Special Issue "Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Minho Shin
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Engineering, Myongji University, Seoul, Korea
Interests: security and privacy; smart-grid interoperability; electric vehicle charging systems; blockchain
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 

Smart grid is now more than a dream. A multitude of enterprises, institutions, and universities are pushing their technologies for intelligent, efficient, resilient, and green solutions to complex challenges in energy. Inherently, smart grid is multidisciplinary; communication, sensing, smart metering, electric vehicles, computing, and cybersecurity are driving technologies. Interoperability between diverse technologies is key for the success of smart grid. Standardization, testing, integration, and adaptation contribute to the interoperability in smart grid. This Special Issue invites articles on converging technologies for smart grid and solutions to the interoperability challenges.

Dr. Minho Shin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • microgrid
  • renewable energy
  • electric vehicles and charging infrastructure
  • Cloud Computing for smart grid
  • Internet of Things for energy
  • Cybersecurity
  • standards and conformance testing
  • model integration
  • interoperability between standards

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Building an Interoperability Test System for Electric Vehicle Chargers Based on ISO/IEC 15118 and IEC 61850 Standards
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(6), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6060165 - 26 May 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
The electric vehicle market is rapidly growing due to its environmental friendliness and governmental support. As electric vehicles are powered by electricity, the interoperability between the vehicles and the chargers made by multiple vendors is crucial for the success of the technology. Relevant [...] Read more.
The electric vehicle market is rapidly growing due to its environmental friendliness and governmental support. As electric vehicles are powered by electricity, the interoperability between the vehicles and the chargers made by multiple vendors is crucial for the success of the technology. Relevant standards are being published, but the methods for conformance testing need to be developed. In this paper, we present our conformance test system for the electric vehicle charger in accordance with the standards ISO/IEC 15118, IEC 61851 and IEC 61850-90-8. Our test system leverages the TTCN-3 framework for its flexibility and productivity. We evaluate the test system by lab tests with two reference chargers that we built. We also present the test results in two international testival events for the ISO/IEC 15118 interoperability. We confirmed that our test system is robust, efficient and practical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Islanding and Telecontrolled Switches on Distribution System Reliability Considering Load and Green-Energy Fluctuations
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(5), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6050138 - 07 May 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
To improve electrical distribution network reliability, some portions of the network could operate in autonomous mode, provided that the related technical issues are addressed. More specifically, when there is not a path from those portions to the primary substation due to a fault [...] Read more.
To improve electrical distribution network reliability, some portions of the network could operate in autonomous mode, provided that the related technical issues are addressed. More specifically, when there is not a path from those portions to the primary substation due to a fault in the network, such portions could be disconnected from the main network and supplied by local generation only. Such a mode of operation is known as “intentional islanding” and its effectiveness, in terms of adequacy, depends on the ability of the local generation to meet the island’s load. In fact, the ratio between the available local generation and load demand can frequently change during islanding due to load variations and, especially, due to the strongly irregular behavior of the primary energy sources of renewable generators. This paper proposes an analytical formulation to assess local generation adequacy during intentional islanding, accounting for the aforementioned variations. More specifically, the fluctuations of load and green-energy generators during islanding are modeled by means of Markov chains, whose output quantities are encompassed in the proposed analytical formulation. Such a formulation is used by the analytical equations of load points’ outage rate and duration. The evaluation of the reliability indices accounts for a protection scheme based on an appropriate communication infrastructure. Therefore, a brief overview on the telecommunications technologies has been presented with reference to their suitability for the specific application. In particular, distribution network safety issues have been considered as the main concern. The results show that neglecting load and generation fluctuations leads to a strong overestimation of the ability of distributed generators to meet the island load. Through a case study it is observed that the error on the load point outage rate is greater than the one affecting the outage duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
An Enhanced System Architecture for Optimized Demand Side Management in Smart Grid
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6050122 - 28 Apr 2016
Cited by 13
Abstract
Demand Side Management (DSM) through optimization of home energy consumption in the smart grid environment is now one of the well-known research areas. Appliance scheduling has been done through many different algorithms to reduce peak load and, consequently, the Peak to Average Ratio [...] Read more.
