Special Issue "Extraction of Antioxidants from Food Waste"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Giorgia Spigno Website E-Mail
Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department for Sustainable Food Process, Milan, Italy
Interests: antioxidants; bioactives; biotechnology; encapsulation; enzymes; extraction; food engineering; food waste; functional; fruit; rheology; shelf-life; valorization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last twenty years, extraction of antioxidants from food waste and by-products has been a topic of ever-increasing popularity, not only in the research field, but also in the industrial sector.

Published researches have investigated different aspects including: screening of food wastes as potential source of antioxidant compounds; comparison and optimisation of conventional, non-conventional and greener extraction methods; encapsulation of extracted compounds with different carrier materials and through different technologies; and food and non-food applications of extracted antioxidants.

Despite the large number of publications on the extraction of antioxidants from food waste, there is still a great interest on the topic and lack of examples of large scale industrial implementation of research results.

This Special Issue will then welcome manuscripts particularly addressing the following themes related to the extraction of antioxidants from food waste:

  • Investigation of new functionalities.
  • Assessment of antioxidants stability and efficiency in vivo and real systems.
  • Emerging non-conventional greener extraction technologies.
  • Evaluation of economic and logistic feasibility of extraction processes.
  • Innovative food and non-food applications, such as materials, cosmetics, pharmacy.

Dr. Giorgia Spigno
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food waste
  • Antioxidants
  • Extraction
  • Functionality
  • Stability
  • Efficiency
  • Food applications
  • Non-food applications

