Special Issue "Selected Papers from CUBANNI 2017—“The Fourth International Workshop of Neuroimmunology”"

A special issue of Behavioral Sciences (ISSN 2076-328X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Maria de los Angeles Robinson Agramonte

International Center for Neurological Restoration
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Interests: neuroinflammation; neurodegenerative disorder; Huntington's disease; demyelinating diseases; multiple sclerosis; neurophysiology; sleep and cognitive disorders; epilepsy;neurodevelopmental disorders; autism
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Carlos Alberto Gonçalves

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil
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Interests: astroglial response; neuroinflammation; neural plasticity; neurodegenerative diseases; signaling transduction pathway
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Dario Siniscalco

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: autism; gene expression; stem cells; neuroimmunology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Organizing Committee of CUBANNI 2017, the First International Meeting of the Cuban Network of Neuroimmunology, invite delegates presenting papers selected for this meeting to publish in the Special Issue of CUBANNI 2017—“Fourth International Workshop of Neuroimmunology”. This Special Issue aims to resume the main topics of papers that were presented, selected by their relevance, quality, and impact in the field of Neuroimmunology and Neuroscience research. Topics included in the symposia are in the program of the Fourth International Workshop of Neuroimmunology, in parallel with the VIII International Symposium of Hereditary Ataxias and other neurodegenerations, the First Workshop on Epigenetics, biomarkers and interventions in demyelinating diseases, and the Symposium on Current Tools on Neurointervention and Technologies in Neuroimmunology and Neuroscience, involving topics such as neuroimmunology, neuroinflamation, glial reaction, biomarkers, stem cell therapy, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, psychoneuroimmunology, the blood brain barrier, Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and lymphocyte trafficking in Central Nervous System. Clinical and basic research arguing the immunological mechanisms underlying brain damage and neuroplasticity in neurological disorders such as autism, multiple sclerosis and NMO, ataxias, stroke, Huntington disease, CNS infections, aging and age related neurological disorders are relevant topics to be proposed.

Prof. Dr. Maria Robinson-Agramonte
Prof. Dr. Dario Siniscalco
Prof. Dr. Carlos Alberto Gonçalves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • neuroimmunology
  • neuroinflammation
  • epigenetic and gene expression
  • molecular biomarkers
  • neuroinmunomodulation
  • stem cell therapy
  • microRNA
  • neural plasticity

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Cellular Redox Imbalance and Neurochemical Effect in Cognitive-Deficient Old Rats
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8100093
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of the present study is to access the linkage between dysregulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, oxidative metabolism, and serine signaling in age-related cognitive decline. In this work, we evaluated the effect of natural aging in rats on the cognitive abilities for hippocampal-dependent
[...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study is to access the linkage between dysregulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, oxidative metabolism, and serine signaling in age-related cognitive decline. In this work, we evaluated the effect of natural aging in rats on the cognitive abilities for hippocampal-dependent tasks. Oxidative metabolism indicators are glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. In addition, neurotransmitter amino acid (L-Glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), DL-Serine and DL-Aspartic acid) concentrations were studied in brain areas such as the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus (HPC). The spatial long-term memory revealed significant differences among experimental groups: the aged rats showed an increase in escape latency to the platform associated with a reduction of crossings and spent less time on the target quadrant than young rats. Glutathione levels decreased for analyzed brain areas linked with a significant increase in MDA concentrations and PLA2 activity in cognitive-deficient old rats. We found glutamate levels only increased in the HPC, whereas a reduced level of serine was found in both regions of interest in cognitive-deficient old rats. We demonstrated that age-related changes in redox metabolism contributed with alterations in synaptic signaling and cognitive impairment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relation of Structural and Functional Changes in Auditory and Visual Pathways after Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8100092
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
Auditory and visual pathways may be affected as a consequence of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery because of their anatomical relationships with this structure. The purpose of this paper is to correlate the results of the auditory and visual evoked responses with the parameters
