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Phenol Profiling and Nutraceutical Potential of Lycium spp. Leaf Extracts Obtained with Ultrasound and Microwave Assisted Techniques

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Section of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Perugia, via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy
2
Faculty of Bioscience and Technologies for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, via Renato Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo, Italy
3
Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080260
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Antioxidants from Food Waste)
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Abstract

In recent years, agricultural and industrial residues have attracted a lot of interest in the recovery of phytochemicals used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. In this paper, a study on the recovery of phenol compounds from Lycium spp. leaves is presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) have been used with alcoholic and hydroalcoholic solvents. Methanolic UAE was the most successful technique for extracting phenols from Lycium leaves, and we used on leaves from L. barbarum and L. chinense cultivated in Italy. The extracts were then characterized as regards to the antioxidant properties by in vitro assays and the phenol profiling by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Chlorogenic acid and rutin were the main phenol compounds, but considerable differences have been observed between the samples of the two Lycium species. For example, cryptochlorogenic acid was found only in L. barbarum samples, while quercetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside only in L. chinense leaves. Finally, multivariate statistical analysis techniques applied to the phenol content allowed us to differentiate samples from different Lycium spp. The results of this study confirm that the extraction is a crucial step in the analytical procedure and show that Lycium leaves represent an interesting source of antioxidant compounds, with potential use in the nutraceutical field. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant activity; food waste; Lycium leaves; phenol profiling; extraction methods antioxidant activity; food waste; Lycium leaves; phenol profiling; extraction methods
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pollini, L.; Rocchi, R.; Cossignani, L.; Mañes, J.; Compagnone, D.; Blasi, F. Phenol Profiling and Nutraceutical Potential of Lycium spp. Leaf Extracts Obtained with Ultrasound and Microwave Assisted Techniques. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 260.

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