Special Issue "Air Pollution Modelling: Local-, Regional-, and Global-Scale Application"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Syuichi Itahashi

Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: air quality modeling; local and long-range transport; source-receptor relationships

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air pollution problem is inevitably accompanied to our human activities. Severe air pollution situations have been reported especially in emerging countries, and satisfying the air quality standards fully have been still underlying issues. Today, modeling researches is one of the valuable approaches to promote our understanding on the behavior of air pollutants and to be used as regulatory, policy, and environmental decision makings. Such a modeling application range with regard to horizontal grid resolution varied from a few km (local) to hundreds of km (regional) to thousands of km (global).

To foster our current scientific knowledge on modeling potentialities and limitations, we would like to call scientific papers related to air pollution modeling applied for urban-, regional-, and global-scale on this special issue in the journal of Atmosphere. By collecting devoted papers, this theme seeks the future strategies for modeling researches across multi-scales. Modeling is not limited on the Eulerian and Lagrangian models, and other modeling techniques (e.g., box model, receptor model) are welcome. The online-coupled chemical transport model integrated with meteorological model will also contribute to this special issue. This topic would represent a notable contribution to this important scientific field.

Dr. Syuichi Itahashi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Eulerian model
  • Lagrangian model
  • box model
  • receptor model
  • local air pollution
  • long-range transport

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Area Affected by Agricultural Burning
Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10060312
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
Agricultural burning is still a common practice around the world. It is associated with the high emission of air pollutants, including short-term climate change forcing pollutants such as black carbon and PM2.5. The legal requirements to start any regulatory actions to [...] Read more.
Agricultural burning is still a common practice around the world. It is associated with the high emission of air pollutants, including short-term climate change forcing pollutants such as black carbon and PM2.5. The legal requirements to start any regulatory actions to control them is the identification of its area of influence. However, this task is challenging from the experimental and modeling point of view, since it is a short-term event with a moving area source of pollutants. In this work, we assessed this agricultural burning influence-area using the US Environmental authorities recommended air dispersion model (AERMOD). We considered different sizes and geometries of burning areas located on flat terrains, and several crops burning under the worst-case scenario of meteorological conditions. The influence area was determined as the largest area where the short-term concentrations of pollutants (1 h or one day) exceed the local air quality standards. We found that this area is a band around the burning area whose size increases with the burning rate but not with its size. Finally, we suggested alternatives of public policy to regulate this activity, which is based on limiting the burning-rate in the way that no existing households remain inside the resulting influence-area. However, this policy should be understood as a transition towards a policy that forbids agricultural burning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity of Nitrate Aerosol Production to Vehicular Emissions in an Urban Street
Atmosphere 2019, 10(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10040212
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
This study investigated the sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to vehicular emissions in urban streets using a coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD)–chemistry model. Nitrate concentrations were highest at the street surface level following NH3 emissions from vehicles, indicating that ammonium nitrate formation occurs [...] Read more.
This study investigated the sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to vehicular emissions in urban streets using a coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD)–chemistry model. Nitrate concentrations were highest at the street surface level following NH3 emissions from vehicles, indicating that ammonium nitrate formation occurs under NH3-limited conditions in street canyons. Sensitivity simulations revealed that the nitrate concentration has no clear relationship with the NOx emission rate, showing nitrate changes of only 2% across among 16 time differences in NOx emissions. NOx emissions show a conflicting effect on nitrate production via decreasing O3 and increasing NO2 concentrations under a volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited regime for O3 production. The sensitivity simulations also show that nitrate aerosol is proportional to vehicular VOC and NH3 emissions in the street canyon. Changes of VOC emissions affect the nitrate aerosol and HNO3 concentrations through changes in the O3 concentration under a VOC-limited regime for O3 production. Nitrate aerosol concentration is influenced by vehicular NH3 emissions, which produce ammonium nitrate effectively under an NH3-limited regime for nitrate production. This research suggests that, when vehicular emissions are dominant in winter, the control of vehicular VOC and NH3 emissions might be a more effective way to degrade PM2.5 problems than the control of NOx. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone under Different Emission Reduction Scenarios in the Sichuan Basin, China
Authors: Lu Liu 1, Chun Yang 1, Guo Hao 2, Ya Tang 1,4,5, Yanping Yuan 3, Xue Qiao 3,4,5,*, Hongliang Zhang 2,*
Affiliations:
1 Department of Environment, College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, No. 24, South Section One, First Ring Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China; 2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LA 70803, USA; Email: [email protected]; 3 Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, No. 24, South Section One, First Ring Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China; 4 Healthy Food Evaluation Research Center, Sichuan University, No. 24, South Section One, First Ring Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China; 5 State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, No. 24, South Section One, First Ring Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China
Abstract: Due to high anthropogenic emissions and the basin landform, Sichuan Basin (SCB) with 18 cities in southwestern China is one of the regions that suffer from severe air pollution in the country. In order to preliminarily understand how much emissions need to be reduced to achieve the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and China’s National Ambient Air Quality standards (CNAAQs) for ozone (O3) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), air pollutant concentrations under 10% to 90% anthropogenic emission reductions were simulated by using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models for the winter and summer, 2015. As PM2.5 concentrations are highest in winter and the photochemical production of O3 is greatest in summer, we simulated air pollution for the two seasons. The attainment of O3 and PM2.5 based on the WHO guideline and CNAAQs under different emission reductions were calculated and its present great spatial variations. The most polluted areas are the Chengdu and Chongqing. For the two cities, in order to make daily PM2.5 less than the WHO guideline in the winter, anthropogenic emissions within the SCB should be reduced by 90% most of time. In the summer, a reduction in anthropogenic emissions may increase O3 concentrations occasionally in Chengdu and Chongqing. This study suggests that there is a need to greatly reduce anthpogenic emissions in order to efficiently protect human health in the SCB.
Keywords: air pollution; PM2.5; O3; air quality attainment; emission reduction