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Auditory and visual pathways may be affected as a consequence of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery because of their anatomical relationships with this structure. The purpose of this paper is to correlate the results of the auditory and visual evoked responses with the parameters of tractography of the visual pathway, and with the state of connectivity between respective thalamic nuclei and primary cortices in both systems after the surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone in drug-resistant epileptic patients. Tractography of visual pathway and anatomical connectivity of auditory and visual thalamus-cortical radiations were evaluated in a sample of eight patients. In general, there was a positive relationship of middle latency response (MLR) latency and length of resection, while a negative correlation was found between MLR latency and the anatomical connection strength and anatomical connection probability of the auditory radiations. In the visual pathway, significant differences between sides were found with respect to the number and length of tracts, which was lower in the operated one. Anatomical connectivity variables and perimetry (visual field defect index) were particularly correlated with the latency of P100 wave which was obtained by quadrant stimulation. These results demonstrate an indirect functional modification of the auditory pathway and a direct traumatic lesion of the visual pathway after anterior temporal lobectomy in patients with drug resistant epilepsy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Rotating and Neurochemical Activity of Rats Lesioned with Quinolinic Acid and Transplanted with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8100087
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited, neurodegenerative disorder that results from the degeneration of striatal neurons, mainly GABAergic neurons. The study of neurochemical activity has provided reliable markers to explain motor disorders. To treat neurodegenerative diseases, stem cell transplants with bone marrow (BM)
[...] Read more.
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited, neurodegenerative disorder that results from the degeneration of striatal neurons, mainly GABAergic neurons. The study of neurochemical activity has provided reliable markers to explain motor disorders. To treat neurodegenerative diseases, stem cell transplants with bone marrow (BM) have been performed for several decades. In this work we determine the effect of mononuclear bone marrow cell (mBMC) transplantation on the rotational behavior and neurochemical activity in a model of Huntington’s disease in rats. Four experimental groups were organized: Group I: Control animals (n = 5); Group II: Lesion with quinolinic acid (QA) in the striatum (n = 5); Group III: Lesion with QA and transplant with mBMC (n = 5); Group IV: Lesion with QA and transplant with culture medium (Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) injection) (n = 5). The rotational activity induced by D-amphetamine was evaluated and the concentration of the neurotransmitter amino acids (glutamate and GABA) was studied. The striatal cell transplantation decreases the rotations induced by D-amphetamine (p < 0.04, Wilcoxon matched pairs test) and improves the changes produced in the levels of neurotransmitters studied. This work suggests that the loss of GABAergic neurons in the brain of rats lesioned with AQ produces behavioral and neurochemical alterations that can be reversed with the use of bone marrow mononuclear cell transplants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Alterations in the MicroRNA of the Blood of Autism Spectrum Disorder Patients: Effects on Epigenetic Regulation and Potential Biomarkers
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8080075
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
Aims: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of heterogeneous brain-based neurodevelopmental disorders with different levels of symptom severity. Given the challenges, the clinical diagnosis of ASD is based on information gained from interviews with patients’ parents. The heterogeneous pathogenesis of this
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Aims: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of heterogeneous brain-based neurodevelopmental disorders with different levels of symptom severity. Given the challenges, the clinical diagnosis of ASD is based on information gained from interviews with patients’ parents. The heterogeneous pathogenesis of this disorder appears to be driven by genetic and environmental interactions, which also plays a vital role in predisposing individuals to ASD with different commitment levels. In recent years, it has been proposed that epigenetic modifications directly contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurodevelopmental disorders, such as ASD. The microRNAs (miRNAs) comprises a species of short noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and have an essential functional role in the brain, particularly in neuronal plasticity and neuronal development, and could be involved in ASD pathophysiology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of blood miRNA in correlation with clinical findings in patients with ASD, and to find possible biomarkers for the disorder. Results: From a total of 26 miRNA studied, seven were significantly altered in ASD patients, when compared to the control group: miR34c-5p, miR92a-2-5p, miR-145-5p and miR199a-5p were up-regulated and miR27a-3p, miR19-b-1-5p and miR193a-5p were down-regulated in ASD patients. Discussion: The main targets of these miRNAs are involved in immunological developmental, immune response and protein synthesis at transcriptional and translational levels. The up-regulation of both miR-199a-5p and miR92a-2a and down-regulation of miR-193a and miR-27a was observed in AD patients, and may in turn affect the SIRT1, HDAC2, and PI3K/Akt-TSC:mTOR signaling pathways. Furthermore, MeCP2 is a target of miR-199a-5p, and is involved in Rett Syndrome (RTT), which possibly explains the autistic phenotype in male patients with this syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oxidative Stress in Patients with Drug Resistant Partial Complex Seizure
