Computational Fluid Dynamics in Medicine and Biology

A special issue of Bioengineering (ISSN 2306-5354). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomechanics and Sports Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 21138

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Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
Interests: multiscale computational modeling; fluid mechanics; vibrations; signal and image processing; machine learning
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been increasingly used to shed light on various research problems in medicine and biology, from the design of medical devices to investigating physiological phenomena. The MDPI journal Bioengineering is offering this Special Issue dedicated to biomedical engineering research topics based on CFD including, but not limited to:

  • Cardiovascular diseases such as aneurysm, stenosis, and atherosclerosis;
  • Respiration and pulmonary flows;
  • Microfluidics;
  • Drug delivery;
  • FSI in biological flow.

Dr. Amirtahà Taebi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Computational fluid dynamics 
  • Blood flow 
  • Hemodynamics 
  • Pulmonary flow 
  • FSI 
  • Drug delivery

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 1601 KiB  
Article
Stress Load and Ascending Aortic Aneurysms: An Observational, Longitudinal, Single-Center Study Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
by Fabiula Schwartz de Azevedo, Gabriela de Castro Almeida, Bruno Alvares de Azevedo, Ivan Fernney Ibanez Aguilar, Bruno Nieckele Azevedo, Pedro Soares Teixeira, Gabriel Cordeiro Camargo, Marcelo Goulart Correia, Angela Ourivio Nieckele and Glaucia Maria Moraes Oliveira
Bioengineering 2024, 11(3), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11030204 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Ascending aortic aneurysm (AAoA) is a silent disease with high mortality; however, the factors associated with a worse prognosis are not completely understood. The objective of this observational, longitudinal, single-center study was to identify the hemodynamic patterns and their influence on AAoA growth [...] Read more.
Ascending aortic aneurysm (AAoA) is a silent disease with high mortality; however, the factors associated with a worse prognosis are not completely understood. The objective of this observational, longitudinal, single-center study was to identify the hemodynamic patterns and their influence on AAoA growth using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), focusing on the effects of geometrical variations on aortic hemodynamics. Personalized anatomic models were obtained from angiotomography scans of 30 patients in two different years (with intervals of one to three years between them), of which 16 (53%) showed aneurysm growth (defined as an increase in the ascending aorta volume by 5% or more). Numerically determined velocity and pressure fields were compared with the outcome of aneurysm growth. Through a statistical analysis, hemodynamic characteristics were found to be associated with aneurysm growth: average and maximum high pressure (superior to 100 Pa); average and maximum high wall shear stress (superior to 7 Pa) combined with high pressure (>100 Pa); and stress load over time (maximum pressure multiplied by the time interval between the exams). This study provides insights into a worse prognosis of this serious disease and may collaborate for the expansion of knowledge about mechanobiology in the progression of AAoA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Medicine and Biology)
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37 pages, 15879 KiB  
Article
In-Silico and In-Vitro Analysis of the Novel Hybrid Comprehensive Stage II Operation for Single Ventricle Circulation
by Arka Das, Marwan Hameed, Ray Prather, Michael Farias, Eduardo Divo, Alain Kassab, David Nykanen and William DeCampli
Bioengineering 2023, 10(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10020135 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1548
Abstract
Single ventricle (SV) anomalies account for one-fourth of all congenital heart disease cases. The existing palliative treatment for this anomaly achieves a survival rate of only 50%. To reduce the trauma associated with surgical management, the hybrid comprehensive stage II (HCSII) operation was [...] Read more.
Single ventricle (SV) anomalies account for one-fourth of all congenital heart disease cases. The existing palliative treatment for this anomaly achieves a survival rate of only 50%. To reduce the trauma associated with surgical management, the hybrid comprehensive stage II (HCSII) operation was designed as an alternative for a select subset of SV patients with the adequate antegrade aortic flow. This study aims to provide better insight into the hemodynamics of HCSII patients utilizing a multiscale Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and a mock flow loop (MFL). Both 3D-0D loosely coupled CFD and MFL models have been tuned to match baseline hemodynamic parameters obtained from patient-specific catheterization data. The hemodynamic findings from clinical data closely match the in-vitro and in-silico measurements and show a strong correlation (r = 0.9). The geometrical modification applied to the models had little effect on the oxygen delivery. Similarly, the particle residence time study reveals that particles injected in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) have successfully ejected within one cardiac cycle, and no pathological flows were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Medicine and Biology)
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21 pages, 5396 KiB  
Article
Influence of Rigid–Elastic Artery Wall of Carotid and Coronary Stenosis on Hemodynamics
by Muhamed Albadawi, Yasser Abuouf, Samir Elsagheer, Hidetoshi Sekiguchi, Shinichi Ookawara and Mahmoud Ahmed
Bioengineering 2022, 9(11), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9110708 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2392
Abstract
