Special Issue "Recent Advances in Geographic Information System for Earth Sciences"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences and Geography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Yosoon Choi
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
Interests: smart mining; renewables in mining; space mining; AICBM (AI, IoT, cloud, big data, mobile) convergence; unmanned aerial vehicle; mine planning and design; open-pit mining operation; mine safety; geographic information systems; 3D geo-modeling; geostatistics; hydrological analysis; energy analysis and simulation; design of solar energy conversion systems; renewable energy systems
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based technology and methodology for collecting, managing, analyzing, modeling, and presenting geospatial data for a wide range of applications. GIS plays a vital role in Earth sciences by providing a powerful means of looking at the world and tools for solving complex problems. The scientific community has used GIS to reveal fascinating details about the Earth and even other planets. This Special Issue (SI) aims to encourage researchers to address the recent advances in GIS for Earth sciences. This SI will consider original research contributions and reviews on all areas of Earth sciences, including (but not limited to):

  • GIS in Physical Geography
  • GIS in Geology and Mineral Science
  • GIS in Geophysics and Geodesy
  • GIS in Soil Science
  • GIS in Environmental Science
  • GIS in Hydrology
  • GIS in Oceanography
  • GIS in Meteorology
  • GIS in Astronomy

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yosoon Choi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Geo-spatial data collection
  • Geo-spatial modeling
  • Geo-spatial analysis
  • Geo-spatial statistics
  • Geo-spatial simulation
  • Geo-spatial intelligence
  • Geo-spatial visualization
  • Geo-spatial decision support

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Effective Cognition for the QGIS Processing Modeler
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041446 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This article presents an evaluation of the QGIS Processing Modeler from the point of view of effective cognition. The QGIS Processing Modeler uses visual programming language for workflow design. The functionalities of the visual component and the visual vocabulary (set of symbols and [...] Read more.
This article presents an evaluation of the QGIS Processing Modeler from the point of view of effective cognition. The QGIS Processing Modeler uses visual programming language for workflow design. The functionalities of the visual component and the visual vocabulary (set of symbols and line connectors) are both important. The form of symbols affects how workflow diagrams may be understood. The article discusses the results of assessing the Processing Modeler’s visual vocabulary in QGIS according to the Physics of Notations theory. The article evaluates visual vocabularies from the older QGIS 2.x and newer 3.x versions. The paper identifies serious design flaws in the Processing Modeler. Applying the Physics of Notations theory resulted in certain practical recommendations, such as changing the fill colour of symbols, increasing the size and variety of inner icons, removing functional icons, and using a straight connector line instead of a curved line. Another recommendation was to provide a supplemental preview window for the entire model in order to improve user navigation in huge models. Objective eye-tracking measurements validated some results of the evaluation using the Physics of Notations. The respondents read workflows to solve different tasks and their gazes were tracked. Evaluation of the eye-tracking metrics revealed the respondents’ reading patterns of the diagram. Evaluation using both Physics of Notation theory and eye-tracking measurements inspired recommendations for improving visual notation. A set of recommendations for users is also given, which can be applied easily in practice using a contemporary visual notation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
GIS-Based Evaluation of Landslide Susceptibility Models Using Certainty Factors and Functional Trees-Based Ensemble Techniques
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010016 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 23
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to use ensembles techniques of functional tree-based bagging, rotation forest, and dagging (functional trees (FT), bagging-functional trees (BFT), rotation forest-functional trees (RFFT), dagging-functional trees (DFT)) for landslide susceptibility modeling in Zichang County, China. Firstly, 263 landslides [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this paper is to use ensembles techniques of functional tree-based bagging, rotation forest, and dagging (functional trees (FT), bagging-functional trees (BFT), rotation forest-functional trees (RFFT), dagging-functional trees (DFT)) for landslide susceptibility modeling in Zichang County, China. Firstly, 263 landslides were identified, and the landslide inventory map was established, and the landslide locations were randomly divided into 70% (training data) and 30% (validation data). Then, 14 landslide conditioning factors were selected. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between conditioning factors and landslides was applied using the certainty factor method. Hereafter, four models were applied for landslide susceptibility modeling and zoning. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and statistical parameters were used to evaluate and compare the overall performance of the four models. The results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for the four models was larger than 0.74. Among them, the BFT model is better than the other three models. In addition, this study also illustrated that the integrated model is not necessarily more effective than a single model. The ensemble data mining technology used in this study can be used as an effective tool for future land planning and monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geo-Sensor Framework and Composition Toolbox for Efficient Deployment of Multiple Spatial Context Service Platforms in Sensor Networks
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 4993; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9234993 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Geo-sensor is the term used for the deployment of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in a real environment, which can be a hideous task due to many influential variables in a given environment. The spatial context of a sensor in a smart environment [...] Read more.
