Special Issue "Ship Energy Systems"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Piero Pinamonti
Website
Guest Editor
Polytechnic Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
Interests: hydro and thermal power plants; distributed generation; cogeneration and trigeneration; gas turbines; energy system optimization; energy production systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In navigation, the containment of energy consumption has always been an aspect of great importance. Today, the power generation sector on board ships is experiencing a "revolution" due to both the entry into force of legislation on increasingly polluting emissions and the change in on-board energy consumption, which is becoming increasingly polygenerative (mechanical energy, electricity, heat, and cold) instead of only being propulsive.

In this context, this Special Issue aims to address this current pressing problem inviting papers concerning new on-board power generation systems, different from the traditional systems with internal combustion engines fueled with heavy fuel oil.

Very important aspects related to the performance of innovative energy systems, emission reduction, space and volume optimization could be discussed. System optimization could be considered in terms of both optimal design and optimal management in the operational life of a ship, considering the ship's electrical, thermal, refrigeration load demands in the different navigation phases.  

Prof. Dr. Piero Pinamonti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Ship energy systems
  • Emission reduction 
  • polygeneration 
  • naval fuels 
  • energy saving on board

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development of a Process Simulation Model for the Analysis of the Loading and Unloading System of a CNG Carrier Equipped with Novel Lightweight Pressure Cylinders
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7555; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217555 (registering DOI) - 27 Oct 2020
Abstract
Natural gas is becoming increasingly important to meet the growing demand for energy, guaranteeing a reduction in polluting emissions. Transportation in form of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) could be an alternative to the traditional transportation by pipeline or, as liquefied gas, by ships, [...] Read more.
Natural gas is becoming increasingly important to meet the growing demand for energy, guaranteeing a reduction in polluting emissions. Transportation in form of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) could be an alternative to the traditional transportation by pipeline or, as liquefied gas, by ships, but the ratio between the mass of transported gas and the container weight is currently too low. One of the many projects focusing on the development of innovative lightweight pressure cylinders is GASVESSEL, which proposes composite cylinders with a diameter of more than 3 m: loaded on a ship, they could allow transporting quantities of CNG as big as 10,000 tons. The related loading and unloading processes affect both the overall time required for transport and the quantity of transported gas; therefore, they have an impact on the economic feasibility of the whole project. In this paper, a newly developed process simulation model is presented that allows assessing the duration of the loading and unloading processes, the mass of transported CNG, and the amount of power and energy required by the process. The model is useful to support the design of the system considering different plant components and operating strategies. It is applied to the analysis of the loading and unloading of a ship that meets the GASVESSEL project specifications. The results show that the duration of the process is of the order of magnitude of 100 h, depending on ambient temperature, and that the energy consumption can vary in the range of 150–180 kJ for a unit mass of CNG. Finally, the model is used to simulate the same process with hydrogen, an energy carrier that allows meeting, together with the use of fuel cells, the requirements of zero local emissions. The results show increments of both the final loading temperature and compressor power with respect to the CNG case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Increasing the Energy Efficiency of an Internal Combustion Engine for Ship Propulsion with Bottom ORCs
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6919; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196919 - 02 Oct 2020
Abstract
The study examines the option of adding a bottom Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for energy recovery from an internal combustion engine (ICE) for ship propulsion. In fact, energy recovery from the exhaust gas normally rejected to the atmosphere and eventually from the cooling [...] Read more.
The study examines the option of adding a bottom Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for energy recovery from an internal combustion engine (ICE) for ship propulsion. In fact, energy recovery from the exhaust gas normally rejected to the atmosphere and eventually from the cooling water circuit (usually rejected to the sea) can significantly reduce the fuel consumption of a naval ICE during its operation. In the paper, different possible bottom ORC configurations are considered and simulated using the Aspen® code. Different working fluids are taken into account, jointly with regenerative and two-temperature levels designs. The energy recovery allowed by each solution is evaluated for different engine load, allowing the identification of the most suitable ORC configuration. For the selected case, the preliminary design of the main heat exchangers is carried out and the off-design performance of the whole combined propulsion plant (ICE + ORC) is evaluated, leading to a preliminary analysis of cost saving during normal ship operation. The results of this analysis show an increase in power output of about 10% and an expected Payback Time of less than 6 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Bi-Level Optimization of the Energy Recovery System from Internal Combustion Engines of a Cruise Ship
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6917; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196917 - 02 Oct 2020
Abstract
In recent years, ship builders and owners have to face a great effort to develop new design and management methodologies that lead to a reduction in consumption and emissions during the operation of the fleet. In the present study, the optimization of an [...] Read more.
In recent years, ship builders and owners have to face a great effort to develop new design and management methodologies that lead to a reduction in consumption and emissions during the operation of the fleet. In the present study, the optimization of an on-board energy system of a large cruise ship is performed, both in terms of energy and of the overall dimensions of the system, while respecting the environmental constraint. In the simulation, a variable number of identical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)/Stirling units is considered as an energy recovery system, bottoming the main internal combustion engines, possibly integrating with the installation of photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, absorption refrigeration machines and thermal storages. The optimization takes into account the effective optimal management of the energy system, which is different according to the different design choices of the energy recovery system. Two typical cruises are considered (summer and winter). To reduce the computational effort for the solution of the problem, a bi-level strategy has been developed, which prescribes managing the binary choice variables expressing the existence or not of the components by means of an evolutionary algorithm, while all the remaining choice variables are obtained by a mixed-integer linear programming model of the system (MILP) algorithm. The entire procedure can be defined within the commercial software modeFRONTIER®. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Benchmark Sea Trials on a 6-Meter Boat Powered by Kite
