The advent of large-scale renewable energy generation and electric mobility is driving a growing need for new electrochemical energy storage systems. Metal-air batteries, particularly zinc-air, are a promising technology that could help address this need. While experimental research is essential, it can also be expensive and time consuming. The utilization of well-developed theory-based models can improve researchers’ understanding of complex electrochemical systems, guide development, and more efficiently utilize experimental resources. In this paper, we review the current state of metal-air batteries and the modeling methods that can be implemented to advance their development. Microscopic and macroscopic modeling methods are discussed with a focus on continuum modeling derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamics. An applied example of zinc-air battery engineering is presented.
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