Geo-sensor is the term used for the deployment of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in a real environment, which can be a hideous task due to many influential variables in a given environment. The spatial context of a sensor in a smart environment can be of huge significance and can also play an important role in improving the smart services provision. In this work, we propose a DIY geo-sensor framework and data composition toolbox for the deployment of sensors data in smart IoT environments along with geographical context. A geo-sensor framework is deployed, which enables the registration of multiple geo-sensor networks by providing multiple geo-sensor platforms. The framework’s logic is based on the combination of a geo-sensor service registry, geo-sensor composition toolbox, and geo-sensor platforms. A geo-sensor platform provides the content to the toolbox, enabling relaxed real-time geo-sensor data management. Our proposed work is two-fold. Firstly, we propose the design details for the geo-sensor framework and composition toolbox. The proposed design for the geo-sensor framework aims to provide a DIY platform for multiple geo-sensor networks and services deployment, giving access to multiple users resulting in reuse of resources and reduction in deployment costs by avoiding duplicate deployments. Secondly, we implement the proposed design based on RESTful web services and SOAP web services. Performance comparison analysis is then performed among the two web services to find the best suited implementation for given scenarios. The results of the performance analysis prove that RESTful web services are the better choice for ease of implementation, access, and light-weightiness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vector Map Random Encryption Algorithm Based on Multi-Scale Simplification and Gaussian Distribution
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4889; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224889 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In recent years, GIS (Geographical Information System) vector maps are widely used in everyday life, science, and the military. However, the production process of vector maps is expensive, and a large volume of vector map data is easily stolen and illegally distributed. Therefore, [...] Read more.
In recent years, GIS (Geographical Information System) vector maps are widely used in everyday life, science, and the military. However, the production process of vector maps is expensive, and a large volume of vector map data is easily stolen and illegally distributed. Therefore, original providers desire an encryption solution to encrypt GIS vector map data before being stored and transmitted in order to prevent pirate attacks and to ensure secure transmission. In this paper, we propose an encryption algorithm for GIS vector map data for preventing illegal copying, and ensuring secured storage and transmission. Polyline/polygon data of GIS vector maps are extracted to compute a backbone object. The backbone object is then selectively simplified by the multi-scale simplification algorithm in order to determine the feature vertices of the backbone object. The feature vertices of the backbone object are encrypted by the advanced encryption standard and the secret key. Finally, all vertices of the backbone object are randomized by the random Gaussian distribution algorithm to obtain the encrypted GIS vector map. Experimental results show that the entire map is altered completely after the encryption process. The proposed method is responsive to the various GIS vector map data formats, and also provides better security than previous methods. The computation time of the proposed method is also significantly shorter than that of previous methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Parallel Algorithm for Polygons Overlay Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4857; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224857 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Map overlay analysis is essential for geospatial analytics. Large scale spatial data pressing poses challenges for geospatial map overlay analytics. In this study, we propose an efficient parallel algorithm for polygons overlay analysis, including active-slave spatial index decomposition for intersection, multi-strategy Hilbert ordering [...] Read more.
Map overlay analysis is essential for geospatial analytics. Large scale spatial data pressing poses challenges for geospatial map overlay analytics. In this study, we propose an efficient parallel algorithm for polygons overlay analysis, including active-slave spatial index decomposition for intersection, multi-strategy Hilbert ordering decomposition, and parallel spatial union algorithm. Multi-strategy based spatial data decomposition mechanism is implemented, including parallel spatial data index, the Hilbert space-filling curve sort, and decomposition. The results of the experiments showed that the parallel algorithm for polygons overlay analysis achieves high efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Changes of Urban Rainstorm-Related Micro-Blogging Activities in Response to Rainstorms: A Case Study in Beijing, China
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(21), 4629; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214629 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Natural disasters cause significant casualties and losses in urban areas every year. Further, the frequency and intensity of natural disasters have increased significantly over the past couple of decades in the context of global climate change. Understanding how urban dwellers learn about and [...] Read more.
