Special Issue "Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) Models"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land - Atmosphere Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Sergey Pulinets

Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Moscow, Russia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: physics of the ionosphere; atmospheric electricity; natural hazards; lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

When I met the famous Japanese seismologist Seiya Uyeda nearly 20 years ago, he was the same age as I am now. Listening to my enthusiastic reasoning that we are very close to finding the solution to the short-term earthquake forecast problem, Seiya told me that we would be able to confirm this only once the theory of pre-earthquake processes had been created. In the last 20 years, many scientists have worked hard trying to understand how information from underground has propagated through the atmosphere up to its higher layer ionosphere. We are very close now to solving this problem, and the aim of this Special Issue is to summarize the recent progress in understanding the lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere coupling (LAIC). This should include at least five important segments:

  1. A description of the lithosphere–atmosphere interface including the mechanical, geochemical, and electromagnetic interactions;
  2. A description of pre-earthquake processes in the boundary layer of the atmosphere including the plasmachemical reactions, heat generation, atmospheric movements/AGW generation, and the impact on the global electric circuit (conductivity, EF, etc.);
  3. A description of atmosphere–ionosphere coupling leading to ionospheric precursors generation considering two main possibilities: electromagnetic coupling and the AGW effect on the ionosphere;
  4. A description of the ionospheric anomalies associated with earthquake preparation, including variations of electron and ion concentration, electron and ion temperature, modification of the vertical profiles of electron concentration, modification of ion composition in the F-layer of the ionosphere, and the spatial and temporal dynamics of all these parameters;
  5. The synergy of all these parameters, demonstrating their common origin, uniqueness, and time directivity, indicating the approaching of the system to the critical point.

Dr. Sergey Pulinets
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • radon
  • tectonic fault
  • ionization
  • ion's hydration
  • electric field
  • air conductivity
  • global electric circuit
  • latent heat
  • aerosols
  • acoustic gravity waves
  • electron concentration

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Global Distribution of Persistence of Total Electron Content Anomaly
Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10060297
Received: 21 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
To better understand the ionospheric morphology response to lithospheric activities, we study the global location preference of the positive and negative total electron content (TEC) anomalies persisting continuously for longer than 24 h at middle and low latitudes (within ±60° N geomagnetic latitudes). [...] Read more.
To better understand the ionospheric morphology response to lithospheric activities, we study the global location preference of the positive and negative total electron content (TEC) anomalies persisting continuously for longer than 24 h at middle and low latitudes (within ±60° N geomagnetic latitudes). The TEC is obtained from the global ionospheric map (GIM) of Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) under the geomagnetic quiet condition of Kp ≤ 3o during the period of 2005 to 2018. There are a few (less than 4%) TEC anomalies that can persist over 24 h. The conjugate phenomenon is most significant in the eastern Asia to Australia longitudinal sector. The result shows the persistence of the positive TEC anomaly along the ring of fire on the western edge of the Pacific Ocean. The high persistence of the TEC anomalies at midlatitudes suggests that thermospheric neutral wind contributes to the anomaly formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) Models)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Joint Anomalies of High-Frequency Geoacoustic Emission and Atmospheric Electric Field by the Ground–Atmosphere Boundary in a Seismically Active Region (Kamchatka)
Atmosphere 2019, 10(5), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10050267
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract
The authors generalize and analyze the investigation results of joint anomalies of high-frequency geoacoustic emission and atmospheric electric field by the ground–atmosphere boundary which were detected by them in Kamchatka. These anomalies are observed as geoacoustic emission increases in kilohertz frequency range and [...] Read more.
The authors generalize and analyze the investigation results of joint anomalies of high-frequency geoacoustic emission and atmospheric electric field by the ground–atmosphere boundary which were detected by them in Kamchatka. These anomalies are observed as geoacoustic emission increases in kilohertz frequency range and bay-like decreases of atmospheric electric field with the sign change which occur close in time during calm weather conditions. It is the authors’ opinion that the common nature of these anomalies is short-time stretching of the near-surface sedimentary rocks at an observation site during unstable tectono-seismic process. A scheme of the detected anomalies formation has been suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) Models)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pre-Earthquake and Coseismic Ionosphere Disturbances of the Mw 6.6 Lushan Earthquake on 20 April 2013 Monitored by CMONOC
Atmosphere 2019, 10(4), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10040216
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
In order to study the coupling relationship between large earthquakes and the ionosphere, the techniques of ionosphere data acquisition were refined by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) to detect the pre-earthquake ionospheric abnormal and coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CID) of the [...] Read more.
In order to study the coupling relationship between large earthquakes and the ionosphere, the techniques of ionosphere data acquisition were refined by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) to detect the pre-earthquake ionospheric abnormal and coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CID) of the Mw 6.6 Lushan earthquake on 20 April 2013. Based on the regional ionosphere maps (RIMs) derived from the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations of CMONOC, the ionospheric local effects near the epicenter of the Lushan earthquake one month prior to the shock were analyzed. The results show that the total electron content (TEC) anomalies appeared 12–14 (6–8 April), 19 (1 April), and 25–27 (24–26 March) days prior to the Lushan earthquake, which are defined as periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Multi-indices including the ring current index (Dst), geomagnetic planetary (Kp) index, wind plasma speed (Vsw) index, F10.7, and solar flares were utilized to represent the solar–terrestrial environment in different scales and eliminate the effects of solar and geomagnetic activities on the ionosphere. After the interference of solar–terrestrial activity and the diurnal variation in the lower thermosphere were excluded, the TEC variations with obvious equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) in period-1 were considered to be related to the Lushan earthquake. We further retrieved precise slant TECs (STECs) near the epicenter to study the coseismic ionospheric disturbance (CID). The results show that there was clear STEC disturbance occurring within half an hour after the Lushan earthquake, and the CID propagation distance was less than the impact radius of the Lushan earthquake (689 km). The shell models with different altitudes were adopted to analyze the propagation speed of the CID. It is found that at the F2-layer with the altitude of 277 km, which had a CID horizontal propagation velocity of 0.84 ± 0.03 km/s, was in accordance with the acoustic wave propagation velocity. The calculated velocity acoustic wave from the epicenter to the ionospheric pierce points of this shell model was about 0.53 ± 0.03 km/s, which was also consistent with its actual velocity within the altitude of 0–277 km. Affected by the geomagnetic field, the CID mainly propagated along the southeast direction at the azimuth of 190°, which was almost parallel to the local magnetic line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) Models)
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Graphical abstract

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