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An Exploration of the Three-Layer Model Including Stakeholders, Markets and Technologies for Assessments of Residential Smart Grids

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Department of Design, Production and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Energy Technology Group at Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
3
Austrian Institute of Technology, Giefinggasse 4, 1210 Vienna, Austria
4
Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences, PO Box 1528, 8901 BV Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
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Knowledge, Technology and Innovation, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, The Netherlands
7
Energy Technology Section, Department of Process and Energy, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 39, 2628 CB Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122363
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
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Abstract

In this paper, a framework is presented for the evaluation of smart grid environment which is called the three-layer model. This three-layer model comprises three specific categories, or ‘layers’, namely, the stakeholder, market and technologies layers. Each layer is defined and explored herein, using an extensive literature study regarding their key elements, their descriptions and an overview of the findings from the literature. The assumption behind this study is that a solid understanding of each of the three layers and their interrelations will help in more effective assessment of residential smart grid pilots in order to better design products and services and deploy smart grid technologies in networks. Based on our review, we conclude that, in many studies, social factors associated with smart grid pilots, such as markets, social acceptance, and end-user and stakeholder demands, are most commonly defined as uncertainties and are therefore considered separately from the technical aspects of smart grids. As such, it is recommended that, in future assessments, the stakeholder and market layers should be combined with the technologies layer so as to enhance interaction between these three layers, and to be able to better evaluate residential smart energy systems in a multidisciplinary context. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart grids; electricity market; flexibility; stakeholders; end-users; renewable energy; energy products and services smart grids; electricity market; flexibility; stakeholders; end-users; renewable energy; energy products and services
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Reinders, A.; Übermasser, S.; Van Sark, W.; Gercek, C.; Schram, W.; Obinna, U.; Lehfuss, F.; Van Mierlo, B.; Robledo, C.; Van Wijk, A. An Exploration of the Three-Layer Model Including Stakeholders, Markets and Technologies for Assessments of Residential Smart Grids. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 2363.

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