Demand Side Management (DSM) through optimization of home energy consumption in the smart grid environment is now one of the well-known research areas. Appliance scheduling has been done through many different algorithms to reduce peak load and, consequently, the Peak to Average Ratio (PAR). This paper presents a Comprehensive Home Energy Management Architecture (CHEMA) with integration of multiple appliance scheduling options and enhanced load categorization in a smart grid environment. The CHEMA model consists of six layers and has been modeled in Simulink with an embedded MATLAB code. A single Knapsack optimization technique is used for scheduling and four different cases of cost reduction are modeled at the second layer of CHEMA. Fault identification and electricity theft control have also been added in CHEMA. Furthermore, carbon footprint calculations have been incorporated in order to make the users aware of environmental concerns. Simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
SDNPS: A Load-Balanced Topic-Based Publish/Subscribe System in Software-Defined Networking
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6040091 - 24 Mar 2016
Cited by 15
Abstract
Publish/subscribe systems on the traditional Internet suffer from poor scalability and high delay in the face of the Internet of Things (IoT) environment. Being customizable, the paradigm of software-defined networking (SDN) provides a chance to establish an IoT-specific network. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
Publish/subscribe systems on the traditional Internet suffer from poor scalability and high delay in the face of the Internet of Things (IoT) environment. Being customizable, the paradigm of software-defined networking (SDN) provides a chance to establish an IoT-specific network. In this paper, we propose an SDN-based publish/subscribe system named SDNPS, which can construct and fine-tune topic-connected overlays for the sake of disseminating events efficiently and non-redundantly based on a global topology overview. It organizes topics as a Huffman-like topic tree and codes them into binary strings so that filtering and forwarding events can be operated directly on SDN-configurable switches, which helps to reduce end-to-end latency. This hierarchical organization form of topic tree makes it possible to incrementally construct and store overlays, which contribute to reducing the time and space complexity of routing computation. More specifically, it achieves a better tradeoff between load-balancing of the overall optimization objective and the minimal forwarding cost of per-topic overlay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
Reallocating Charging Loads of Electric Vehicles in Distribution Networks
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6020053 - 16 Feb 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, the charging loads of electric vehicles were controlled to avoid their impact on distribution networks. A centralized control algorithm was developed using unbalanced optimal power flow calculations with a time resolution of one minute. The charging loads were optimally reallocated [...] Read more.
In this paper, the charging loads of electric vehicles were controlled to avoid their impact on distribution networks. A centralized control algorithm was developed using unbalanced optimal power flow calculations with a time resolution of one minute. The charging loads were optimally reallocated using a central controller based on non-linear programming. Electric vehicles were recharged using the proposed control algorithm considering the network constraints of voltage magnitudes, voltage unbalances, and limitations of the network components (transformers and cables). Simulation results showed that network components at the medium voltage level can tolerate high uptakes of uncontrolled recharged electric vehicles. However, at the low voltage level, network components exceeded their limits with these high uptakes of uncontrolled charging loads. Using the proposed centralized control algorithm, these high uptakes of electric vehicles were accommodated in the network under study without the need of upgrading the network components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
Residential Demand Response Scheduling with Consideration of Consumer Preferences
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6010016 - 12 Jan 2016
Cited by 36
Abstract
This paper proposes a new demand response scheduling framework for an array of households, which are grouped into different categories based on socio-economic factors, such as the number of occupants, family decomposition and employment status. Each of the households is equipped with a [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new demand response scheduling framework for an array of households, which are grouped into different categories based on socio-economic factors, such as the number of occupants, family decomposition and employment status. Each of the households is equipped with a variety of appliances. The model takes the preferences of participating households into account and aims to minimize the overall production cost and, in parallel, to lower the individual electricity bills. In the existing literature, customers submit binary values for each time period to indicate their operational preferences. However, turning the appliances “on” or “off” does not capture the associated discomfort levels, as each appliance provides a different service and leads to a different level of satisfaction. The proposed model employs integer values to indicate household preferences and models the scheduling problem as a multi-objective mixed integer programming. The main thrust of the framework is that the multi-level preference modeling of appliances increases their “flexibility”; hence, the job scheduling can be done at a lower cost. The model is evaluated by using the real data provided by the Department of Energy & Climate Change, UK. In the computational experiments, we examine the relation between the satisfaction of consumers based on the appliance usage preferences and the electricity costs by exploring the Pareto front of the related objective functions. The results show that the proposed model leads to significant savings in electricity cost, while maintaining a good level of customer satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
Flexible Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Uncertain Renewable Generation and Load Demand Based on Hybrid Clustering Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6010003 - 23 Dec 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper presents a flexible transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) approach considering uncertainty. A novel hybrid clustering technique, which integrates the graph partitioning method and rough fuzzy clustering, is proposed to cope with uncertain renewable generation and load demand. The proposed clustering method [...] Read more.