Natural disasters cause significant casualties and losses in urban areas every year. Further, the frequency and intensity of natural disasters have increased significantly over the past couple of decades in the context of global climate change. Understanding how urban dwellers learn about and response to a natural hazard is of great significance as more and more people migrate to cities. Social media has become one of the most essential communication platforms in the virtual space for users to share their knowledge, information, and opinions about almost everything in the physical world. Geo-tagged posts published on different social media platforms contain a huge amount of information that can help us to better understand the dynamics of collective geo-tagged human activities. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of the collective geo-tagged human activities in Beijing when it was afflicted by the “6-22” rainstorm. We used a variety of machine learning and statistical methods to examine the correlations between rainstorm-related microblogs and the rainstorm characteristics at a fine spatial and a fine temporal scale across Beijing. We also studied factors that could be used to explain the changes of the rainstorm-related blogging activities. Our results show that the human response to a disaster is very consistent, though with certain time lags, in the virtual and physical spaces at both the grid and city scales. Such a consistency varies significantly across our study area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Reliable Digital Elevation Model Resolution for TOPMODEL in Two Mountainous Watersheds, South Korea
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3690; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183690 - 05 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study analyzed the result of parameter optimization using the digital elevation model (DEM) resolution in the TOPography-based hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL). Also, this study investigated the sensitivity of the TOPMODEL efficiency by applying the varying resolution of the DEM grid cell size. This [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the result of parameter optimization using the digital elevation model (DEM) resolution in the TOPography-based hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL). Also, this study investigated the sensitivity of the TOPMODEL efficiency by applying the varying resolution of the DEM grid cell size. This work applied TOPMODEL to two mountainous watersheds in South Korea: the Dongkok watershed in the Wicheon river basin and the Ieemokjung watershed in the Pyeongchang river basin. The DEM grid cell sizes were 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 300 m. The effect of DEM grid cell size on the runoff was investigated by using the DEM grid cell size resolution to optimize the parameter sets. As the DEM grid cell size increased, the estimated peak discharge was found to increase based on different parameter sets. In addition, this study investigated the DEM grid cell size that was most reliable for use in runoff simulations with various parameter sets in the experimental watersheds. The results demonstrated that the TOPMODEL efficiencies in both the Dongkok and Ieemokjung watersheds rarely changed up to a DEM grid-size resolution of about 40 m, but the TOPMODEL efficiencies changed with the coarse resolution as the parameter sets were changed. This study is important for understanding and quantifying the modeling behaviors of TOPMODEL under the influence of DEM resolution based on different parameter sets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Dynamics and Obstacles of the Multi-Functionality of Land Use in Xiangxi, China
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3649; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183649 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The multi-functionality of land as the basis of land use and utilization is under increasing investigation. This study assesses the spatiotemporal dynamic multi-functionality of land use and analyzes the obstacle indicators in Xiangxi using two methods, i.e., the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and [...] Read more.
The multi-functionality of land as the basis of land use and utilization is under increasing investigation. This study assesses the spatiotemporal dynamic multi-functionality of land use and analyzes the obstacle indicators in Xiangxi using two methods, i.e., the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the hierarchical weighting method (HWM). First, we found that the total function level of land use in Xiangxi was constantly optimized. Spatial heterogeneity was clearer. Land use had a trend toward diversification, with a focus on production or living function. The coordination of multifunctional land use has undergone certain changes. It was more apparent in the south than in central and northern regions. Second, we discovered that production function of land use in Xiangxi grew slowly and spatial differentiation was enhanced. The living function fluctuated with the trend of spatial equilibrium. Changes in ecological function and any spatial differentiation were not clear. Third, land use can be divided into living-ecological, production-living, and production obstacle types. Lastly, we state that, to narrow the gap between urban-rural areas and reduce the non-point pollution from agriculture in living-ecological barrier areas, we need to develop production and social public utilities in production-living barrier areas, and develop production and eliminate poverty in production barrier areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analyzing Spatial Community Pattern of Network Traffic Flow and Its Variations across Time Based on Taxi GPS Trajectories
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102054 - 18 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The transport system is a critical component of the urban environment in terms of its connectivity, aggregation, and dynamic functions. The transport system can be considered a complex system due to the massive traffic flows generated by the spatial interactions between land uses. [...] Read more.