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6148; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186148 - 04 Sep 2020
Abstract
This paper presents sea trials on a 6-m boat specifically designed for kite propulsion. The kite control was automatic or manual, dynamic or static, depending on the point of sailing. The measurement system recorded boat motion and load generated by the kite. A [...] Read more.
This paper presents sea trials on a 6-m boat specifically designed for kite propulsion. The kite control was automatic or manual, dynamic or static, depending on the point of sailing. The measurement system recorded boat motion and load generated by the kite. A particular attention was paid to wind measurement with several fixed and mobile locations directly on the kiteboat or in the vicinity. A high resolution weather modelling showed that a classical power law, describing the wind gradient, was not satisfactory to get the wind at kite location. 5-min measurement phases were systematically recorded. In the end, 101 runs were carried out. Data were processed with the phase-averaging method in order to produce reliable and accurate results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance In-Live of Marine Engines: A Tool for Its Evaluation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5707; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165707 - 17 Aug 2020
Abstract
Currently, most ships use internal combustion engines (ICEs) either as propulsion engines or generator sets. The growing concern in environmental protection along with the consequent international rule framework motivated shipowners and designers to replace conventional power systems in order to mitigate pollutant emissions. [...] Read more.
Currently, most ships use internal combustion engines (ICEs) either as propulsion engines or generator sets. The growing concern in environmental protection along with the consequent international rule framework motivated shipowners and designers to replace conventional power systems in order to mitigate pollutant emissions. Therefore, manufacturers have made available on the market many technological solutions to use alternative fuels (Liquefied Natural Gas or LNG, methanol, etc.). However, the main energy source is still fossil fuel, so almost all the ICEs are made up of turbocharged diesel engines (TDEs). TDEs have still the potential to improve their efficiency and reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. In particular, the interpretation of Industry 4.0 given by manufacturers enabled the installation of a robust network of sensors on TDEs, which is able to allow reliable power management systems and make ships much more efficient regarding operating costs (fuel consumption and maintenance) and environmental footprint. In this paper, a software tool that is capable of processing the in-live performance of TDEs is described. The great novelty consists in the ability to process all the information detected by the sensor network in-live and dynamically optimize TDEs’ operation, whereas the common practice involves the collection of performance data and their off-line processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Method to Increase the Accuracy of Large Crankshaft Geometry Measurements Using Counterweights to Minimize Elastic Deformations
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4722; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144722 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Large crankshafts are highly susceptible to flexural deformation that causes them to undergo elastic deformation as they revolve, resulting in incorrect geometric measurements. Additional structural elements (counterweights) are used to stabilize the forces at the supports that fix the shaft during measurements. This [...] Read more.
Large crankshafts are highly susceptible to flexural deformation that causes them to undergo elastic deformation as they revolve, resulting in incorrect geometric measurements. Additional structural elements (counterweights) are used to stabilize the forces at the supports that fix the shaft during measurements. This article describes the use of temporary counterweights during measurements and presents the specifications of the measurement system and method. The effect of the proposed solution on the elastic deflection of a shaft was simulated with FEA, which showed that the solution provides constant reaction forces and ensures nearly zero deflection at the supported main journals of a shaft during its rotation (during its geometry measurement). The article also presents an example of a design solution for a single counterweight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Energy Systems)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Developments, Trends, and Challenges in Optimization of Ship Energy Systems
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4639; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134639 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A review of developments, trends, and challenges in synthesis, design, and operation optimization of ship energy systems is presented in this article. For better understanding of the context of this review, pertinent terms are defined, including the three levels of optimization: synthesis, design, [...] Read more.
A review of developments, trends, and challenges in synthesis, design, and operation optimization of ship energy systems is presented in this article. For better understanding of the context of this review, pertinent terms are defined, including the three levels of optimization: synthesis, design, and operation (SDO). The static and dynamic optimization problems are stated mathematically in single- and multiobjective form. The need for intertemporal optimization is highlighted. The developments in ship energy systems optimization throughout the years is clearly presented by means of journal articles, giving the main characteristics of each article. After the review of what has been done up to now, ideas for future work are given. Further research needs for optimization of ship energy systems are mentioned: further development of methodology for synthesis optimization and SDO optimization, including transients, uncertainty, reliability, and maintenance scheduling. Hints are given for expansion of the system border in order to include aspects belonging to other disciplines, such as electrical and control engineering as well as hull and propulsor optimization, thus, opening a way to the holistic ship optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Energy Systems)
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