Special Issue "Extracellular Vesicles: Multifaceted Biological Nanoparticles in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 10565

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Meena Kumari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Interests: mRNA stability and alcohol addiction; exosomes and their role in differentiation and addiction to drugs of abuse

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cells release vesicles of different sizes throughout life until their death. The mode of vesicle genesis dictates their size, content, function, and perhaps clues to their identification. Multivesicular endosomes-originated vesicles named exosomes are the smallest (35-150 nm) extracellular vesicles known to date, making their purification somewhat challenging. Once purified, exosomes can be easily characterized due to their association with specific marker proteins, their appearance under transmission electron microscope, and density. Originally described as “vesicles filled with unwanted cellular proteins” for disposal out of the maturing reticulocytes, exosomes have now become an important entity in the intercellular communication field. Exosomes exert their influence on gene expression of cells internalizing them. Release of exosomes by parent cells and the ability of recipient cells to internalize exosomes is key to cell-cell communication. Internalized exosomes modulate physiology of recipient cells during all stages of life ranging from normal to senescence including a diseased state. Exosome unique cargo of proteins, lipids, metabolites, and nucleic acids offers opportunities to employ them for identification of biomarkers associated with normal physiology and importantly as promising diagnostic tools in clinical practice. Exosomes can be employed for targeted therapeutic treatments by loading them with appropriate proteins and nuclei acids to alter gene expression in defined recipient cells. Exosomes present endless prospects in life sciences.

Dr. Meena Kumari
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • extracellular vesicles and exosomes
  • isolation and characterization
  • biological activity in development, differentiation, health and disease
  • therapeutic applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Single Gene Mutations in Pkd1 or Tsc2 Alter Extracellular Vesicle Production and Trafficking
Biology 2022, 11(5), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050709 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are born with normal or near-normal kidneys that later develop cysts and prematurely lose function. Both renal cystic diseases appear to be mediated, at least in part, by disease-promoting extracellular [...] Read more.
Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are born with normal or near-normal kidneys that later develop cysts and prematurely lose function. Both renal cystic diseases appear to be mediated, at least in part, by disease-promoting extracellular vesicles (EVs) that induce genetically intact cells to participate in the renal disease process. We used centrifugation and size exclusion chromatography to isolate the EVs for study. We characterized the EVs using tunable resistive pulse sensing, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis. We performed EV trafficking studies using a dye approach in both tissue culture and in vivo studies. We have previously reported that loss of the Tsc2 gene significantly increased EV production and here demonstrate that the loss of the Pkd1 gene also significantly increases EV production. Using a cell culture system, we also show that loss of either the Tsc2 or Pkd1 gene results in EVs that exhibit an enhanced uptake by renal epithelial cells and a prolonged half-life. Loss of the primary cilia significantly reduces EV production in renal collecting duct cells. Cells that have a disrupted Pkd1 gene produce EVs that have altered kinetics and a prolonged half-life, possibly impacting the duration of the EV cargo effect on the recipient cell. These results demonstrate the interplay between primary cilia and EVs and support a role for EVs in polycystic kidney disease pathogenesis. Full article
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Article
Neuron-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Modulate Microglia Activation and Function
Biology 2021, 10(10), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10100948 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Microglia act as the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). They play an important role in maintaining brain homeostasis but also in mediating neuroimmune responses to insult. The interactions between neurons and microglia represent a key process for neuroimmune regulation and [...] Read more.
Microglia act as the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). They play an important role in maintaining brain homeostasis but also in mediating neuroimmune responses to insult. The interactions between neurons and microglia represent a key process for neuroimmune regulation and subsequent effects on CNS integrity. However, the molecular mechanisms of neuron-glia communication in regulating microglia function are not fully understood. One recently described means of this intercellular communication is via nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) that transfer a large diversity of molecules between neurons and microglia, such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. To determine the effects of neuron-derived EVs (NDEVs) on microglia, NDEVs were isolated from the culture supernatant of rat cortical neurons. When NDEVs were added to primary cultured rat microglia, we found significantly improved microglia viability via inhibition of apoptosis. Additionally, application of NDEVs to cultured microglia also inhibited the expression of activation surface markers on microglia. Furthermore, NDEVs reduced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response in microglia according to reduced gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1) and iNOS, but increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. These findings support that neurons critically regulate microglia activity and control inflammation via EV-mediated neuron–glia communication. (Supported by R21AA025563 and R01AA025591). Full article
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Article
LC-MS/MS Proteomic Study of MCF-7 Cell Treated with Dox and Dox-Loaded Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles Revealed Changes in Proteins Related to Glycolysis, Actin Signalling, and Energy Metabolism
Biology 2021, 10(9), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10090909 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
One of the most prevalent death causes among women worldwide is breast cancer. This study aimed to characterise and differentiate the proteomics profiles of breast cancer cell lines treated with Doxorubicin (DOX) and Doxorubicin-CaCO3-nanoparticles (DOX-Ar-CC-NPs). This study determines the therapeutic potential [...] Read more.
One of the most prevalent death causes among women worldwide is breast cancer. This study aimed to characterise and differentiate the proteomics profiles of breast cancer cell lines treated with Doxorubicin (DOX) and Doxorubicin-CaCO3-nanoparticles (DOX-Ar-CC-NPs). This study determines the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin-loaded aragonite CaCO3 nanoparticles using a Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry analysis. In total, 334 proteins were expressed in DOX-Ar-CC-NPs treated cells, while DOX treatment expressed only 54 proteins. Out of the 334 proteins expressed in DOX-CC-NPs treated cells, only 36 proteins showed changes in abundance, while in DOX treated cells, only 7 out of 54 proteins were differentially expressed. Most of the 30 identified proteins that are differentially expressed in DOX-CC-NPs treated cells are key enzymes that have an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates as well as energy, including: pyruvate kinase, ATP synthase, enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, and trypsin. Other identified proteins are structural proteins which included; Keratin, α- and β-tubulin, actin, and actinin. Additionally, one of the heat shock proteins was identified, which is Hsp90; other proteins include Annexins and Human epididymis protein 4. While the proteins identified in DOX-treated cells were tubulin alpha-1B chain and a beta chain, actin cytoplasmic 1, annexin A2, IF rod domain-containing protein, and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the predicted canonical pathways linking the signalling of the actin cytoskeleton, ILK, VEGF, BAG2, integrin and paxillin, as well as glycolysis. This research indicates that proteomic analysis is an effective technique for proteins expression associated with chemotherapy drugs on cancer tumours; this method provides the opportunity to identify treatment targets for MCF-7 cancer cells, and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system allowed the detection of a larger number of proteins than 2-DE gel analysis, as well as proteins with maximum pIs and high molecular weight. Full article
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Review