The transport system is a critical component of the urban environment in terms of its connectivity, aggregation, and dynamic functions. The transport system can be considered a complex system due to the massive traffic flows generated by the spatial interactions between land uses. Benefiting from the recent development of location-aware sensing technologies, large volumes of traffic flow data (e.g., taxi trajectory data) have been increasingly collected in spatial databases, which provides new opportunities to interpret transport systems in cities. This paper aims to analyze network traffic flow from the perspective of the properties of spatial connectivity, spatial aggregation, and spatial dynamics. To this end, we propose a three level framework to mine intra-city vehicle trajectory data. More specifically, the first step was to construct the network traffic flow, with nodes and edges representing the partitioned regions and associated traffic flows, respectively. We then detected community structures of network traffic flow based on their structural and traffic volume properties. Finally, we analyzed the variations of those communities across time for the dynamic transport system. Through experiments in Beijing city, we found that the method is effective in interpreting the mechanisms of urban space, and can provide references for administrative divisions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Tightly Coupled GIS and Spatiotemporal Modeling for Methane Emission Simulation in the Underground Coal Mine System
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091931 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Mine safety is of primary concern in the underground coal mining system. At present, there is a lack of an efficient platform to manage the numerical simulation procedure and inherent spatiotemporal data for coal mine disasters. This necessitates the coupling of spatiotemporal model [...] Read more.
Mine safety is of primary concern in the underground coal mining system. At present, there is a lack of an efficient platform to manage the numerical simulation procedure and inherent spatiotemporal data for coal mine disasters. This necessitates the coupling of spatiotemporal model with geographic information system (GIS) in practical application. Here, a novel spatiotemporal model tightly coupled with GIS is presented to improve the model-data integration. Such tight coupling is achieved by developing a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based turbulent model with an underlying shared FluentEntity model within the LongRuanGIS platform. The case study and comparison with the traditional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method demonstrated that the platform is capable and effective in providing functionalities for lattice domain decomposition, simulation, visualization and analyses, as well as improving the computational efficiency. The proposed approach and platform, promising for the disaster prevention, offer a template for future GIS-Model integration and also applicable for other underground coal mine disasters. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Rainfall Induced Landslide Studies in Indian Himalayan Region: A Critical Review
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072466 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
Landslides are one of the most devastating and recurring natural disasters and have affected several mountainous regions across the globe. The Indian Himalayan region is no exception to landslide incidences affecting key economic sectors such as transportation and agriculture and often leading to [...] Read more.
Landslides are one of the most devastating and recurring natural disasters and have affected several mountainous regions across the globe. The Indian Himalayan region is no exception to landslide incidences affecting key economic sectors such as transportation and agriculture and often leading to loss of lives. As reflected in the global landslide dataset, most of the landslides in this region are rainfall triggered. The region is prone to 15% of the global rainfall-induced landslides, and thereby a review of the studies in the region is inevitable. The high exposure to landslide risk has made the Indian Himalayas receive growing attention by the landslides community. A review of landslides studies conducted in this region is therefore important to provide a general picture of the state-of-the-art, a reference point for researchers and practitioners working in this region for the first time, and a summary of the improvements most urgently needed to better address landslide hazard research and management. This article focuses on various studies ranging from forecasting and monitoring to hazard and susceptibility analysis. The various factors used to analyze landslide are also studied for various landslide zones in the region. The analysis reveals that there are several avenues where significant research work is needed such as the inclusion of climate change factors or the acquisition of basic data of highest quality to be used as input data for computational models. In addition, the review reveals that, despite the entire region being highly landslide prone, most of the studies have focused on few regions and large areas have been neglected. The aim of the review is to provide a reference for stakeholders and researchers who are currently or looking to work in the Indian Himalayas, to highlight the shortcomings and the points of strength of the research being conducted, and to provide a contribution in addressing the future developments most urgently needed to obtain a consistent advance in landslide risk reduction of the area. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Review of GIS-Based Applications for Mining: Planning, Operation, and Environmental Management
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072266 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this study, geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and applications utilized for mine development were reviewed. Three types of GIS-based studies, namely studies on mine planning, operation, and environmental management, were examined to describe the role of GIS as a decision-making support tool [...] Read more.
In this study, geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and applications utilized for mine development were reviewed. Three types of GIS-based studies, namely studies on mine planning, operation, and environmental management, were examined to describe the role of GIS as a decision-making support tool in mine development. This review was conducted by classifying previous GIS-based studies into several subtopics that pertain to mine development activities and the range of environments to be managed. Because the use of GIS is appropriate for spatial data management related to ore deposits and mine environment conditions at various scales, the applications of GIS-based methods in mine development could be expanded further. Full article
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