Special Issue "Recent Advances in Post-Lithium Ion Batteries"

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (18 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Eliana Quartarone

Department of Chemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Li Batteries, Na batteries, Polymer electrolytes, Ionic liquids, materials for energetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lithium batteries are efficient storage systems for portable electronic devices, electrical power grid and electrified transportation, due to their high-energy density and low maintenance requirements. After their launch into the market in 1990s, they immediately became the dominant technology for portable systems. The development of LiBs for electric drive vehicles has been, in contrast, rather incremental. Several critical issues, such as an energy density which does not fully meet the US DOE targets, system safety, cost and environmental impact of the battery production processes, still limit large-scale production in the automotive field. All these concerns bring into question the suitability of LiB to satisfy the ever-growing energy requirements of the long-term future. In addition, Lithium is no longer the only zero emission game. Fuel cell vehicles are also progressively coming to the market and “where the electric future will go” in the next few years is still difficult to glimpse. In order to strengthen the LiB competitiveness and affordability in the vehicle technology, the necessity of game changer batteries is urgent. Recently, a novel approach going beyond Li batteries has become rapidly established. Several new chemistries have been proposed, leading to better performances in terms of energy density, long-life storage capability, safety and sustainability. However, several challenges, such as understanding of mechanisms, cell design, long-term durability and safety issues, need to be fully addressed yet.

This special issue of Batteries will collect the most recent developments and emerging trends in the field of “post-Lithium” batteries. Contributions will cover both fundamental and applied aspects of the next-generation batteries and will be focused on, but not limited to, the following potential topics:

  • new chemistries (Na, Mg, Al, Ca- ion batteries, Metal-air and Li-Sulfur batteries)
  • all solid-state batteries
  • modelling and simulation
  • safety and reliability. 
Prof. Dr.  Eliana Quartarone
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Beyond Li ion batteries
  • Li-air batteries
  • Li-sulfur batteries
  • solid electrolytes, safety