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Review
Overview and Update on Extracellular Vesicles: Considerations on Exosomes and Their Application in Modern Medicine
Biology 2022, 11(6), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060804 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the knowledge of cell-secreted extracellular vesicle functions. They are membrane enclosed and loaded with proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biomolecules. After being released into the extracellular environment, some of these vesicles are [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the knowledge of cell-secreted extracellular vesicle functions. They are membrane enclosed and loaded with proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biomolecules. After being released into the extracellular environment, some of these vesicles are delivered to recipient cells; consequently, the target cell may undergo physiological or pathological changes. Thus, extracellular vesicles as biological nano-carriers, have a pivotal role in facilitating long-distance intercellular communication. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate this communication process is important not only for basic science but also in medicine. Indeed, extracellular vesicles are currently seen with immense interest in nanomedicine and precision medicine for their potential use in diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. This paper aims to summarize the latest advances in the study of the smallest subtype among extracellular vesicles, the exosomes. The article is divided into several sections, focusing on exosomes’ nature, characteristics, and commonly used strategies and methodologies for their separation, characterization, and visualization. By searching an extended portion of the relevant literature, this work aims to give a quick outline of advances in exosomes’ extensive nanomedical applications. Moreover, considerations that require further investigations before translating them to clinical applications are summarized. Full article
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Review
Small but Mighty—Exosomes, Novel Intercellular Messengers in Neurodegeneration
Biology 2022, 11(3), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11030413 - 08 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Exosomes of endosomal origin are one class of extracellular vesicles that are important in intercellular communication. Exosomes are released by all cells in our body and their cargo consisting of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids has a footprint reflective of their parental origin. [...] Read more.
Exosomes of endosomal origin are one class of extracellular vesicles that are important in intercellular communication. Exosomes are released by all cells in our body and their cargo consisting of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids has a footprint reflective of their parental origin. The exosomal cargo has the power to modulate the physiology of recipient cells in the vicinity of the releasing cells or cells at a distance. Harnessing the potential of exosomes relies upon the purity of exosome preparation. Hence, many methods for isolation have been developed and we provide a succinct summary of several methods. In spite of the seclusion imposed by the blood–brain barrier, cells in the CNS are not immune from exosomal intrusive influences. Both neurons and glia release exosomes, often in an activity-dependent manner. A brief description of exosomes released by different cells in the brain and their role in maintaining CNS homeostasis is provided. The hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases is the accumulation of protein aggregates. Recent studies implicate exosomes’ intercellular communicator role in the spread of misfolded proteins aiding the propagation of pathology. In this review, we discuss the potential contributions made by exosomes in progression of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Understanding contributions made by exosomes in pathogenesis of neurodegeneration opens the field for employing exosomes as therapeutic agents for drug delivery to brain since exosomes do cross the blood–brain barrier. Full article
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Review
Nutraceuticals in HIV and COVID-19-Related Neurological Complications: Opportunity to Use Extracellular Vesicles as Drug Delivery Modality
Biology 2022, 11(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11020177 - 23 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1159
Abstract
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at an increased risk of severe and critical COVID-19 infection. There is a steady increase in neurological complications associated with COVID-19 infection, exacerbating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in PLWHA. Nutraceuticals, such as phytochemicals from medicinal plants and [...] Read more.
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at an increased risk of severe and critical COVID-19 infection. There is a steady increase in neurological complications associated with COVID-19 infection, exacerbating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in PLWHA. Nutraceuticals, such as phytochemicals from medicinal plants and dietary supplements, have been used as adjunct therapies for many disease conditions, including viral infections. Appropriate use of these adjunct therapies with antiviral proprieties may be beneficial in treating and/or prophylaxis of neurological complications associated with these co-infections. However, most of these nutraceuticals have poor bioavailability and cannot cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB). To overcome this challenge, extracellular vesicles (EVs), biological nanovesicles, can be used. Due to their intrinsic features of biocompatibility, stability, and their ability to cross BBB, as well as inherent homing capabilities, EVs hold immense promise for therapeutic drug delivery to the brain. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the potential role of different nutraceuticals in reducing HIV- and COVID-19-associated neurological complications and the use of EVs as nutraceutical/drug delivery vehicles to treat HIV, COVID-19, and other brain disorders. Full article
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Other