This paper presents a flexible transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) approach considering uncertainty. A novel hybrid clustering technique, which integrates the graph partitioning method and rough fuzzy clustering, is proposed to cope with uncertain renewable generation and load demand. The proposed clustering method is capable of recognizing the actual cluster distribution of complex datasets and providing high-quality clustering results. By clustering the hourly data for renewable generation and load demand, a multi-scenario model is proposed to consider the corresponding uncertainties in TNEP. Furthermore, due to the peak distribution characteristics of renewable generation and heavy investment in transmission, the traditional TNEP, which caters to rated renewable power output, is usually uneconomic. To improve the economic efficiency, the multi-objective optimization is incorporated into the multi-scenario TNEP model, while the curtailment of renewable generation is considered as one of the optimization objectives. The solution framework applies a modified NSGA-II algorithm to obtain a set of Pareto optimal planning schemes with different levels of investment costs and renewable generation curtailments. Numerical results on the IEEE RTS-24 system demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
Privacy-Preserving Smart Metering with Authentication in a Smart Grid
Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 1503-1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/app5041503 - 01 Dec 2015
Cited by 10
Abstract
The traditional security objectives of smart grids have been availability, integrity, and confidentiality. However, as the grids incorporate smart metering and load management, user and corporate privacy is increasingly becoming an issue in smart grid networks. Although transmitting current power consumption levels to [...] Read more.
The traditional security objectives of smart grids have been availability, integrity, and confidentiality. However, as the grids incorporate smart metering and load management, user and corporate privacy is increasingly becoming an issue in smart grid networks. Although transmitting current power consumption levels to the supplier or utility from each smart meter at short intervals has an advantage for the electricity supplier’s planning and management purposes, it threatens user privacy by disclosing fine-grained consumption data and usage behavior to utility providers. In this study, we propose a distributed incremental data aggregation scheme where all smart meters on an aggregation path are involved in routing the data from the source meter to the collection unit. User privacy is preserved by symmetric homomorphic encryption, which allows smart meters to participate in the aggregation without seeing any intermediate or final result. Aggregated data is further integrated with an aggregate signature to achieve data integrity and smart meter authentication in such a way that dishonest or fake smart meters cannot falsify data en route. Only the collection unit can obtain the aggregated data and verify its integrity while the individual plain data are not exposed to the collection unit. Therefore, user privacy and security are improved for the smart metering in a smart grid network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Power Scheduling Scheme for Residential Load Management in Smart Homes
Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 1134-1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/app5041134 - 12 Nov 2015
Cited by 68
Abstract
In this paper, we propose mathematical optimization models of household energy units to optimally control the major residential energy loads while preserving the user preferences. User comfort is modelled in a simple way, which considers appliance class, user preferences and weather conditions. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose mathematical optimization models of household energy units to optimally control the major residential energy loads while preserving the user preferences. User comfort is modelled in a simple way, which considers appliance class, user preferences and weather conditions. The wind-driven optimization (WDO) algorithm with the objective function of comfort maximization along with minimum electricity cost is defined and implemented. On the other hand, for maximum electricity bill and peak reduction, min-max regret-based knapsack problem (K-WDO) algorithm is used. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, extensive simulations are conducted for several scenarios. The simulations show that the proposed algorithms provide with the best optimal results with a fast convergence rate, as compared to the existing techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
Conformance Testing of SGSF-064-1 Using CANoe
Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 1086-1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/app5041086 - 11 Nov 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, the authors describe a conformance testing system for SGSF-064-1, the communication protocol between electric vehicles and conductive DC (direct current) chargers in Korea. Since the SGSF-064-1 is based on CAN (controller area network), the testing system was developed by CANoe. [...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors describe a conformance testing system for SGSF-064-1, the communication protocol between electric vehicles and conductive DC (direct current) chargers in Korea. Since the SGSF-064-1 is based on CAN (controller area network), the testing system was developed by CANoe. The DC charger known as EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) is the system being tested and the developed system implemented in PC (personal computer). The developed system performs as a tester to ensure that the DC chargers from various manufactures can conform to the communication protocol in SGSF-064-1. The testing system contains four testing modes which also consist of several test cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
Trends and Potentials of the Smart Grid Infrastructure: From ICT Sub-System to SDN-Enabled Smart Grid Architecture
Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 706-727; https://doi.org/10.3390/app5040706 - 10 Oct 2015
Cited by 21
Abstract
Context and situational awareness are key features and trends of the smart grid and enable adaptable, flexible and extendable smart grid services. However, the traditional hardware-dependent communication infrastructure is not designed to identify the flow and context of data, and it focuses only [...] Read more.
