations of APCs presented are platelet-rich plasma [...] Read more.
Growth factors (GFs) play a vital role in cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and angiogenesis. Autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) which contain high levels of GFs make them especially suitable for periodontal regeneration and facial rejuvenation. The main generations of APCs presented are platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and concentrated growth factor (CGF) techniques. The purpose of this review is to provide the clinician with an overview of APCs’ evolution over the past decade in order to give reliable and useful information to be used in clinical work. This review summarizes the most interesting and novel articles published between 1997 and 2020. Electronic and manual searches were conducted in the following databases: Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Embase. The following keywords were used: growth factors, VEGF, TGF-b1, PRP, PRF, CGF and periodontal regeneration and/or facial rejuvenation. A total of 73 articles were finally included. The review then addresses the uses of the three different techniques in the two disciplines, as well as the advantages and limitations of each technique. Overall, PRP is mainly used in cases of hard and soft tissue procedures, while PRF is used in gingival recession and the treatment of furcation and intrabony defects; CGF is mainly used in bone regeneration. Full article
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Review
Effect of Tibolone on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Biology 2021, 10(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10030211 - 10 Mar 2021
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Abstract
Low bone mineral density (BMD) on postmenopausal women causes bone fragility and fracture risk. Tibolone seems to prevent bone loss. Therefore, this systematic review with meta-analysis synthesizes the tibolone effect on BMD percent change in lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total [...] Read more.
Low bone mineral density (BMD) on postmenopausal women causes bone fragility and fracture risk. Tibolone seems to prevent bone loss. Therefore, this systematic review with meta-analysis synthesizes the tibolone effect on BMD percent change in lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total hip (TH) in postmenopausal women. Controlled trials that provided tibolone evidence on the efficacy of tibolone in preventing loss of BMD were included. Regarding the included studies, a pooled mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) was estimated to determine the BMD percentage change. Eleven studies were identified and eight were included in the quantitative analysis. Tibolone at a dose of 2.5 mg increased BMD compared with non-active controls at 24 months in LS (MD 4.87%, 95%CI: 4.16–5.57, and MD 7.35%, 95%CI: 2.68–12.01); and FN (MD 4.85%, 95%CI: 1.55–8.15, and 4.21%, 95%CI: 2.99–5.42), with Hologic and Lunar scanners, respectively. No difference was observed when tibolone 2.5 mg dose was compared with estrogen therapy (ET) at 24 months, LS (MD −0.58%, 95%CI: −3.77–2.60), FN (MD −0.29%, 95%CI: −1.37–0.79), and TH (MD −0.12%, 95%CI: −2.28–2.53). Therefore, tibolone increases BMD in LS and FN compared to non-active controls, and there was no showed difference with ET. Full article
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