Special Issue "Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications"

A special issue of Atoms (ISSN 2218-2004).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Christian Parigger
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, University of Tennessee/ University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, TN 37388-9700, USA
Interests: laser-induced plasma; atomic spectroscopy; molecular spectroscopy; time-resolved spectroscopy; determination of plasma parameters; nano-particle enhanced plasma diagnostics; astrophysical applications; experimental and theoretical and computational plasma physics; ultra-short plasma diagnostics; laser ablation; laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; shock waves; plasma dynamics; analytical plasma chemistry; combustion
Prof. Dr. Robert Splinter
Website
Guest Editor
Wellinq Medical, The Netherlands & University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA
Interests: Femto- and subfemto- second laser-matter interactions, computational modeling, laser spectroscopy fundamentals, laser and light scattering diagnostics, radiation transfer, equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluid physics, spectroscopic imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my pleasure to contribute towards the publication of an MDPI Atoms Special Issue on laser plasma spectroscopy and applications. Such a feature issue is timely considering the recent technological advances in laser devices and instrumentation for plasma diagnostics. High peak power radiation generates sufficient laser plasma for analytic atomic and molecular spectroscopy with a variety of scientific interests.

The plasma may be induced by laser radiation, however, spectroscopy of plasma offers key advantages. First, optical characterization can be performed in-situ under non-destructive and non-invasive (i.e., non-contact, respectively surface-contact) conditions. The minimal interaction with the test object will preserve the integrity of the object. Second, it can provide dynamical behavior based on the spectroscopic features that usually are explored with time-resolved methods, including emission spectroscopy or pump-probe techniques, to name two examples. Third, the optical systems can be made portable, operating on battery power alone, with no direct requirements for main power.

For this Special Issue the following topics are invited for contribution as original research and theoretical papers, but not limited to:

  • High resolution, broad band, optical analysis and characterization
  • Analysis of the constituents in solid-state materials
  • Time-resolved pump-probe measurements
  • Nonlinear spectroscopy and imaging, including: multiphoton fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation, et c.
  • Optical characterization and chemical composition analysis of liquid and gas phases of constituents of a medium
  • Spectroscopy to elucidate combustion and plasma physics
  • Diagnostics of chemical processes and phenomena
  • Spectral imaging, including nanoparticle-enhanced spectroscopy

The overall aim of this feature issue is a healthy distribution of contributed research and invited, review-type papers that expand on the fundamentals and novel results of particular spectroscopy applications. The feature issue is envisioned to provide both review and current state-of-the-art research engagements of various groups around the globe.

Prof. Dr. Christian Parigger
Prof. Dr. Robert Splinter
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atoms is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • laser-induced plasma
  • atomic spectroscopy
  • molecular spectroscopy
  • time-resolved spectroscopy
  • determination of plasma parameters
  • nano-particle enhanced plasma diagnostics
  • astrophysical applications
  • theoretical plasma phenomena modeling
  • ultra-short plasma diagnostics
  • laser ablation
  • laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
  • shock waves
  • plasma dynamics
  • analytical plasma chemistry
  • combustion