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8060059
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
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Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The
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Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The current study’s aim was to evaluate several oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in 18 drug-resistant partial complex seizure (DRPCS) patients compared to a control group (age and sex matched), and the results were related to clinical variables. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), nitric oxide (NO), uric acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione, vitamin C, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and nitrotyrosine (3-NT). All markers except 4-HNE and 3-NT were studied by spectrophotometry. The expressions of 4-HNE and 3-NT were evaluated by Western blot analysis. MDA levels in patients were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.0001) while AOPP levels were similar to the control group. AGEs, NO and uric acid concentrations were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively). Expressions of 3-NT and 4-HNE were increased (p ≤ 0.005) similarly to SOD activity (p = 0.0001), whereas vitamin C was considerably diminished (p = 0.0001). Glutathione levels were similar to the control group. There was a positive correlation between NO and MDA with the number of drugs. The expression of 3-NT was positively related with the frequency of seizures per month. There was a negative relationship between MDA and age at onset of seizures, as well as vitamin C with seizure frequency/month. We detected an imbalance in the redox state in patients with DRCPS, supporting oxidative stress as a relevant mechanism in this pathology. Thus, it is apparent that some oxidant and antioxidant parameters are closely linked with clinical variables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Activity of Erythropoyetine in the Cognition of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8050051
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Introduction: Treatment strategies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) can improve a patient’s quality of life but cannot stop the progression of PD. We are looking for different alternatives that modify the natural course of the disease and recent research has demonstrated the neuroprotective properties
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Introduction: Treatment strategies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) can improve a patient’s quality of life but cannot stop the progression of PD. We are looking for different alternatives that modify the natural course of the disease and recent research has demonstrated the neuroprotective properties of erythropoietin. In Cuba, the Center for Molecular Immunology (CIM) is a cutting edge scientific center where the recombinant form (EPOrh) and recombinant human erythropoietin with low sialic acid (NeuroEPO) are produced. We performed two clinical trials to evaluate the safety and tolerability of these two drugs in PD patients. In this paper we want to show the positive results of the additional cognitive tests employed, as part of the comprehensive assessment. Materials and method: Two studies were conducted in PD patients from the outpatient clinic of CIREN, including n = 10 and n = 26 patients between 60 and 66 years of age, in stages 1 to 2 of the Hoehn and Yahr Scale. The first study employed recombinant human (rhEPO) and the second an intranasal formulation of neuroEPO. All patients were evaluated with a battery of neuropsychological scales composed to evaluate global cognitive functioning, executive function, and memory. Results: The general results in both studies showed a positive response to the cognitive functions in PD patients, who were undergoing pharmacological treatment with respect to the evaluation (p < 0.05) before the intervention. Conclusions: Erythropoietin has a discrete positive effect on the cognitive functions of patients with Parkinson’s disease, which could be interpreted as an effect of the neuroprotective properties of this molecules. To confirm the results another clinical trial phase III with neuroEPO is in progress, also designed to discard any influence of a placebo effect on cognition. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Cohort Study Comparing Women with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Generalized Joint Hypermobility
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8030035
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
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Abstract
Reports suggest comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the connective tissue disorder, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). People with EDS and the broader spectrum of Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) often present with immune- and endocrine-mediated conditions. Meanwhile, immune/endocrine dysregulation is a popular theme in