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A New Glass-Forming Electrolyte Based on Lithium Glycerolate
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
The detailed study of the interplay between the physicochemical properties and the long-range charge migration mechanism of polymer electrolytes able to carry lithium ions is crucial in the development of next-generation lithium batteries. Glycerol exhibits a number of features (e.g., glass-forming behavior, low
[...] Read more.
The detailed study of the interplay between the physicochemical properties and the long-range charge migration mechanism of polymer electrolytes able to carry lithium ions is crucial in the development of next-generation lithium batteries. Glycerol exhibits a number of features (e.g., glass-forming behavior, low glass transition temperature, high flexibility of the backbone, and efficient coordination of lithium ions) that make it an appealing ion-conducting medium and a challenging building block in the preparation of new inorganic–organic polymer electrolytes. This work reports the preparation and the extensive investigation of a family of 11 electrolytes based on lithium glycerolate. The electrolytes have the formula C3H5(OH)3−x(OLi)x, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. The elemental composition is evaluated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The structure and interactions are studied by vibrational spectroscopies (FT-IR and micro-Raman). The thermal properties are gauged by modulated differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Finally, insights on the long-range charge migration mechanism and glycerol relaxation events are investigated via broadband electrical spectroscopy. Results show that in these electrolytes, glycerolate acts as a large and flexible macro-anion, bestowing to the material single-ion conductivity (1.99 × 10−4 at 30 °C and 1.55 × 10−2 S∙cm−1 at 150 °C for x = 0.250). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Post-Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Ion Transport in Solvent-Free, Crosslinked, Single-Ion Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Post-Lithium Ion Batteries
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
Solvent-free, single-ion conducting electrolytes are sought after for use in electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, we investigate the ionic conductivity and how this property is influenced by segmental mobility and conducting ion number in crosslinked single-ion conducting polyether-based electrolytes with varying tethered anion
[...] Read more.
Solvent-free, single-ion conducting electrolytes are sought after for use in electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, we investigate the ionic conductivity and how this property is influenced by segmental mobility and conducting ion number in crosslinked single-ion conducting polyether-based electrolytes with varying tethered anion and counter-cation types. Crosslinked electrolytes are prepared by the polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate, and ionic monomers. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes is measured and interpreted in the context of differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy measurements. A lithiated crosslinked electrolyte prepared with PEG31DA and (4-styrenesulfonyl)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (STFSI) monomers is found to have a lithium ion conductivity of 3.2 × 10−6 and 1.8 × 10−5 S/cm at 55 and 100 °C, respectively. The percentage of unpaired anions for this electrolyte was estimated at about 23% via Raman spectroscopy. Despite the large variances in metal cation–STFSI binding energies as predicted via density functional theory (DFT) and large variations in ionic conductivity, STFSI-based crosslinked electrolytes with the same charge density and varying cations (Li, Na, K, Mg, and Ca) were estimated to all have unpaired anion populations in the range of 19 to 29%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Post-Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Formation and Stability of Interface between Garnet-Type Ta-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolyte and Lithium Metal Electrode
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Garnet-type Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 (LLZT) is considered a good candidate for the solid electrolyte in all-solid-state lithium batteries because of its reasonably high conductivity around 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature and stability against
[...] Read more.
Garnet-type Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 (LLZT) is considered a good candidate for the solid electrolyte in all-solid-state lithium batteries because of its reasonably high conductivity around 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature and stability against lithium (Li) metal with the lowest redox potential. In this study, we synthesized LLZT with a tantalum (Ta) content of 0.45 via a conventional solid-state reaction process and constructed a Li/LLZT/Li symmetric cell by attaching Li metal foils on the polished top and bottom surfaces of an LLZT pellet. We investigated the influence of heating temperatures and times on the interfacial charge-transfer resistance between LLZT and the Li metal electrode. In addition, the effect of the interface resistance on the stability for Li deposition and dissolution was examined using a galvanostatic cycling test. The lowest interfacial resistance of 25 Ω cm2 at room temperature was obtained by heating at 175 °C (5 °C lower than the melting point of Li) for three to five hours. We confirmed that the current density at which the short circuit occurs in the Li/LLZT/Li cell via the propagation of Li dendrite into LLZT increases with decreasing interfacial charge transfer resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Post-Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle High-Performance Na0.44MnO2 Slabs for Sodium-Ion Batteries Obtained through Urea-Based Solution Combustion Synthesis
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
One of the primary targets of current research in the field of energy storage and conversion is the identification of easy, low-cost approaches for synthesizing cell active materials. Herein, we present a novel method for preparing nanometric slabs of Na0.44MnO2
[...] Read more.
One of the primary targets of current research in the field of energy storage and conversion is the identification of easy, low-cost approaches for synthesizing cell active materials. Herein, we present a novel method for preparing nanometric slabs of Na0.44MnO2, making use of the eco-friendly urea within a solution synthesis approach. This kind of preparation greatly reduces the time of reaction, decreases the thermal treatment temperature, and allows the obtaining of particles with smaller dimensions compared with those obtained through conventional solid-state synthesis. Such a decrease in particle size guarantees improved electrochemical performance, particularly at high current densities, where kinetic limitations become relevant. Indeed, the materials produced via solution synthesis outperform those prepared via solid-state synthesis both at 2 C, (95 mA h g−1 vs. 85 mA h g−1, respectively) and 5 C, (78 mA h g−1 vs. 68.5 mA h g−1, respectively). Additionally, the former material is rather stable over 200 cycles, with a high capacity retention of 75.7%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Post-Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview A Review of Model-Based Design Tools for Metal-Air Batteries
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The advent of large-scale renewable energy generation and electric mobility is driving a growing need for new electrochemical energy storage systems. Metal-air batteries, particularly zinc-air, are a promising technology that could help address this need. While experimental research is essential, it can also
[...] Read more.
The advent of large-scale renewable energy generation and electric mobility is driving a growing need for new electrochemical energy storage systems. Metal-air batteries, particularly zinc-air, are a promising technology that could help address this need. While experimental research is essential, it can also be expensive and time consuming. The utilization of well-developed theory-based models can improve researchers’ understanding of complex electrochemical systems, guide development, and more efficiently utilize experimental resources. In this paper, we review the current state of metal-air batteries and the modeling methods that can be implemented to advance their development. Microscopic and macroscopic modeling methods are discussed with a focus on continuum modeling derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamics. An applied example of zinc-air battery engineering is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Post-Lithium Ion Batteries)
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