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Systematic Review
Preconditioning Methods to Improve Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Bone Regeneration—A Systematic Review
Biology 2022, 11(5), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050733 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 3411
Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have long been used in research for bone regeneration, with evidence of their beneficial properties. In the segmental area of MSC-based therapies, MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have also shown great therapeutic effects in several diseases, including bone healing. This [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have long been used in research for bone regeneration, with evidence of their beneficial properties. In the segmental area of MSC-based therapies, MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have also shown great therapeutic effects in several diseases, including bone healing. This study aimed to assess whether the conditioning of MSCs improves the therapeutic effects of their derived extracellular vesicles for bone regeneration. Electronic research was performed until February 2021 to recover the studies in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The studies were screened based on the inclusion criteria. Relevant information was extracted, including in vitro and in vivo experiments, and the animal studies were evaluated for risk of bias by the SYRCLE tool. A total of 463 studies were retrieved, and 18 studies met the inclusion criteria (10 studies for their in vitro analysis, and 8 studies for their in vitro and in vivo analysis). The conditioning methods reported included: osteogenic medium; dimethyloxalylglycine; dexamethasone; strontium-substituted calcium silicate; hypoxia; 3D mechanical microenvironment; and the overexpression of miR-375, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and mutant hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. The conditioning methods of MSCs in the reported studies generate exosomes able to significantly promote bone regeneration. However, heterogeneity regarding cell source, conditioning method, EV isolation and concentration, and defect model was observed among the studies. The different conditioning methods reported in this review do improve the therapeutic effects of MSC-derived EVs for bone regeneration, but they still need to be addressed in larger animal models for further clinical application. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

 Title: Colorectal cancer derived spheroids and their mouse xenograft show different exosomes secretion pattern

 

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