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Reports suggest comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the connective tissue disorder, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). People with EDS and the broader spectrum of Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) often present with immune- and endocrine-mediated conditions. Meanwhile, immune/endocrine dysregulation is a popular theme in autism research. We surveyed a group of ASD women with/without GJH to determine differences in immune/endocrine exophenotypes. ASD women 25 years or older were invited to participate in an online survey. Respondents completed a questionnaire concerning diagnoses, immune/endocrine symptom history, experiences with pain, and seizure history. ASD women with GJH (ASD/GJH) reported more immune- and endocrine-mediated conditions than their non-GJH counterparts (p = 0.001). Autoimmune conditions were especially prominent in the ASD/GJH group (p = 0.027). Presence of immune-mediated symptoms often co-occurred with one another (p < 0.001–0.020), as did endocrine-mediated symptoms (p < 0.001–0.045), irrespective of the group. Finally, the numbers of immune- and endocrine-mediated symptoms shared a strong inter-relationship (p < 0.001), suggesting potential system crosstalk. While our results cannot estimate comorbidity, they reinforce concepts of an etiological relationship between ASD and GJH. Meanwhile, women with ASD/GJH have complex immune/endocrine exophenotypes compared to their non-GJH counterparts. Further, we discuss how connective tissue regulates the immune system and how the immune/endocrine systems in turn may modulate collagen synthesis, potentially leading to higher rates of GJH in this subpopulation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Follow-Up of Peripheral IL-1β and IL-6 and Relation with Apoptotic Death in Drug-Resistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients Submitted to Surgery
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8020021
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
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Abstract
Increasing amounts of evidence support the role of inflammation in epilepsy. This study was done to evaluate serum follow-up of IL-1β and IL-6 levels, as well as their concentration in the neocortex, and the relationship of central inflammation with NF-κB and annexin V
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Increasing amounts of evidence support the role of inflammation in epilepsy. This study was done to evaluate serum follow-up of IL-1β and IL-6 levels, as well as their concentration in the neocortex, and the relationship of central inflammation with NF-κB and annexin V in drug-resistant temporal lobe epileptic (DRTLE) patients submitted to surgical treatment. Peripheral and central levels of IL-1β and IL-6were measured by ELISA in 10 DRTLE patients. The sera from patients were taken before surgery, and 12 and 24 months after surgical treatment. The neocortical expression of NF-κB was evaluated by western blotting and annexin V co-localization with synaptophysin by immunohistochemistry. The neocortical tissues from five patients who died by non-neurological causes were used as control. Decreased serum levels of IL-1 and IL-6 were observed after surgery; at this time, 70% of patients were seizure-free. No values of IL-1 and IL-6 were detected in neocortical control tissue, whereas cytokine levels were evidenced in DRTLE. Increased NF-κB neocortex expression was found and the positive annexin V neurons were more obvious in the DRTLE tissue, correlating with IL-6 levels. The follow-up study confirmed that the inflammatory alterations disappeared one year after surgery, when the majority of patients were seizure-free, and the apoptotic death process correlated with inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Long-Term Electroclinical and Employment Follow up in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery. A Cuban Comprehensive Epilepsy Surgery Program
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8020019
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 20 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present a long- term electroclinical and employment follow up in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients in a comprehensive epilepsy surgery program. Forty adult patients with pharmacoresistant TLE underwent detailed presurgical evaluation. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and clinical follow
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to present a long- term electroclinical and employment follow up in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients in a comprehensive epilepsy surgery program. Forty adult patients with pharmacoresistant TLE underwent detailed presurgical evaluation. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and clinical follow up assessment for each patient were carried out. The occurrence of interictal epileptiform activity (IEA) and absolute spike frequency (ASF) were tabulated before and after 1, 6, 12, 24 and 72 months surgical treatment. Employment status pre- to post-surgery at the last evaluated period was also examined. Engel scores follow-up was described as follows: at 12 months 70% (28) class I, 10% (4) class II and 19% (8) class III-IV; at 24 months after surgery 55.2% (21) of the patients were class I, 28.9% (11) class II and 15.1% (6) class III-IV. After one- year follow up 23 (57.7%) patients were seizure and aura-free (Engel class IA). These figures changed to 47.3%, and 48.6% respectively two and five years following surgery whereas 50% maintained this condition in the last follow up period. A decline in the ASF was observed from the first year until the sixth year after surgery in relation to the preoperative EEG. The ASF one year after surgery allowed to distinguish “satisfactory” from “unsatisfactory” seizure relief outcome at the last follow up. An adequate social functioning in terms of education and employment in more than 50% of the patients was also found. Results revealed the feasibility of conducting a successful epilepsy surgery program with favorable long term electroclinical and psychosocial functioning outcomes in a developing country as well. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Atypical Processing of Novel Distracters in a Visual Oddball Task in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs7040079
