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Open AccessArticle

A Comparison of Households’ Energy Balance in Residential Smart Grid Pilots in the Netherlands

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Department of Design, Production and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
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Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Energy Technology Group at Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9152993
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
This paper presents an analysis that frames the impact of various smart grid technologies, with an objective to provide a transparent framework for residential smart grid demonstration projects based on predefined and clearly formulated key performance indicators. The analysis inspects measured energy data of 217 households from three smart grid pilot projects in the Netherlands and a public dataset with smart meter data from 70 households as a reference. The datasets were evaluated for one year and compared to provide insights on technologies and other differences based on seven key performance indicators, giving a comprehensive overview: monthly electricity consumption (100–600 kWh) and production (4–200 kWh); annually imported (3.1–4.5 MWh) and exported (0.2–1 MWh) electricity; residual load; peak of imported (4.8–6.8 kW) and exported (0.3–2.2 kW) electricity; import simultaneity (20–70.5%); feed in simultaneity (75–89%); self-sufficiency (18–20%); and self-consumption (50–70%). It was found that the electrification of heating systems in buildings by using heat pumps leads to an increase of annual electricity consumption and peak loads of approximately 30% compared to the average Dutch households without heat pumps. Moreover, these peaks have a high degree of simultaneity. To increase both the self-sufficiency and self-consumption of households, further investigations will be required to optimize smart grid systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart grids; flexibility; photovoltaic; heat pumps; consumption patterns; self-consumption; self-sufficiency; energy system analysis; load duration curve smart grids; flexibility; photovoltaic; heat pumps; consumption patterns; self-consumption; self-sufficiency; energy system analysis; load duration curve
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Gercek, C.; Schram, W.; Lampropoulos, I.; van Sark, W.; Reinders, A. A Comparison of Households’ Energy Balance in Residential Smart Grid Pilots in the Netherlands. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2993.

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