Title: High ozone exposure for vegetation along the eastern rim of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau due to anthropogenic emissions and O3 from the stratosphere
Authors: Yuanfei Cao 1, Xue Qiao 1,3,4 and Ya Tang 2,3,4,*
Affiliations:
1. Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, No. 24, South Section One, First Ring Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China; 2. Department of Environment, College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, No. 24, South Section One, First Ring Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China; Email: [email protected]; 3. Healthy Food Evaluation Research Center, Sichuan University, No. 24, South Section One, First Ring Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China; 4. State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, No. 24, South Section One, First Ring Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China
Abstract: Located in the transitional region from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the eastern rim of the Qinghai-TibetanPlateau(ERQTP)is a large, complex ecological zone and abiodiversity hotspot.Anthropogenic air pollutants transported from Sichuan Basin and other regions are likely to accumulate and deposit along the ERQTP, leading to ozone pollution. Stratospheric ozone in Qinghai-TibetanPlateau is also likely to invadetroposphere. We hypothesis that vegetation in thisareaexposes toa high ozone dose.We use Source-oriented Community Multi-scale AirQuality (source-oriented CMAQ) to calculate ozone exposure indices of M7, M24, N100, AOT40f, SUM60, and W126, with a spatial resolution of 4 km along the ERQTP. Based on these indices, we identify high ozone concentration episodes and assess potentialnegative impacts of ozoneon local vegetation.Sources of air masses arealsoanalyzed in combination with CO, meteorology and HYSPLIT, exploring whether the air mass causing increasedozone concentration alongthe ERQTPis from Sichuan Basin or from the stratosphere.Furthermore, source-oriented CMAQ is used to simulate source of ozone along the ERQTP, to quantify industrial source and regional transmission of ozone and its precursors, and to determine contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources to local ozone concentrations. Study of ozone exposure on vegetation along the ERQTP canhelp to take measures to protect local vegetation

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