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target
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Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target items at frontal and parietal sites. The task tested the hypothesis that children with autism are abnormally orienting attention to distracters probably due to impaired habituation to novelty. We predicted a lower selectivity in early ERPs to target, frequent non-target, and rare distracters. We also expected delayed late ERPs in autism. The study enrolled 32 ASD and 24 typically developing (TD) children. Reaction time (RT) and accuracy were analyzed as behavioral measures, while ERPs were recorded with a dense-array EEG system. Children with ASD showed higher error rate without normative post-error RT slowing and had lower error-related negativity. Parietal P1, frontal N1, as well as P3a and P3b components were higher to novels in ASD. Augmented exogenous ERPs suggest low selectivity in pre-processing of stimuli resulting in their excessive processing at later stages. The results suggest an impaired habituation to unattended stimuli that incurs a high load at the later stages of perceptual and cognitive processing and response selection when novel distracter stimuli are differentiated from targets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Short-Term Outcome Study
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs7030063
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
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Abstract
Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) is a relatively new therapeutic approach that has shown beneficial effects in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). One question to be answered is how enduring its neuromodulatory effect could be. Twenty-four patients with ASD (mean age: 12.2 years) received 20
[...] Read more.
Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) is a relatively new therapeutic approach that has shown beneficial effects in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). One question to be answered is how enduring its neuromodulatory effect could be. Twenty-four patients with ASD (mean age: 12.2 years) received 20 sessions of NIBS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC). They were randomized into two groups with two (G1) or three (G2) clinical evaluations before NIBS. Both groups had a complete follow-up at six months after the intervention, with the aim of determining the short-term outcome using the total score on the Autism Behavior Checklist, Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist, and the Autism Diagnostic Interview. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) was used in ASD patients aged <11 years, and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for 11–13-year-olds. Observation points were at one, three, and six months after completing all the sessions of NIBS. A significant reduction in the total score on the three clinical scales was observed and maintained during the first six months after treatment, with a slight and non-significant tendency to increase the scores in the last evaluation. Twenty sessions of NIBS over the L-DLPFC improves autistic symptoms in ASD children, with a lasting effect of six months. Full article
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Open AccessConference Report Neuroimmunology Research. A Report from the Cuban Network of Neuroimmunology
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8050047
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Neuroimmunology can be traced back to the XIX century through the descriptions of some of the disease’s models (e.g., multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barret syndrome, amongst others). The diagnostic tools are based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis developed by Quincke or in
[...] Read more.
Neuroimmunology can be traced back to the XIX century through the descriptions of some of the disease’s models (e.g., multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barret syndrome, amongst others). The diagnostic tools are based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis developed by Quincke or in the development of neuroimmunotherapy with the earlier expression in Pasteur’s vaccine for rabies. Nevertheless, this field, which began to become delineated as an independent research area in the 1940s, has evolved as an innovative and integrative field at the shared edges of neurosciences, immunology, and related clinical and research areas, which are currently becoming a major concern for neuroscience and indeed for all of the scientific community linked to it. The workshop focused on several topics: (1) the molecular mechanisms of immunoregulation in health and neurological diseases, (like multiple sclerosis, autism, ataxias, epilepsy, Alzheimer and Parkinson’s disease); (2) the use of animal models for neurodegenerative diseases (ataxia, fronto-temporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ataxia-telangiectasia); (3) the results of new interventional technologies in neurology, with a special interest in the implementation of surgical techniques and the management of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy; (4) the use of non-invasive brain stimulation in neurodevelopmental disorders; as well as (5) the efficacy of neuroprotective molecules in neurodegenerative diseases. This paper summarizes the highlights of the symposium. Full article
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