Special Issue "Biofabrication: from Additive Bio-Manufacturing to Bioprinting"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Amir A. Zadpoor

Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, Delft 2628CD, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biofabrication and additive bio-manufacturing; mechanobiology; surface bio-functionalization; infection prevention and treatment; metamaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Healthcare is one of the areas that has benefited the most from recent advances in advanced 3D printing (additive manufacturing) techniques. An increasing number of researchers and clinicians are therefore studying the various ways through which 3D printing could be used for advancing biomedical research and improving currently available clinical treatments. This Special Issue aims to present some of the best research currently performed in those directions. The topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

-  Additively manufactured (i.e., 3D printed) medical devices including implants, medical instruments, prosthetics, and orthotics
-  Tissue and organ printing
-  3D printed drugs and drug delivery systems
-  Bioprinting of tissue analogues and disease models
-  Additive manufacturing of biomaterials
-  Pre- and post-processing of 3D printed medical devices and biomaterials including surface bio-functionalizations and coatings
-  Patient-specific solutions enabled by 3D printing
-  Hybrid (i.e., combined additive and subtractive) manufacturing, indirect additive manufacturing, and other novel fabrication techniques for biomedical applications.
-  Evaluation of the biological and clinical performance of 3D printed biomaterials, tissues, organs, and medical devices.

Prof. Dr. Amir A. Zadpoor
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bio-printing
  • 3D printing in healthcare
  • biomaterials
  • medical devices
  • regenerative medicine
  • tissue equivalents and disease models
  • 3D printed drugs

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Modes of Laser-Induced Mass Transfer in Micro-Gaps
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071303
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
We have observed the concentric deposition patterns of small molecules transferred by means of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT). The patterns comprised different parts whose presence changed with the experimental constraints in a mode-like fashion. In experiments, we studied this previously unknown phenomenon and [...] Read more.
We have observed the concentric deposition patterns of small molecules transferred by means of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT). The patterns comprised different parts whose presence changed with the experimental constraints in a mode-like fashion. In experiments, we studied this previously unknown phenomenon and derived model assumptions for its emergence. We identified aerosol micro-flow and geometric confinement as the mechanism behind the mass transfer and the cause of the concentric patterns. We validated our model using a simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication: from Additive Bio-Manufacturing to Bioprinting)
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Open AccessArticle
Peptide Mediated Antimicrobial Dental Adhesive System
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030557
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
The most common cause for dental composite failures is secondary caries due to invasive bacterial colonization of the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interface. Innate material weakness often lead to an insufficient seal between the adhesive and dentin. Consequently, bacterial by-products invade the porous a/d interface [...] Read more.
The most common cause for dental composite failures is secondary caries due to invasive bacterial colonization of the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interface. Innate material weakness often lead to an insufficient seal between the adhesive and dentin. Consequently, bacterial by-products invade the porous a/d interface leading to material degradation and dental caries. Current approaches to achieve antibacterial properties in these materials continue to raise concerns regarding hypersensitivity and antibiotic resistance. Herein, we have developed a multi-faceted, bio-functionalized approach to overcome the vulnerability of such interfaces. An antimicrobial adhesive formulation was designed using a combination of antimicrobial peptide and a ε-polylysine resin system. Effector molecules boasting innate immunity are brought together with a biopolymer offering a two-fold biomimetic design approach. The selection of ε-polylysine was inspired due to its non-toxic nature and common use as food preservative. Biomolecular characterization and functional activity of our engineered dental adhesive formulation were assessed and the combinatorial formulation demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans. Our antimicrobial peptide-hydrophilic adhesive hybrid system design offers advanced, biofunctional properties at the critical a/d interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication: from Additive Bio-Manufacturing to Bioprinting)
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Open AccessCommunication
3D Printing of Functional Assemblies with Integrated Polymer-Bonded Magnets Demonstrated with a Prototype of a Rotary Blood Pump
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081275
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional magnet manufacturing is a significant bottleneck in the development processes of products that use magnets, because every design adaption requires production steps with long lead times. Additive manufacturing of magnetic components delivers the opportunity to shift to agile and test-driven development in [...] Read more.
