State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids
2. Trends of the Smart Metering Systems
2.1. Architecture of a Smart Metering System
- A Smart Metering device, Smart Meter (SM);
- A data gathering device, Data Concentrator (DC);
- A communication system used for data flow;
- A centralized management and control system, Control Center (CC).
2.1.1. Smart Meter
- Remote reading
- Bidirectional communication
- Support of advanced tariff systems and billing applications
- Remote energy supply control.
2.1.2. Data Concentrator
2.1.3. Communication System
2.1.4. Control Centre
2.2. Considerations for a Smart Metering System
2.3. Smart Metering Applications
- Electricity signal quality:
- DG and DS control:
- Demand Response:
- HAN applications:
- Anti-fraud techniques:
3. Smart Metering Technologies
4. Development of Smart Metering Worldwide
4.2.1. The United States
- Systems integration: the introduction of outage and distribution management systems provides enhanced outage management and restoration services as well as improved distribution system and device monitoring.
- Integration of new resources: SMs position the grid as platform for the integration of distributed energy resources (DG, DS, EVs, microgrids, etc.).
- Operational savings: remote activities (reading, connection/disconnection) and the reduction of energy theft are some financial benefits of SMs.
- New customer services: SMs have enabled services to end-users such as automated budget assistance and bill management tools, energy use notifications, smart pricing, and demand response programs.
4.2.3. Latin America
4.4. Other Regions
5. Challenges to be Addressed in the Near Future
- Gain the trust and confidence of consumers. An intensive communication effort is required to convince customers about three key aspects: understanding their rights as consumers, the benefits of installing SMs, and their participation in demand response programs.
- Achieve an innovative energy services market. Synergies with the ICT sector will be fundamental for promoting an innovative energy services market.
- Protection of sensitive data. The European Commission and the member states will have to assess the need for specific data privacy and security framework legislation.
- Management of data. Utilities and the ICT sector will have to work together and explore the possibilities of data management.
- Functions of SMs. Technical and commercial interoperability in Smart Metering will enable member states to identify common means of achieving cost efficiencies and ensure fit-for-purpose in their rollout.
- Long-term economic assessment of costs and benefits. A review of the critical parameters used and assumptions made in national rollouts will help to refine technology choices.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Provide readings directly to the consumer and/or any third party.|
|Update the readings frequently enough to use energy saving schemes.|
|Metering Service Operator|
|Allow remote reading by the operator.|
|Provide bidirectional communication for maintenance and control.|
|Allow frequent enough readings to be used for networking planning.|
|Commercial Service Issues|
|Support advanced tariff system.|
|Allow remote ON/OFF control supply and/or flow or power limitation.|
|Security and Data Protection|
|Provide secure data communications.|
|Fraud prevention and detection.|
|Provide consumed, generated, and reactive metering data.|
|Technological||Election of the most suitable technology according the final end|
|Implementation of software|
|Physical aspects||Resilience and strength|
|Communication||Type of network (wired, wireless, hybrid)|
|Range of network|
|Quality of signal|
|Security & privacy|
|Costs||Costs of devices|
|Costs of communication network infrastructure|
|Access to personal data|
|Wireless||Data Rate||Frequency Bands||Distance||Advantages||Drawbacks||Deployments/Projects|
|RF- Mesh||-||902–928 MHz||Depends on hops||Coverage can be increased with multiple hops. Ad hoc communication links formed dynamically.||Tends to be a proprietary offering. Performance decreases over long distances.||Most rollouts in USA|
|Cellular||3G–4G||60–240 kbps||824–894 MHz |
|Up to 50 km||Wide-range coverage Low maintenance Low power consumption High flexibility||Individual connections are expensive. Moderate bit rates||China Southern Power Grid (CHN) Smart Grid Smart City (AUS) Essential Energy (AUS)|
|GSM||14.4 kbps max.||900–1800 MHz||1–10 km||Telegestore (IT)|
|GPRS||170 kbps max.||900–1800 MHz||1–10 km||PRICE-GEN (ES) Eandis and Infrax (BE) Linky (FR)|
|IEEE 802.15 Group||ZigBee||20–250 kbps||868 MHz/915 MHz/2.4 GHz||10–1000 m||Low cost Low power consumption||Low bit rates Security issues (specially Bluetooth)||Energy Demand Research Project, EDRP (UK) National Smart Metering Programme, NSMP (IRL)|
|Bluetooth||721 kbps||2.4–2.4835 GHz||1–100 m|
|IEEE 802.11 Group||Wi-Fi||54 Mbps max.||2.4 GHz/5.8 GHz||Up to 100 m||High degree of reliability and availability||Affected by surrounding emitting devices||CMP AMI (US) National Smart Metering Programme, NSMP (IRL)|
|Enhanced Wi-Fi||54 Mbps max.||2.4 GHz|
|IEEE 802.11 n||600 Mbps max.||2.4 GHz|
|IEEE 802.16||WiMAX||70 Mbps||1.8–3.65 GHz||50 km||Good performance over larger distances Able to supply thousands of end-users||Higher costs than similar technologies||Victorian Smart Meter Rollout (AUS)|
|Wired||Data Rate||Frequency Bands||Distance||Advantages||Drawbacks||Deployments/Projects|
|NB-PLC||up to 500 kbps||3–500 kHz||Several km||Medium already deployed Devices do not depend on batteries.||Power cables are a harsh medium for communications.||Most rollouts in Europe and China Telegestore (IT) Woodruff Electric Cooperative (USA) Pacific Northwest Boulder SmartCityGrid (US) PRICE-GEN (ES) Eandis and Infrax (BE) Linky (FR) Energy Demand Research Project, EDRP (UK)|
|BB-PLC||Up to several hundred of Mbps||1.8–250 MHz||Several km|
|xDSL||ADSL||800 kbps upstream 8 Mbps downstream||From 25 kHz to 1 MHz||5 km||Medium already deployed Quite high data rates||High maintenance costs Efficiency decreases with distance||PRICE-GEN (ES) Eandis and Infrax (BE)|
|HDSL||2 Mbps||3.6 km|
|VHDSL||15–100 Mbps||1.5 km|
|Euridis||IEC 62056-31||9.6 kbps||80 MHz–1 GHz||Hundreds m||Low cost Known technology||Low data rates||Wide rollout of SMs in France|
|PON||155–2.5 Gbps||500 MHz-km||60 km||High data rates Noise immunity Good performance over km||High cost||Boulder SmartCityGrid (US) PRICE-GEN (ES) Austin (US)|
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Uribe-Pérez, N.; Hernández, L.; De la Vega, D.; Angulo, I. State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/app6030068
Uribe-Pérez N, Hernández L, De la Vega D, Angulo I. State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids. Applied Sciences. 2016; 6(3):68. https://doi.org/10.3390/app6030068Chicago/Turabian Style
Uribe-Pérez, Noelia, Luis Hernández, David De la Vega, and Itziar Angulo. 2016. "State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids" Applied Sciences 6, no. 3: 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/app6030068