Cardiovascular system abnormalities can result in serious health complications. By using the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) procedure, a comprehensive realistic approach can be employed to accurately investigate blood flow coupled with arterial wall response. The hemodynamics was investigated in both the coronary and carotid [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular system abnormalities can result in serious health complications. By using the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) procedure, a comprehensive realistic approach can be employed to accurately investigate blood flow coupled with arterial wall response. The hemodynamics was investigated in both the coronary and carotid arteries based on the arterial wall response. The hemodynamics was estimated based on the numerical simulation of a comprehensive three-dimensional non-Newtonian blood flow model in elastic and rigid arteries. For stenotic right coronary artery (RCA), it was found that the maximum value of wall shear stress (WSS) for the FSI case is higher than the rigid wall. On the other hand, for the stenotic carotid artery (CA), it was found that the maximum value of WSS for the FSI case is lower than the rigid wall. Moreover, at the peak systole of the cardiac cycle (0.38 s), the maximum percentage of arterial wall deformation was found to be 1.9%. On the other hand, for the stenotic carotid artery, the maximum percentage of arterial wall deformation was found to be 0.46%. A comparison between FSI results and those obtained by rigid wall arteries is carried out. Findings indicate slight differences in results for large-diameter arteries such as the carotid artery. Accordingly, the rigid wall assumption is plausible in flow modeling for relatively large diameters such as the carotid artery. Additionally, the FSI approach is essential in flow modeling in small diameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Medicine and Biology)
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14 pages, 1627 KiB  
Article
Glycocalyx Sensing with a Mathematical Model of Acoustic Shear Wave Biosensor
by Varvara Turova, Andrey Kovtanyuk, Oleg Pykhteev, Irina Sidorenko and Renée Lampe
Bioengineering 2022, 9(9), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9090462 - 10 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
The article deals with an idea of exploiting an acoustic shear wave biosensor for investigating the glycocalyx, a polysaccharide polymer molecule layer on the endothelium of blood vessels that, according to recent studies, plays an important role in protecting against diseases. To test [...] Read more.
The article deals with an idea of exploiting an acoustic shear wave biosensor for investigating the glycocalyx, a polysaccharide polymer molecule layer on the endothelium of blood vessels that, according to recent studies, plays an important role in protecting against diseases. To test this idea, a mathematical model of an acoustic shear wave sensor and corresponding software developed earlier for proteomic applications are used. In this case, the glycocalyx is treated as a layer homogenized over the thin polymer “villi”. Its material characteristics depend on the density, thickness, and length of the villi and on the viscous properties of the surrounding liquid (blood plasma). It is proved that the model used has a good sensitivity to the above parameters of the villi and blood plasma. Numerical experiments performed using real data collected retrospectively from premature infants show that the use of acoustic shear wave sensors may be a promising approach to investigate properties of glycocalyx-like structures and their role in prematurity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Medicine and Biology)
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16 pages, 3183 KiB  
Article
Computational Modeling of Motile Cilia-Driven Cerebrospinal Flow in the Brain Ventricles of Zebrafish Embryo
by Huseyin Enes Salman, Nathalie Jurisch-Yaksi and Huseyin Cagatay Yalcin
Bioengineering 2022, 9(9), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9090421 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
Motile cilia are hair-like microscopic structures which generate directional flow to provide fluid transport in various biological processes. Ciliary beating is one of the sources of cerebrospinal flow (CSF) in brain ventricles. In this study, we investigated how the tilt angle, quantity, and [...] Read more.
Motile cilia are hair-like microscopic structures which generate directional flow to provide fluid transport in various biological processes. Ciliary beating is one of the sources of cerebrospinal flow (CSF) in brain ventricles. In this study, we investigated how the tilt angle, quantity, and phase relationship of cilia affect CSF flow patterns in the brain ventricles of zebrafish embryos. For this purpose, two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to determine the flow fields generated by the motile cilia. The cilia are modeled as thin membranes with prescribed motions. The cilia motions were obtained from a two-day post-fertilization zebrafish embryo previously imaged via light sheet fluorescence microscopy. We observed that the cilium angle significantly alters the generated flow velocity and mass flow rates. As the cilium angle gets closer to the wall, higher flow velocities are observed. Phase difference between two adjacent beating cilia also affects the flow field as the cilia with no phase difference produce significantly lower mass flow rates. In conclusion, our simulations revealed that the most efficient method for cilia-driven fluid transport relies on the alignment of multiple cilia beating with a phase difference, which is also observed in vivo in the developing zebrafish brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Medicine and Biology)
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22 pages, 4882 KiB  
Article
In Silico Study to Enhance Delivery Efficiency of Charged Nanoscale Nasal Spray Aerosols to the Olfactory Region Using External Magnetic Fields
by Benjamin Li and Yu Feng
Bioengineering 2022, 9(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9010040 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2834
Abstract