Context and situational awareness are key features and trends of the smart grid and enable adaptable, flexible and extendable smart grid services. However, the traditional hardware-dependent communication infrastructure is not designed to identify the flow and context of data, and it focuses only on packet forwarding using a pre-defined network configuration profile. Thus, the current network infrastructure may not dynamically adapt the various business models and services of the smart grid system. To solve this problem, software-defined networking (SDN) is being considered in the smart grid, but the design, architecture and system model need to be optimized for the smart grid environment. In this paper, we investigate the state-of-the-art smart grid information subsystem, communication infrastructure and its emerging trends and potentials, called an SDN-enabled smart grid. We present an abstract business model, candidate SDN applications and common architecture of the SDN-enabled smart grid. Further, we compare recent studies into the SDN-enabled smart grid depending on its service functionalities, and we describe further challenges of the SDN-enabled smart grid network infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
Critical Nodes Identification of Power Systems Based on Controllability of Complex Networks
Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(3), 622-636; https://doi.org/10.3390/app5030622 - 22 Sep 2015
Cited by 11
Abstract
This paper proposes a new method for assessing the vulnerability of power systems based on the controllability theories of complex networks. A novel controllability index is established, taking into consideration the full controllability of the power systems, for identifying critical nodes. The network [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new method for assessing the vulnerability of power systems based on the controllability theories of complex networks. A novel controllability index is established, taking into consideration the full controllability of the power systems, for identifying critical nodes. The network controllability model is used to calculate the minimum number of driver nodes (ND), which can solve the computable problems of the controllability of power systems. The proposed approach firstly applies the network controllability theories to research the power systems' vulnerability, which can not only effectively reveal the important nodes but also maintain full control of the power systems. Meanwhile, the method can also overcome the limitation of the hypothesis that the weight of each link or transmission line must be known compared with the existing literature. In addition, the power system is considered as a directed network and the power system model is also redefined. The proposed methodology is then used to identify critical nodes of the IEEE 118 and 300 bus system. The results show that the failure of the critical nodes can clearly increase ND and lead a significant driver node shift. Thus, the rationality and validity are verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Energy Scheduling in a Renewable Micro Grid
Appl. Sci. 2015, 5(3), 516-531; https://doi.org/10.3390/app5030516 - 08 Sep 2015
Cited by 17
Abstract
In this paper, we address the energy scheduling issue in a hybrid energy micro grid, which consists of photovoltaic (PV), wind power, combined heat and power (CHP), energy storage and electric vehicles (EVs). The optimal scheduling model of these power sources is presented [...] Read more.
In this paper, we address the energy scheduling issue in a hybrid energy micro grid, which consists of photovoltaic (PV), wind power, combined heat and power (CHP), energy storage and electric vehicles (EVs). The optimal scheduling model of these power sources is presented with consideration of the demand response. The objective function is minimum total operation costs, including gas cost, electric power purchase from the main grid and storage and EV charging-discharging costs. In the process of optimization, multi-team particle swarm optimization (MTPSO) is proposed, which uses units, groups and swarm information to update the velocity (position) with faster and more stable convergence. With simulation analysis, it is found that the proposed model is effective, and the presented MTPSO has a better global search ability than PSO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6030068 - 29 Feb 2016
Cited by 64
Abstract
Climate change, awareness of energy efficiency, new trends in electricity markets, the obsolescence of the actual electricity model, and the gradual conversion of consumers to prosumer profiles are the main agents of progressive change in electricity systems towards the Smart Grid paradigm. The [...] Read more.
Climate change, awareness of energy efficiency, new trends in electricity markets, the obsolescence of the actual electricity model, and the gradual conversion of consumers to prosumer profiles are the main agents of progressive change in electricity systems towards the Smart Grid paradigm. The introduction of multiple distributed generation and storage resources, with a strong involvement of renewable energies, exposes the necessity of advanced metering or Smart Metering systems, able to manage and control those distributed resources. Due to the heterogeneity of the Smart Metering systems and the specific features of each grid, it is easy to find in the related literature a wide range of solutions with different features. This work describes the key elements in a Smart Metering system and compiles the most employed technologies and standards as well as their main features. Since Smart Metering systems can perform jointly with other activities, these growing initiatives are also addressed. Finally, a revision of the main trends in Smart Metering uses and deployments worldwide is included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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Open AccessReview
Application of Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks to Achieve Intelligent Microgrids: A Promising Approach towards a Global Smart Grid Deployment
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6030061 - 23 Feb 2016
Cited by 18
Abstract
Smart Grids (SGs) constitute the evolution of the traditional electrical grid towards a new paradigm, which should increase the reliability, the security and, at the same time, reduce the costs of energy generation, distribution and consumption. Electrical microgrids (MGs) can be considered the [...] Read more.
Smart Grids (SGs) constitute the evolution of the traditional electrical grid towards a new paradigm, which should increase the reliability, the security and, at the same time, reduce the costs of energy generation, distribution and consumption. Electrical microgrids (MGs) can be considered the first stage of this evolution of the grid, because of the intelligent management techniques that must be applied to assure their correct operation. To accomplish this task, sensors and actuators will be necessary, along with wireless communication technologies to transmit the measured data and the command messages. Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs) are therefore a promising solution to achieve an intelligent management of MGs and, by extension, the SG. In this frame, this paper surveys several aspects concerning the application of WSANs to manage MGs and the electrical grid, as well as the communication protocols that could be applied. The main concerns regarding the SG deployment are also presented, including future scenarios where the interoperability of different generation technologies must be assured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
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