Camel Milk Sector: Production, Processing, Market

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 5231

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
SELMET Research Unit (Système d’élevage en milieu Méditerranéen et Tropical), CIRAD (Centre de Cooperation International en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement), Montpellier, France
Interests: large camelids; camel milk; camel meat; milk and meat processing; animal welfare; camel farming
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Guest Editor
1. UMR SELMET, CIRAD-ES, International Camel Expertise, 34398 Montpellier, France
2. Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050040, Kazakhstan
Interests: camel; milk composition; milk processing; biochemistry; biotechnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For a long time, camel milk consumption was limited to desert areas as a gift for visitors and mainly self-consumed by the family of nomads. Due to this, only raw or fermented milk was available. In the last few decades, camel milk has progressively entered local, national, and international markets. This introduction was possible in the current context of climatic change, urbanization growth, and new demand from consumers. This new context impacted camel farming systems and stimulated research and innovations on camel milk processing, dairy product diversification, and marketing. Significant advances were reported in the making of cheese, yoghurt, fermented beverages, powder, and in the identification of alternatives to heat treatment, UHT camel milk still being impossible for the moment. Such advances allow the emergence of a camel milk sector in the national and international economy with a significant growth not only in traditional “camel countries”, but also in western countries, stimulating the new implementation of camel farms. A recent paper published in Animals regarding “Recent Advances in Camel Milk Processing” emphasized the questions facing the various players in the sector, researchers, processors, economists, manufacturers, traders, etc. Camel milk processing has many implications both on the qualitative constraints of production and on the added value of products.

Thus, this Special Issue focuses on the emergence of the camel milk sector worldwide and will elucidate the challenges for science and development regarding the sustainable production, processing, and marketing of camel milk.

Dr. Bernard Faye
Dr. Gaukhar Konuspayeva
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • camel milk quality
  • health effect of camel milk consumption
  • technical innovations in camel milk processing
  • new dairy camel products
  • camel millkmilk marketing

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Relation between Color and Chemical Composition of Dromedary Camel Colostrum
by Halima El-Hatmi, Olfa Oussaief, Imen Hammadi, Mohamed Dbara, Mohamed Hammadi, Touhami Khorchani and Zeineb Jrad
Animals 2023, 13(3), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030442 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Camel milk industrialization faces technological problems related to the presence of colostrum in milk. The determination of color parameters may serve to differentiate between colostrum and milk. This work aimed to study the relationship between the chemical composition of camel colostrum and milk [...] Read more.
Camel milk industrialization faces technological problems related to the presence of colostrum in milk. The determination of color parameters may serve to differentiate between colostrum and milk. This work aimed to study the relationship between the chemical composition of camel colostrum and milk and their colors. Samples of colostrum were collected at 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 360 h postpartum (n = 16), and their physicochemical properties (pH, acidity, viscosity, color, dry matter, ash, protein, and fat) were analyzed. The results show that all the components decreased during the first 3 days except fat. The content of this later increased from zero in the three sampling on the first day (2, 12, and 24 h) to 1.92 ± 0.61% at 48 h postpartum. The amount of total dry matter and protein decreased from 20.95 ± 3.63% and 17.43 ± 4.28% to 13.05 ± 0.81% and 3.71 ± 0.46%, respectively, during the first 7 days postpartum. There was a weak correlation between the brightness (L*) of the camel milk and its contents of dry matter, protein, and fat; however, these parameters were strongly correlated with redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). Ash content was poorly correlated with the color parameters. Hence, the measurement of the color parameters of camel colostrum and milk can be a new tool to evaluate their quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Camel Milk Sector: Production, Processing, Market)
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11 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Ethanol Stability and Chemical Composition of Camel Milk from Five Samples
by Omar A. Alhaj, Roua Lajnaf, Zeineb Jrad, Mohammad A. Alshuniaber, Haitham A. Jahrami and Mohamed F. Serag El-Din
Animals 2022, 12(5), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12050615 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
This research was carried out to study the variation in ethanol stability and chemical composition of five camel milk samples, including two pasteurized samples (Alwatania and Darir alabaker) and three raw samples (Majaheim, Wadah, and Hamra). Ethanol stability was analyzed by dispersing camel [...] Read more.
This research was carried out to study the variation in ethanol stability and chemical composition of five camel milk samples, including two pasteurized samples (Alwatania and Darir alabaker) and three raw samples (Majaheim, Wadah, and Hamra). Ethanol stability was analyzed by dispersing camel milk samples with 0 to 100% ethanol (v/v). The findings indicate that camel milk samples precipitated after adding an equal volume of ethanol at concentrations between 50% and 64% ethanol, depending on the milk sample. The addition of sodium chloride at different concentrations (1–10%) to camel milk resulted in a significant increase in ethanol stability, and samples from Majaheim and Alwatania exhibited the highest ethanol stability values (88%). In contrast, the addition of EDTA to camel milk for pH ranging between 5.9 and 7.1 has increased ethanol stability with a sigmoidal shape in camel milk. The largest ethanol stability differences were observed in a camel milk sample from Alwatania. Thus, the level of Ca2+ in camel milk may contribute to ethanol stability by shifting the entire profile to higher ethanol stability values. The chemical composition of different camel samples was also determined. The lactose content of camel milk varied significantly (p < 0.05) across samples, ranging from 4.37% in Majaheim camel milk to 4.87% in Alwatania camel milk. The total solids of camel milk varied significantly between raw and pasteurized samples, ranging between 10.17% and 12.10%. Furthermore, protein concentration in camel milk obtained from different camel samples varied, from 2.43% to 3.23% for Hamra and Alwatania, respectively. In conclusion, ethanol stability in camel milk was dependent on the camel breed, pH level, ionic strength, and EDTA addition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Camel Milk Sector: Production, Processing, Market)
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