Various factors and challenges are involved in efficiently delivering drugs using nasal sprays to the olfactory region to treat central nervous system diseases. In this study, computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate nasal drug delivery to (1) examine effects on drug deposition [...] Read more.
Various factors and challenges are involved in efficiently delivering drugs using nasal sprays to the olfactory region to treat central nervous system diseases. In this study, computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate nasal drug delivery to (1) examine effects on drug deposition when various external magnetic fields are applied to charged particles, (2) comprehensively study effects of multiple parameters (i.e., particle aerodynamic diameter; injection velocity magnitude, angle, and position; magnetic force strength and direction), and (3) determine how to achieve the optimal delivery efficiency to the olfactory epithelium. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations governed airflow, with a realistic inhalation waveform implemented at the nostrils. Particle trajectories were modeled using the one-way coupled Euler–Lagrange model. A current-carrying wire generated a magnetic field to apply force on charged particles and direct them to the olfactory region. Once drug particles reached the olfactory region, their diffusion through mucus to the epithelium was calculated analytically. Particle aerodynamic diameter, injection position, and magnetic field strength were found to be interconnected in their effects on delivery efficiency. Specific combinations of these parameters achieved over 65-fold higher drug delivery efficiency compared with uniform injections with no magnetic fields. The insight gained suggests how to integrate these factors to achieve the optimal efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Medicine and Biology)
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14 pages, 4919 KiB  
Article
Hemodynamic Investigation of the Effectiveness of a Two Overlapping Flow Diverter Configuration for Cerebral Aneurysm Treatment
by Yuya Uchiyama, Soichiro Fujimura, Hiroyuki Takao, Takashi Suzuki, Motoharu Hayakawa, Toshihiro Ishibashi, Kostadin Karagiozov, Koji Fukudome, Yuichi Murayama and Makoto Yamamoto
Bioengineering 2021, 8(10), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8100143 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3590
Abstract
Flow diverters (FDs) are widely employed as endovascular treatment devices for large or wide-neck cerebral aneurysms. Occasionally, overlapped FDs are deployed to enhance the flow diversion effect. In this study, we investigated the hemodynamics of overlapping FDs via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. [...] Read more.
Flow diverters (FDs) are widely employed as endovascular treatment devices for large or wide-neck cerebral aneurysms. Occasionally, overlapped FDs are deployed to enhance the flow diversion effect. In this study, we investigated the hemodynamics of overlapping FDs via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. We reproduced the arterial geometry of a patient who had experienced the deployment of two overlapping FDs. We utilized two stent patterns, namely the patterns for one FD and two overlapping FDs. We calculated the velocity, mass flow rate, wall shear stress, and pressure loss coefficient as well as their change rates for each pattern relative to the no-FD pattern results. The CFD simulation results indicated that the characteristics of the blood flow inside the aneurysm were minimally affected by the deployment of a single FD; in contrast, the overlapping FD pattern results revealed significant changes in the flow. Further, the velocity at an inspection plane within the aneurysm sac decreased by up to 92.2% and 31.0% in the cases of the overlapping and single FD patterns, respectively, relative to the no-FD pattern. The simulations successfully reproduced the hemodynamics, and the qualitative and quantitative investigations are meaningful with regard to the clinical outcomes of overlapped FD deployment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Medicine and Biology)
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17 pages, 3616 KiB  
Article
Modeling Left Ventricle Perfusion in Healthy and Stenotic Conditions
by Marilena Pannone
Bioengineering 2021, 8(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8050064 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 2747
Abstract
A theoretical fluid mechanical model is proposed for the investigation of myocardial perfusion in healthy and stenotic conditions. The model hinges on Terzaghi’s consolidation theory and reformulates the related unsteady flow equation for the simulation of the swelling–drainage alternation characterizing the diastolic–systolic phases. [...] Read more.
A theoretical fluid mechanical model is proposed for the investigation of myocardial perfusion in healthy and stenotic conditions. The model hinges on Terzaghi’s consolidation theory and reformulates the related unsteady flow equation for the simulation of the swelling–drainage alternation characterizing the diastolic–systolic phases. When compared with the outcome of experimental in vivo observations in terms of left ventricle transmural perfusion ratio (T.P.R.), the analytical solution provided by the present study for the time-dependent blood pressure and flow rate across the ventricle wall proves to consistently reproduce the basic mechanisms of both healthy and ischemic perfusion. Therefore, it could constitute a useful interpretative support to improve the comprehension of the basic hemodynamic mechanisms leading to the most common cardiac diseases. Additionally, it could represent the mathematical basis for the application of inverse methods aimed at estimating the characteristic parameters of ischemic perfusion (i.e., location and severity of coronary stenoses) via downstream ventricular measurements, possibly inspiring their assessment via non-invasive myocardial imaging techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Medicine and Biology)
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