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Article

Differences in Intestinal Barrier Development between Intrauterine Growth Restricted and Normal Birth Weight Piglets

1
Veterinary Research Centre, Centre for Biomedicine Research, Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Large Animal Diseases and Clinic, Institute for Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 100, 02-797 Warsaw, Poland
2
Interdisciplinary Research Center, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tadeusz Stefaniak and Timothy Safranski
Animals 2021, 11(4), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040990
Received: 10 January 2021 / Revised: 17 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neonate: Care and Immunity)
Animals with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are defined as neonates born at term but with low birth weight and a characteristic shape of the head. A number of structural and functional modifications in the IUGR intestine affecting its digestive and absorptive function and impairing intestinal barrier function have been reported in the past. Far less is known about the immune system in the gut of IUGR pigs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the structures of the immune system of the gut mucosa in IUGR neonates. We found that the immune deficiency in the gut mucosa that results from restricted intrauterine development occurs at postnatal day (PD) 7, but it disappears thereafter within a week. However, all examined IUGR piglets had an increased number of intraepithelial leukocytes in the gut mucosa on PD 14. We have shown that the immune system of the gut of IUGR piglets is able to quickly compensate for the immunological deficiency postnatally and hardly shows any morphological disabilities in later life.
Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) piglets are born at term but have low birth mass and a characteristic shape of the head. Impaired general condition, especially in intestinal function, leads to an increase in the occurrence of diarrhoea and high mortality in the first days of life. So far, the mechanical and immunological gut barrier functions in IUGR are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to microscopically evaluate the early postnatal changes in the gut mucosa occurring in IUGR piglets. Whole-tissue small intestine samples were collected from littermate pairs (IUGR and normal) on postnatal day (PD) 7, 14 and 180 and analysed by light microscopy. We found that in the IUGR piglets, the percentage of intraepithelial leukocytes was reduced in the duodenum on PD 7, but it increased in the proximal and middle jejunum both on PD 7 and PD 14, which suggested the development of an inflammatory process. The number of goblet cells was also reduced on PD 14. The average size of the Peyer’s patches in the distal jejunum and ileum showed significant reduction on PD 7 as compared to normal pigs; however, on PD 14, it returned to normal. On PD 180, we did not find any differences in the measured parameters between the IUGR and the normal pigs. In conclusion, we found that in one-week-old IUGR pig neonates, the gut barrier and the immune system structures display signs of retarded development but recover within the second postnatal week of life. View Full-Text
Keywords: IUGR; intraepithelial leukocytes; goblet cells; Peyer’s patches; GALT IUGR; intraepithelial leukocytes; goblet cells; Peyer’s patches; GALT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olszewski, J.; Zabielski, R.; Skrzypek, T.; Matyba, P.; Wierzbicka, M.; Adamski, A.; Grzesiuk, E.; Sady, M.; Gajewski, Z.; Ferenc, K. Differences in Intestinal Barrier Development between Intrauterine Growth Restricted and Normal Birth Weight Piglets. Animals 2021, 11, 990. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040990

AMA Style

Olszewski J, Zabielski R, Skrzypek T, Matyba P, Wierzbicka M, Adamski A, Grzesiuk E, Sady M, Gajewski Z, Ferenc K. Differences in Intestinal Barrier Development between Intrauterine Growth Restricted and Normal Birth Weight Piglets. Animals. 2021; 11(4):990. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040990

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olszewski, Jarosław, Romuald Zabielski, Tomasz Skrzypek, Piotr Matyba, Małgorzata Wierzbicka, Antoni Adamski, Elżbieta Grzesiuk, Maria Sady, Zdzisław Gajewski, and Karolina Ferenc. 2021. "Differences in Intestinal Barrier Development between Intrauterine Growth Restricted and Normal Birth Weight Piglets" Animals 11, no. 4: 990. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040990

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