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Tracking Temporal Development of Optical Thickness of Hydrogen Alpha Spectral Radiation in a Laser-Induced Plasma
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040101 - 04 Nov 2019
Viewed by 875
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the temporal development of the optical density of the H α spectral line in a hydrogen laser-induced plasma. This is achieved by using the so-called duplication method in which the spectral line is re-imaged onto itself and the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the temporal development of the optical density of the H α spectral line in a hydrogen laser-induced plasma. This is achieved by using the so-called duplication method in which the spectral line is re-imaged onto itself and the ratio of the spectral line with it duplication is taken to its measurement without the duplication. We asses the temporal development of the self-absorption of the H α line by tracking the decay of duplication ratio from its ideal value of 2. We show that when 20% loss is considered along the duplication optical path length, the ratio is 1.8 and decays to a value of 1.25 indicating an optically thin plasma grows in optical density to an optical depth of 1.16 by 400 ns in the plasma decay for plasma initiation conditions using Nd:YAG laser radiation at 120 mJ per pulse in a 1.11 × 10 5 Pa hydrogen/nitrogen gas mixture environment. We also go on to correct the H α line profiles for the self-absorption impact using two methods. We show that a method in which the optical depth is directly calculated from the duplication ratio is equivalent to standard methods of self-absorption correction when only relative corrections to spectral emissions are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Heavy Metals Detection in Zeolites Using the LIBS Method
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040098 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
In this study, a possibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the analysis of zeolites containing copper, chromium, cobalt, cadmium, and lead in the concentration range of 0.05–0.5 wt.% is discussed. For the LIBS analysis, microporous ammonium form of Y zeolite with the [...] Read more.
In this study, a possibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the analysis of zeolites containing copper, chromium, cobalt, cadmium, and lead in the concentration range of 0.05–0.5 wt.% is discussed. For the LIBS analysis, microporous ammonium form of Y zeolite with the silicon to aluminum molar ratio of 2.49 was selected. Zeolites, in the form of pressed pellets, were prepared by volume impregnation from the water solution using Co(CH3COO)2.4H2O, CuSO4.5H20, K2Cr2O7, PbNO3, and CdCl2 to form a sample with different amounts of heavy metals—Co, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Cd. Several spectral lines of the mentioned elements were selected to be fitted to obtain integral line intensity. To prevent the influence of the self-absorption effect, non-resonant spectral lines were selected for the calibration curves construction in most cases. The calibration curves of all elements are observed to be linear with high regression coefficients. On the other hand, the limits of detection (LOD) were calculated according to the 3σ/S formula using the most intensive spectral lines of individual elements, which are 14.4 ppm for copper, 18.5 ppm for cobalt, 16.4 ppm for chromium, 190.7 ppm for cadmium, and 62.6 ppm for lead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Molecular AlO Temperature Distributions in Laser-Induced Plasma
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030086 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
Spatially resolved, line-of-sight measurements of aluminum monoxide emission spectra in laser ablation plasma are used with Abel inversion techniques to extract radial plasma temperatures. Contour mapping of the radially deconvolved signal intensity shows a ring of AlO formation near the plasma boundary with [...] Read more.
Spatially resolved, line-of-sight measurements of aluminum monoxide emission spectra in laser ablation plasma are used with Abel inversion techniques to extract radial plasma temperatures. Contour mapping of the radially deconvolved signal intensity shows a ring of AlO formation near the plasma boundary with the ambient atmosphere. Simulations of the molecular spectra were coupled with the line profile fitting routines. Temperature results are presented with simultaneous inferences from lateral, asymmetric radial, and symmetric radial AlO spectral intensity profiles. This analysis indicates that shockwave phenomena in the radial profiles, including a temperature drop behind the blast wave created during plasma initiation were measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Analysis of Cerium-Gallium Alloys Using a Hand-Held Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Device
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030084 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
A hand-held laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy device was used to acquire spectral emission data from laser-induced plasmas created on the surface of cerium-gallium alloy samples with Ga concentrations ranging from 0–3 weight percent. Ionic and neutral emission lines of the two constituent elements were [...] Read more.
A hand-held laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy device was used to acquire spectral emission data from laser-induced plasmas created on the surface of cerium-gallium alloy samples with Ga concentrations ranging from 0–3 weight percent. Ionic and neutral emission lines of the two constituent elements were then extracted and used to generate calibration curves relating the emission line intensity ratios to the gallium concentration of the alloy. The Ga I 287.4-nm emission line was determined to be superior for the purposes of Ga detection and concentration determination. A limit of detection below 0.25% was achieved using a multivariate regression model of the Ga I 287.4-nm line ratio versus two separate Ce II emission lines. This LOD is considered a conservative estimation of the technique’s capability given the type of the calibration samples available and the low power (5 mJ per 1-ns pulse) and resolving power ( λ / Δ λ = 4000) of this hand-held device. Nonetheless, the utility of the technique is demonstrated via a detailed mapping analysis of the surface Ga distribution of a Ce-Ga sample, which reveals significant heterogeneity resulting from the sample production process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Assisted by Machine Learning for Plastics/Polymers Identification