Conventional magnet manufacturing is a significant bottleneck in the development processes of products that use magnets, because every design adaption requires production steps with long lead times. Additive manufacturing of magnetic components delivers the opportunity to shift to agile and test-driven development in early prototyping stages, as well as new possibilities for complex designs. In an effort to simplify integration of magnetic components, the current work presents a method to directly print polymer-bonded hard magnets of arbitrary shape into thermoplastic parts by fused deposition modeling. This method was applied to an early prototype design of a rotary blood pump with magnetic bearing and magnetic drive coupling. Thermoplastics were compounded with 56 vol.% isotropic NdFeB powder to manufacture printable filament. With a powder loading of 56 vol.%, remanences of 350 mT and adequate mechanical flexibility for robust processability were achieved. This compound allowed us to print a prototype of a turbodynamic pump with integrated magnets in the impeller and housing in one piece on a low-cost, end-user 3D printer. Then, the magnetic components in the printed pump were fully magnetized in a pulsed Bitter coil. The pump impeller is driven by magnetic coupling to non-printed permanent magnets rotated by a brushless DC motor, resulting in a flow rate of 3 L/min at 1000 rpm. For the first time, an application of combined multi-material and magnet printing by fused deposition modeling was shown. The presented process significantly simplifies the prototyping of products that use magnets, such as rotary blood pumps, and opens the door for more complex and innovative designs. It will also help postpone the shift to conventional manufacturing methods to later phases of the development process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication: from Additive Bio-Manufacturing to Bioprinting)
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Open AccessArticle
Printability Study of Bioprinted Tubular Structures Using Liquid Hydrogel Precursors in a Support Bath
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030403
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
Microextrusion-based bioprinting within a support bath material is an emerging additive manufacturing paradigm for complex three-dimensional (3D) tissue construct fabrication. Although a support bath medium enables arbitrary in-process geometries to be printed, a significant challenge lies in preserving the shape fidelity upon the [...] Read more.
Microextrusion-based bioprinting within a support bath material is an emerging additive manufacturing paradigm for complex three-dimensional (3D) tissue construct fabrication. Although a support bath medium enables arbitrary in-process geometries to be printed, a significant challenge lies in preserving the shape fidelity upon the extraction of the support bath material. Based on the bioprinting in a support bath paradigm, this paper advances quantitative analyses to systematically determine the printability of cell-laden liquid hydrogel precursors towards filament-based tissue constructs. First, a yield stress nanoclay material is judiciously selected as the support bath medium owing to its insensitivity to temperature and ionic variations that are considered in the context of the current gelatin-alginate bio-ink material formulation. Furthermore, phenomenological observations for the rheology-mediated print outcomes enable the compositions for the bio-ink material (10% gelatin, 3% alginate), in tandem with the support bath medium (4% nanoclay, 0.5% CaCl2), to be identified. To systematically evaluate the performance outcomes for bioprinting within a support bath, this paper advances an experimental parametric study to optimize the 3D structural shape fidelity by varying parameters such as the layer height, extrusion flowrate, printing temperature, and printhead speed, towards fabricating complex 3D structures with the stabilization of the desired shape outcome. Specifically, it is found that the layer height and printhead speed are determinant parameters for the extent of successive layer fusion. Moreover, maintenance of an optimal bath temperature is identified as a key parameter for establishing the printability for the hydrogel bio-ink. Studying this effect is enabled by the custom design of a PID temperature control system with integration with the bioprinter for real-time precision control of the support bath temperature. In order to qualify the printed construct, a surface irregularity metric, defined as the average height difference between consecutive local maximum and minimum points of the binary image contour for the printed structure, is advanced to evaluate the quality of the printed constructs. Complex one-to-four bifurcating tubular structure prints demonstrate the applicability of the optimized bioprinting parameter space to create exemplar 3D human vessel-like structures. Finally, a cell viability assay and perfusion test for a printed cell-laden tubular element demonstrates high cell survival rates and leakage-free flow, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication: from Additive Bio-Manufacturing to Bioprinting)
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Open AccessArticle
A Biomimetic Approach for Designing a Full External Breast Prosthesis: Post-Mastectomy
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030357
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
This work presents the design of a new breast prosthesis using the biomimetic technique for cases of complete mastectomy to address the problem of the increasing number of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Mexico who are candidates for a mastectomy. The designed [...] Read more.
