Special Issue "Advanced Applications for Smart Energy Systems Considering Grid-Interactive Demand Response"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Angele Reinders

1. Department of Design, Production and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
2. Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sustainable energy systems, product design, photovoltaics, smart energy products, smart grids, PV modules, PV performance, electricity, innovation, and sustainable development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For this Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences, authors are invited to submit manuscripts covering applied research on smart energy systems, smart grids, smart energy homes, smart energy products and services, and the advanced applications thereof, in the context of demand response and grid interactions. The aim of this Special Issue is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible, such that they can be reproduced. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. In particular manuscripts reporting about interdisciplinary research results which combine technical, social, environmental and economic aspects of smart energy systems are appreciated. Moreover, results based on the evaluation of real life cases, energy pilots, prototypes of smart energy products and end user surveys and interviews are welcomed. If possible, a validation of simulated results should be included in a manuscript.

Prof. Dr. Angele Reinders
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Simulation-Supported Testing of Smart Energy Product Prototypes
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102030
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Smart energy products and services (SEPS) have a key role in the development of smart grids, and testing methods such as co-simulation and scenario-based simulations can be useful tools for evaluating the potential of new SEPS concepts during their early development stages. Three [...] Read more.
Smart energy products and services (SEPS) have a key role in the development of smart grids, and testing methods such as co-simulation and scenario-based simulations can be useful tools for evaluating the potential of new SEPS concepts during their early development stages. Three innovative conceptual designs for home energy management products (HEMPs)—a specific category of SEPS—were successfully tested using a simulation environment, validating their operation using simulated production and load profiles. For comparison with reality, end user tests were carried out on two of the HEMP concepts and showed mixed results for achieving more efficient energy use, with one of the concepts reducing energy consumption by 27% and the other increasing it by 25%. The scenario-based simulations provided additional insights on the performance of these products, matching some of the general trends observed during end user tests but failing to sufficiently approximate the observed results. Overall, the presented testing methods successfully evaluated the performance of HEMPs under various use conditions and identified bottlenecks, which could be improved in future designs. It is recommended that in addition to HEMPs, these tests are repeated with different SEPS and energy systems to enhance the robustness of the methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transaction Mechanism Based on Two-Dimensional Energy and Reliability Pricing for Energy Prosumers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071343
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
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Abstract
Prosumers, users that consume and produce energy, increase the diversity of energy system operations as distributed sources. However, they can reduce energy system reliability by increasing uncertainty. This study presents a novel transaction mechanism based on dynamic pricing for enhancing energy system reliability. [...] Read more.
Prosumers, users that consume and produce energy, increase the diversity of energy system operations as distributed sources. However, they can reduce energy system reliability by increasing uncertainty. This study presents a novel transaction mechanism based on dynamic pricing for enhancing energy system reliability. The proposed dynamic energy-reliability pricing-based transaction mechanism (ERT) increases the controllability of prosumer uncertainties by a two-dimensional pricing mechanism based on time and reliability status, as compared to conventional time-based one-dimensional energy prices. Under the proposed ERT, utilities and prosumers exchange information about the utility price and the prosumer’s intent in order to ensure that demand is met. A two-way information infrastructure built for prosumer energy trading is used for this task. The utility enhances system reliability using this information, and the prosumer increases revenue through pricing selection. The practical implementation of the proposed ERT is described for both utilities and prosumers. A case study using practical renewable generation data revealed that the proposed ERT improves not only the reliability factor of the utility but also prosumer revenue as compared to a conventional energy-based dynamic pricing case. It is also shown that an economical optimum point that maximizes prosumer net revenue exists when electrical energy storage (EES) is applied to enhance performance. Increasing to the EES capacity provided room for uncertainty management, net revenue is improved, but the economic burden by the EES cost is increased. Under the proposed ERT, the optimal point results in greater EES capacity and higher net revenue enhancement than the conventional case. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Provision of Ancillary Services from an Aggregated Portfolio of Residential Heat Pumps on the Dutch Frequency Containment Reserve Market
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030590
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
This study investigates the technical and financial potential of an aggregation of residential heat pumps to deliver demand response (DR) services to the Dutch Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) market. To determine this potential, a quantitative model was developed to simulate a heat pump [...] Read more.