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030079 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
In the present work, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for the discrimination/identification of different plastic/polymeric samples having the same polymeric matrix but containing different additives (as e.g., fillers, flame retardants, etc.). For the classification of the different plastic samples, some machine learning [...] Read more.
In the present work, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for the discrimination/identification of different plastic/polymeric samples having the same polymeric matrix but containing different additives (as e.g., fillers, flame retardants, etc.). For the classification of the different plastic samples, some machine learning algorithms were employed for the analysis of the LIBS spectroscopic data, such as the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The combination of LIBS technique with these machine learning algorithmic approaches, in particular the latter, provided excellent classification results, achieving identification accuracies as high as 100%. It seems that machine learning paves the way towards the application of LIBS technique for identification/discrimination issues of plastics and polymers and eventually of other classes of organic materials. Machine learning assisted LIBS can be a simple to use, efficient and powerful tool for sorting and recycling purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Temporally and Spatially Resolved Emission Spectroscopy of Hydrogen, Cyanide and Carbon in Laser-Induced Plasma
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030074 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
In this study, we examine the atomic and molecular signatures in laser-induced plasma. Abel inversions of measured line-of-sight data reveal insight into the radial plasma distribution. Laser-plasma is generated with 6 ns, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation with energies in the range of 100 to [...] Read more.
In this study, we examine the atomic and molecular signatures in laser-induced plasma. Abel inversions of measured line-of-sight data reveal insight into the radial plasma distribution. Laser-plasma is generated with 6 ns, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation with energies in the range of 100 to 800 mJ. Temporally- and spatially-resolved emission spectroscopy investigates expansion dynamics. Specific interests include atomic hydrogen (H) and cyanide (CN). Atomic hydrogen spectra indicate axisymmetric shell structures and isentropic expansion of the plasma kernel. The recombination radiation of CN emanates within the first 100 nanoseconds for laser-induced breakdown in a 1:1 mole ratio CO2:N2 gas mixture. CN excitation temperatures are determined from fitting recorded and computed spectra. Chemical equilibrium mole fractions of CN are computed for air and the CO2:N2 gas mixture. Measurements utilize a 0.64-m Czerny–Turner type spectrometer and an intensified charge-coupled device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Opacity Corrections for Resonance Silver Lines in Nano-Material Laser-Induced Plasma
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030073 - 31 Jul 2019
Viewed by 978
Abstract
Q-switched laser radiation at wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm from a Nd: YAG laser was used to generate plasma in laboratory air at the target surface made of nano-silver particles of size 95 ± 10 nm. The emitted resonance spectra from [...] Read more.
Q-switched laser radiation at wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm from a Nd: YAG laser was used to generate plasma in laboratory air at the target surface made of nano-silver particles of size 95 ± 10 nm. The emitted resonance spectra from the neutral silver at wavelengths of 327.9 nm and 338.2 nm indicate existence of self-reversal in addition to plasma self-absorption. Both lines were identified in emission spectra at different laser irradiation wavelengths with characteristic dips at the un-shifted central wavelengths. These dips are usually associated with self-reversal. Under similar conditions, plasmas at the corresponding bulk silver target were generated. The recorded emission spectra were compared to those obtained from the nano-material target. The comparisons confirm existence of self-reversal of resonance lines that emerge from plasmas produced at nano-material targets. This work suggests a method for recovery of the spectral line shapes and discusses practical examples. In addition, subsidiary calibration efforts that utilize the Balmer series Hα-line reveal that other Ag I lines at 827.35 nm and 768.7 nm are optically thin under variety of experimental conditions and are well-suited as reference lines for measurement of the laser plasma electron density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Spectroscopy of Various Types of Gypsum: An Ideal Terrestrial Analogue
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030072 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
The first detection of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity in the Gale Crater, Mars created a profound impact on planetary science and exploration. The unique capability of plasma spectroscopy, which involves in situ elemental [...] Read more.
The first detection of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity in the Gale Crater, Mars created a profound impact on planetary science and exploration. The unique capability of plasma spectroscopy, which involves in situ elemental analysis in extraterrestrial environments, suggests the presence of water in the red planet based on phase characterization and provides a clue to Martian paleoclimate. The key to gypsum as an ideal paleoclimate proxy lies in its textural variants and terrestrial gypsum samples from varied locations and textural types have been analyzed with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in this study. Petrographic, sub-microscopic, and powder X-ray diffraction characterizations confirm the presence of gypsum (hydrated calcium sulphate; CaSO4·2H2O), bassanite (semi-hydrated calcium sulphate; CaSO4·½H2O), and anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulphate; CaSO4), along with accessory phases (quartz and jarosite). The principal component analysis of LIBS spectra from texturally varied gypsums can be differentiated from one another due to the chemical variability in their elemental concentrations. The concentration of gypsum is determined from the partial least-square regressions model. The rapid characterization of gypsum samples with LIBS is expected to work well in extraterrestrial environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Atomic and Molecular Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Selected Pharmaceuticals