This work presents the design of a new breast prosthesis using the biomimetic technique for cases of complete mastectomy to address the problem of the increasing number of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Mexico who are candidates for a mastectomy. The designed prosthesis considers the morphology of a real breast regarding its internal structure to obtain authentic mobility and feel. In order to accomplish this, a model was obtained in 3D CAD using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) that can be scalable without losing its qualities, and which can be used in any type of patient; afterwards, a finite element model was developed and a static analysis performed with suggested load cases to evaluate the sensitivity and naturalness of the prosthesis; and finally, a modal analysis was conducted. The results obtained in displacements and in distribution of stress for the load cases assessed are consistent with those of a real breast: there were smooth contours and there was natural mobility in the prosthesis designed by means of the biomimetic technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication: from Additive Bio-Manufacturing to Bioprinting)
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Open AccessArticle
A Bibliometric Study to Assess Bioprinting Evolution
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121331
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioprinting as a tissue engineering tool is one of the most promising technologies for overcoming organ shortage. However, the spread of populist articles among on this technology could potentially lead public opinion to idealize its readiness. This bibliometric study aimed to trace the [...] Read more.
Bioprinting as a tissue engineering tool is one of the most promising technologies for overcoming organ shortage. However, the spread of populist articles among on this technology could potentially lead public opinion to idealize its readiness. This bibliometric study aimed to trace the evolution of bioprinting literature over the past decade (i.e., 2000 to 2015) using the SCI-expanded database of Web of Science® (WoS, Thomson Reuters). The articles were analyzed by combining various bibliometric tools, such as science mapping and topic analysis, and a Technology Readiness Scale was adapted to assess the evolution of this emerging field. The number of analyzed publications was low (231), but the literature grew exceptionally fast. The “Engineering, Biomedical” was still the most represented WoS category. Some of the recent fronts were “hydrogels” and “stem cells”, while “in vitro” remained one of the most used keywords. The number of countries and journals involved in bioprinting literature grew substantially in one decade, also supporting the idea of an increasing community. Neither the United States’ leadership in bioprinting productivity nor the role of universities in publications were challenged. “Biofabrication” and “Biomaterials” journals were still the leaders of the bioprinting field. Bioprinting is a young but promising technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication: from Additive Bio-Manufacturing to Bioprinting)
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Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective
Fabricating High-Quality 3D-Printed Alloys for Dental Applications
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7070710
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metal additive manufacturing (AM), especially selective laser melting (SLM), has been receiving particular attention because metallic functional structures with complicated configurations can be effectively fabricated using the technique. However, there still exist some future challenges for the fabrication of high-quality SLM products for [...] Read more.
Metal additive manufacturing (AM), especially selective laser melting (SLM), has been receiving particular attention because metallic functional structures with complicated configurations can be effectively fabricated using the technique. However, there still exist some future challenges for the fabrication of high-quality SLM products for dental applications. First, the surface quality of SLM products should be further improved by standardizing the laser process parameters or by appropriately post-treating the surface. Second, it should be guaranteed that dental SLM restorations have good dimensional accuracy and, in particular, a good marginal fit. Third, a definitive standard regarding building and scanning strategies, which affect the anisotropy, should be established to optimize the mechanical properties and fatigue resistance of SLM dental structures. Fourth, the SLM substructure’s bonding and support to veneering ceramic should be further studied to facilitate the use of esthetic dental restorations. Finally, the biocompatibility of SLM dental alloys should be carefully examined and improved to minimize the potential release of toxic metal ions from the alloys. Future research of SLM should focus on solving the above challenges, as well as on fabricating dental structures with “controlled” porosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication: from Additive Bio-Manufacturing to Bioprinting)
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