This study investigates the technical and financial potential of an aggregation of residential heat pumps to deliver demand response (DR) services to the Dutch Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) market. To determine this potential, a quantitative model was developed to simulate a heat pump switching process. The model utilizes historical frequency and heat pump data as input to determine the optimal weekly bid size considering the regulations and fine regime of the FCR market. These regulations are set by the Dutch Transmission System Operator (TSO). Two strategies were defined that can be employed by an aggregator to select the optimal bid size; the ‘always available’ scenario and the ‘always reliable’ scenario. By using the availability and reliability as constraints in the model, the effects of TSO regulations on the potential for FCR are accurately assessed. Results show a significant difference in bid size and revenue of the strategies. In the ‘always available’ scenario, the average resultant bid size is 1.7 MW, resulting in €0.22 revenue per heat pump (0.5kWp) per week. In the ‘always reliable’ scenario, the average resultant bid size is 7.9 MW, resulting in €1.00 revenue per heat pump per week on average in the period 03-10-2016–24-04-2017. This is based on a simulation of 20,000 heat pumps with a total capacity of 1 MWp. Results show a large difference in potential between the two strategies. Since the strategies are based on TSO-regulations and strategic choices by the aggregator, both seem to have a strong influence on the financial potential of FCR provision. In practice, this study informs organizations that provide FCR with knowledge about different bidding strategies and their market impact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Smart Appliances for Efficient Integration of Solar Energy: A Dutch Case Study of a Residential Smart Grid Pilot
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030581
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper analyzes the use patterns of a residential smart grid pilot in the Netherlands, called PowerMatching City. The analysis is based on detailed monitoring data measured at 5-min intervals for the year 2012, originating from this pilot which was realized in 2007 [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the use patterns of a residential smart grid pilot in the Netherlands, called PowerMatching City. The analysis is based on detailed monitoring data measured at 5-min intervals for the year 2012, originating from this pilot which was realized in 2007 in Groningen, Netherlands. In this pilot, smart appliances, heat pumps, micro-combined heat and power (µ-CHP), and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed to evaluate their efficiency, their ability to reduce peak electricity purchase, and their effects on self-sufficiency and on the local use of solar electricity. As a result of the evaluation, diverse yearly and weekly indicators have been determined, such as electricity purchase and delivery, solar production, flexible generation, and load. Depending on the household configuration, up to 40% of self-sufficiency is achieved on an annual average basis, and 14.4% of the total consumption were flexible. In general, we can conclude that micro-CHP contributed to keep purchase from the grid relatively constant throughout the seasons. Adding to that, smart appliances significantly contributed to load shifting in peak times. It is recommended that similar evaluations will be conducted in other smart grid pilots to statistically enhance insights in the functioning of residential smart grids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Publicly Verifiable Spatial and Temporal Aggregation Scheme Against Malicious Aggregator in Smart Grid
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030490
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
We propose a privacy-preserving aggregation scheme under a malicious attacks model, in which the aggregator may forge householders’ billing, or a neighborhood aggregation data, or collude with compromised smart meters to reveal object householders’ fine-grained data. The scheme can generate spatially total consumption [...] Read more.
We propose a privacy-preserving aggregation scheme under a malicious attacks model, in which the aggregator may forge householders’ billing, or a neighborhood aggregation data, or collude with compromised smart meters to reveal object householders’ fine-grained data. The scheme can generate spatially total consumption in a neighborhood at a timestamp and temporally a householder’s billing in a series of timestamps. The proposed encryption scheme of imposing masking keys from pseudo-random function (PRF) between pairwise nodes on partitioned data ensures the confidentiality of individual fine-grained data, and fends off the power theft of n-2 smart meters at most (n is the group size of smart meters in a neighborhood). Compared with the afore-mentioned methods of public key encryption in most related literatures, the simple and lightweight combination of PRF with modular addition not only is customized to the specific needs of smart grid, but also facilitates any node’s verification for local aggregation or global aggregation with low cost overhead. The publicly verifiable scenarios are very important for self-sufficient, remote places, which can only afford renewable energy and can manage its own energy price according to the energy consumption circumstance in a neighborhood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Resonance Instability of Photovoltaic E-Bike Charging Stations: Control Parameters Analysis, Modeling and Experiment
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020252
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents an in-situ comparative analysis and power quality tests of a newly developed photovoltaic charging system for e-bikes. The various control methods of the inverter are modeled and a single-phase grid-connected inverter is tested under different conditions. Models are constituted for [...] Read more.
This article presents an in-situ comparative analysis and power quality tests of a newly developed photovoltaic charging system for e-bikes. The various control methods of the inverter are modeled and a single-phase grid-connected inverter is tested under different conditions. Models are constituted for two current control methods; the proportional resonance and the synchronous rotating frames. In order to determine the influence of the control parameters, the system is analyzed analytically in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain by simulation. The tests indicated the resonance instability of the photovoltaic inverter. The passivity impedance-based stability criterion is applied in order to analyze the phenomenon of resonance instability. In conclusion, the phase-locked loop (PLL) bandwidth and control parameters of the current loop have a major effect on the output admittance of the inverter, which should be adjusted to make the system stable. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Users Empowered in Smart Grid Development? Assumptions and Up-To-Date Knowledge
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050815
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Active involvement of users in smart grids is often seen as key to beneficial development of smart grids. In this paper, we investigate the diverse assumptions about how and why users should be active and to what extent these assumptions are supported by [...] Read more.
Active involvement of users in smart grids is often seen as key to beneficial development of smart grids. In this paper, we investigate the diverse assumptions about how and why users should be active and to what extent these assumptions are supported by experiences in practice. We present the findings of a systematic literature review on four distinctive forms of user involvement in actual smart grid projects: demand shifting, energy saving, co-design, and co-provision. The state-of-the-art knowledge reflects the preoccupation with demand shifting in the actual smart grid development. Little is known about the other user roles. More diversity in types of projects regarding user roles would improve the knowledge base for important decisions defining the future of smart grids. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
An Exploration of the Three-Layer Model Including Stakeholders, Markets and Technologies for Assessments of Residential Smart Grids
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122363
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a framework is presented for the evaluation of smart grid environment which is called the three-layer model. This three-layer model comprises three specific categories, or ‘layers’, namely, the stakeholder, market and technologies layers. Each layer is defined and explored herein, [...] Read more.
In this paper, a framework is presented for the evaluation of smart grid environment which is called the three-layer model. This three-layer model comprises three specific categories, or ‘layers’, namely, the stakeholder, market and technologies layers. Each layer is defined and explored herein, using an extensive literature study regarding their key elements, their descriptions and an overview of the findings from the literature. The assumption behind this study is that a solid understanding of each of the three layers and their interrelations will help in more effective assessment of residential smart grid pilots in order to better design products and services and deploy smart grid technologies in networks. Based on our review, we conclude that, in many studies, social factors associated with smart grid pilots, such as markets, social acceptance, and end-user and stakeholder demands, are most commonly defined as uncertainties and are therefore considered separately from the technical aspects of smart grids. As such, it is recommended that, in future assessments, the stakeholder and market layers should be combined with the technologies layer so as to enhance interaction between these three layers, and to be able to better evaluate residential smart energy systems in a multidisciplinary context. Full article
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