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030071 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of pharmaceutical drugs that contain paracetamol was investigated in air and argon atmospheres. The characteristic neutral and ionic spectral lines of various elements and molecular signatures of CN violet and C2 Swan band systems were observed. The relative [...] Read more.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of pharmaceutical drugs that contain paracetamol was investigated in air and argon atmospheres. The characteristic neutral and ionic spectral lines of various elements and molecular signatures of CN violet and C2 Swan band systems were observed. The relative hardness of all drug samples was measured as well. Principal component analysis, a multivariate method, was applied in the data analysis for demarcation purposes of the drug samples. The CN violet and C2 Swan spectral radiances were investigated for evaluation of a possible correlation of the chemical and molecular structures of the pharmaceuticals. Complementary Raman and Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopies were used to record the molecular spectra of the drug samples. The application of the above techniques for drug screening are important for the identification and mitigation of drugs that contain additives that may cause adverse side-effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Measurements of Gaseous Hydrogen–Nitrogen Laser-Plasma
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030061 - 29 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
This work communicates laser-plasma experiments in a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen. Time-resolved spectroscopy measures the first four Balmer-series hydrogen lines together with selected neutral and ionized nitrogen lines. Optical breakdown plasma is generated in a 1:1 hydrogen:nitrogen mixture at ambient temperature [...] Read more.
This work communicates laser-plasma experiments in a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen. Time-resolved spectroscopy measures the first four Balmer-series hydrogen lines together with selected neutral and ionized nitrogen lines. Optical breakdown plasma is generated in a 1:1 hydrogen:nitrogen mixture at ambient temperature and 0.27-atm pressure. Time-resolved spectroscopy records emitted radiation with spatial resolution along the slit height for the H α , H β , H γ , and H δ lines. For 13 selected time delays from 0.25 μ s to 3.25 μ s and 0.025 μ s gate-widths, micro-plasma diagnostics is evaluated. Of interest are the peak separation and width of H δ and width of H γ for electron densities in the range of 0.1 to 1.0 × 10 17 cm 3 , and comparisons with H β and H α diagnostics. Integral inversions interrogate spatial distributions of the plasma expansion. Applications include laboratory and stellar astrophysics plasma diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Mini-Review: Hydrogen Atoms in a High-Frequency Laser Field
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7030083 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Because of the continuing advances in developing lasers in the far-ultraviolet and x-ray ranges, studies of the behavior of atoms under a high-frequency laser field are of theoretical and practical interest. In the present paper, we review various analytical results obtained by the [...] Read more.
Because of the continuing advances in developing lasers in the far-ultraviolet and x-ray ranges, studies of the behavior of atoms under a high-frequency laser field are of theoretical and practical interest. In the present paper, we review various analytical results obtained by the method of separating rapid and slow subsystems for various polarizations of the laser field. Specifically, we review the corresponding analytical results both in terms of the quantum description of the phenomena involved and in terms of the classical description of the phenomena involved. We point out that, for the classical description of hydrogen atoms in a high-frequency laser field, there are interesting celestial analogies. We discuss hidden symmetries of these physical systems, the advantages of this analytical method, and the connection between these results and the transition to chaos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
Open AccessReview
Shock Waves in Laser-Induced Plasmas
Atoms 2019, 7(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7020057 - 07 Jun 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
The production of a plasma by a pulsed laser beam in solids, liquids or gas is often associated with the generation of a strong shock wave, which can be studied and interpreted in the framework of the theory of strong explosion. In this [...] Read more.
The production of a plasma by a pulsed laser beam in solids, liquids or gas is often associated with the generation of a strong shock wave, which can be studied and interpreted in the framework of the theory of strong explosion. In this review, we will briefly present a theoretical interpretation of the physical mechanisms of laser-generated shock waves. After that, we will discuss how the study of the dynamics of the laser-induced shock wave can be used for obtaining useful information about the laser–target interaction (for example, the energy delivered by the laser on the target material) or on the physical properties of the target itself (hardness). Finally, we will focus the discussion on how the laser-induced shock wave can be exploited in analytical applications of Laser-Induced Plasmas as, for example, in Double-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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