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Identification and Active Evaluation of Antioxidant Peptides from Protein Hydrolysates of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Head
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080318 - 19 Aug 2019
Abstract
For the full use of fish by-products to produce antioxidant peptides, skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) heads generated during can processing were defatted and hydrolyzed using the in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion (pepsin–trypsin system) method and six antioxidant peptides (P1 to P6) [...] Read more.
For the full use of fish by-products to produce antioxidant peptides, skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) heads generated during can processing were defatted and hydrolyzed using the in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion (pepsin–trypsin system) method and six antioxidant peptides (P1 to P6) were purified from the head hydrolysate (KPH) using ultrafiltration and serial chromatography methods. Six isolated peptides (P1 to P6) were identified as Val-Glu-Glu (VEE, P1), Trp-Met-Phe-Asp-Trp (WMFDW, P2), Asp-Ala-Gly-Pro-Tyr-Gly-Pro-Ile (DAGPYGPI, P3), Trp-Met-Gly-Pro-Tyr (WMGPY, P4), Glu-Arg-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-His (ERGPLGPH, P5), and Glu-Met- Gly-Pro-Ala (EMGPA, P6), respectively, using a protein sequencer and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometer. Among skipjack tuna head hydrolysates, fractions, and six isolated peptides (P1 to P6), WMFDW (P2), WMGPY (P4), and EMGPA (P6) showed the highest radical scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 values of 0.31, 0.33, and 0.46 mg/mL for WMFDW, WMGPY, and EMGPA, respectively), hydroxyl (EC50 values of 0.30, 0.43, and 0.52 mg/mL for WMFDW, WMGPY, and EMGPA, respectively), and superoxide anion (EC50 values of 0.56, 0.38, and 0.71 mg/mL for WMFDW, WMGPY, and EMGPA, respectively). Moreover, WMFDW, WMGPY, and EMGPA showed strong capability in reducing power and lipd peroxidation inhibition in the linoleic acid system. In addition, WMFDW, WMGPY, and EMGPA can retain strong antioxidant activity at temperatures lower than 60 °C and pH values ranged from 5 to 9. The results showed that six isolated peptides (P1 to P6) from skipjack tuna heads, especially WMFDW, WMGPY, and EMGPA, might be applied in health care products acting as powerful antioxidant agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Antioxidants from Food Waste)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Potentially Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Anthocyanin Fractions from Pomace Obtained from Enzymatically Treated Raspberries
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080299 - 10 Aug 2019
Abstract
Raspberry pomace was obtained from raspberries subjected to enzymatic maceration using three commercial pectinolytic preparations (Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Pectinex Yield Mash, and Ultrazym AFP-L). Phenolic compounds were extracted and anthocyanin fractions were isolated using the SPE solid phase extraction technique. In the separated [...] Read more.
Raspberry pomace was obtained from raspberries subjected to enzymatic maceration using three commercial pectinolytic preparations (Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Pectinex Yield Mash, and Ultrazym AFP-L). Phenolic compounds were extracted and anthocyanin fractions were isolated using the SPE solid phase extraction technique. In the separated anthocyanin fractions, the content of individual compounds was determined by the HPLC technique and the antioxidant activity was assessed with four complementary methods (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, chelating Fe(II) power, and ferric reducing power). Potential anti-inflammatory properties were also identified as the ability to inhibit the activity of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase 2. For these enzymes, the type of inhibition was determined based on the Lineweaver–Burke plot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Antioxidants from Food Waste)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Methanolic Extracts and Crude Polysaccharides from the Leaves of Chuanminshen violaceum and Their Antioxidant Activities
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080266 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The root of Chuanminshen violaceum is used as an important edible and medicinal plant in China. However, its leaves are generally considered byproducts, and therefore do not have a use. Thus, the phenolic compounds in the methanolic extracts (CVLMs) and the chemical characteristics [...] Read more.
The root of Chuanminshen violaceum is used as an important edible and medicinal plant in China. However, its leaves are generally considered byproducts, and therefore do not have a use. Thus, the phenolic compounds in the methanolic extracts (CVLMs) and the chemical characteristics of crude polysaccharides (CVLPs) from the leaves of C. violaceum and their in vitro antioxidant activities were explored. The results showed that chlorogenic acid and rutin were the major individual phenolic compounds in the leaves, which ranged from 1.22 ± 0.03 to 2.87 ± 0.04 mg/g DW, and from 2.25 ± 0.04 to 4.03 ± 0.05 mg/g DW, respectively. Meanwhile, the extraction yields of CVLPs from the leaves ranged from 4.73% to 5.41%. The CVLPs consisted of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, suggesting the existence of pectic polysaccharides. Furthermore, both CVLMs and CVLPs exhibited strong antioxidant activities. Chlorogenic acid and rutin were major contributors to the antioxidant activities of CVLMs, and the antioxidant activities of CVLPs were closely correlated to their α-1,4-D-galactosiduronic linkages. The results are beneficial for understanding the chemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activities of CVLMs and CVLPs. The leaves of C. violaceum have potential to be developed as natural antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Antioxidants from Food Waste)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenol Profiling and Nutraceutical Potential of Lycium spp. Leaf Extracts Obtained with Ultrasound and Microwave Assisted Techniques
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080260 - 31 Jul 2019
Abstract
In recent years, agricultural and industrial residues have attracted a lot of interest in the recovery of phytochemicals used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. In this paper, a study on the recovery of phenol compounds from Lycium spp. leaves is presented. [...] Read more.
In recent years, agricultural and industrial residues have attracted a lot of interest in the recovery of phytochemicals used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. In this paper, a study on the recovery of phenol compounds from Lycium spp. leaves is presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) have been used with alcoholic and hydroalcoholic solvents. Methanolic UAE was the most successful technique for extracting phenols from Lycium leaves, and we used on leaves from L. barbarum and L. chinense cultivated in Italy. The extracts were then characterized as regards to the antioxidant properties by in vitro assays and the phenol profiling by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Chlorogenic acid and rutin were the main phenol compounds, but considerable differences have been observed between the samples of the two Lycium species. For example, cryptochlorogenic acid was found only in L. barbarum samples, while quercetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside only in L. chinense leaves. Finally, multivariate statistical analysis techniques applied to the phenol content allowed us to differentiate samples from different Lycium spp. The results of this study confirm that the extraction is a crucial step in the analytical procedure and show that Lycium leaves represent an interesting source of antioxidant compounds, with potential use in the nutraceutical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Antioxidants from Food Waste)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidant Polyphenols from the Seed Coats of Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiate (Jacq.) DC.)
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070200 - 28 Jun 2019
Abstract
The seed coat of red sword bean (Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC.) is rich in antioxidant polyphenols. It is often discarded as a byproduct with the consumption of red sword bean, since it is very thick and not consumed by people. The aim [...] Read more.
The seed coat of red sword bean (Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC.) is rich in antioxidant polyphenols. It is often discarded as a byproduct with the consumption of red sword bean, since it is very thick and not consumed by people. The aim of this study was to develop an ultrasound-assisted extraction method to extract natural antioxidants from the seed coats. The extraction process was optimized by using response surface methodology. After the single-factor experiments, three key factors, including ethanol concentration, liquid/solid ratio, and extraction time, were selected and their interactions were studied using a central composite design. The optimal extraction condition was 60.2% hydroethanol, a liquid/solid ratio of 29.3 mL/g, an extraction time of 18.4 min, an extraction temperature of 50 °C, and ultrasound power of 400 W. Under the optimal conditions, antioxidant activity of the extract was 755.98 ± 10.23 μmol Trolox/g dry weight (DW), much higher than that from maceration (558.77 ± 14.42 μmol Trolox/g DW) or Soxhlet extraction (479.81 ± 12.75 μmol Trolox/g DW). In addition, the main antioxidant compounds in the extract were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–MS/MS). The concentrations of digalloyl hexoside, methyl gallate, gallic acid, trigalloyl hexoside, and digallic acid were 15.30 ± 0.98, 8.85 ± 0.51, 8.76 ± 0.36, 4.27 ± 0.21, and 2.89 ± 0.13 mg/g DW. This study provides an efficient and green extraction method for the extraction of natural antioxidants from the bean coat of red sword bean. The extract of antioxidants might be added into functional foods or nutraceuticals with potential beneficial functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Antioxidants from Food Waste)
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Open AccessArticle
Production of Antioxidant and ACEI Peptides from Cheese Whey Discarded from Mexican White Cheese Production
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060158 - 03 Jun 2019
Abstract
Cheese whey, a byproduct of the cheese-making industry, is discarded in many countries in the environment, causing pollution. This byproduct contains high-quality proteins containing encrypted biologically active peptides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability of using this waste to [...] Read more.
Cheese whey, a byproduct of the cheese-making industry, is discarded in many countries in the environment, causing pollution. This byproduct contains high-quality proteins containing encrypted biologically active peptides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability of using this waste to produce bioactive peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis with a digestive enzyme. Cheese whey from white cheese (Panela cheese) was concentrated to increase total protein and hydrolyzed with trypsin. A central composite design was used to find the best conditions of pH and temperature, giving the higher antioxidant capacity and Δ Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (Δ ACEI) activity. Higher biological activities were found when hydrolysis was performed at 52 °C and a pH of 8.2. The maximum value for the 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity was 26%, while the higher Δ ACE inhibition was 0.89. Significant correlations were found between these biological activities and the peptides separated by HPLC. The hydrophilic fraction (HI) showed highly significant correlations with the antioxidant capacity (r = 0.770) and with Δ ACE inhibition (r = 0.706). Antioxidant capacity showed a significant positive correlation with 34 peaks and Δ ACE inhibition with 33 peaks. The cheese whey was successfully used as raw material to produce peptides showing antioxidant capacity and ACEI activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Antioxidants from Food Waste)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activities of Sorghum Kafirin Alcalase Hydrolysates and Membrane/Gel Filtrated Fractions
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050131 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sorghum has a significant amount of proteins, especially kafirin; however, limited information is available on evaluating its potential for peptide antioxidants. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate the effects of two key variables, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and reaction time on kafirin [...] Read more.
Sorghum has a significant amount of proteins, especially kafirin; however, limited information is available on evaluating its potential for peptide antioxidants. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate the effects of two key variables, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and reaction time on kafirin hydrolysis using Alcalase; (2) evaluate the antioxidant performances of the hydrolysates and fractions from membrane ultrafiltration and gel filtration; and (3) identify peptide sequences in the antioxidant fraction using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Kafirin hydrolysates prepared at enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 0.4 Au/g and 4 h had a good balance of antioxidant activity, yield, and economic efficiency. Medium-sized fraction of hydrolysates (5–10 kDa) from membrane filtration possessed the highest antioxidant activities among various fractions. The fraction also unveiled a good inhibition effect against lipid oxidation in emulsion and ground meat systems. Smaller-sized fraction (F3) collected through gel-filtration chromatography had significantly stronger antioxidant activities than other fractions, and 26 representative peptide sequences were identified in the fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Antioxidants from Food Waste)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioactive Phenolic Compounds from the Agroindustrial Waste of Colombian Mango Cultivars ‘Sugar Mango’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’—An Alternative for Their Use and Valorization
Antioxidants 2019, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8020041 - 15 Feb 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the potential of the agroindustrial waste from two Colombian mango cultivars as sources of bioactive phenolic compounds. Phenolic extracts from mango waste (peels, seed coats, and seed kernels) of ‘sugar mango’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’ cultivars [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore the potential of the agroindustrial waste from two Colombian mango cultivars as sources of bioactive phenolic compounds. Phenolic extracts from mango waste (peels, seed coats, and seed kernels) of ‘sugar mango’ and ‘Tommy Atkins’ cultivars were obtained. The bioactive properties of the phenolic extracts were accessed by measuring their free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant effects against lipid oxidation in food products; moreover, their antiproliferative effects against some cell lines of human cancer were explored. It is observed that the agroindustrial waste studied provides promising sources of bioactive phenolics. ‘Sugar mango’ waste provided extracts with the highest antioxidant effect in food products and antiproliferative activity; these extracts reduced lipid oxidation and cell growth by more than 57% and 75%, respectively. The seed kernel from ‘sugar mango’ supplied the extract with the best bioactive qualities; in addition, some recognized bioactive phenolics (such as mangiferin and several galloyl glucosides) were observed in this extract and related with its properties. The results obtained suggest that ‘sugar mango’ waste may be considered a source of bioactive phenolics, with promising uses in food and pharmaceutical products. Thus, a suitable alternative for the use and valorization of agroindustrial waste from Colombian mango cultivars is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Antioxidants from Food Waste)
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