Special Issue "Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes
Website
Guest Editor
Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, Dpto. Reproducción Animal, Madrid, Spain
Interests: developmental programming, environmental effects, embryo, foetus, genetic and epigenetic regulation, prenatal and postnatal development.
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Víctor Hugo Parraguez Gamboa
Website
Guest Editor
Dpt. of Animal Biological Sciences/Faculty of Veterinary Sciences; Dpt. of Animal Production/Faculty of Agrarian Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Interests: Effects of hypoxia and oxidative stress on reproduction and fetal and newborn growth and development
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Maternal nutrition is a key factor for successful pregnancies in all mammalian species. Adequate fetal growth and development are dependent on this nutrition, as is the birth of a healthy newborn with a high expectation of postnatal survival. Likewise, the health of animals during postnatal life depends on the conditions of intrauterine life, which is a phenomenon known as fetal programming, where maternal nutrition is certainly a determining factor. In animals, nutrition is strongly influenced by environmental factors, especially climatic factors, which determine the supply of vegetal resources and, therefore, the supply of primary nutritional resources. In the new scenario of accelerated climate change, animal nutrition is a major challenge in many regions of the world, which requires new alternatives for strategic feeding, especially in pregnant females, whose nutrient demands are increased.

We invite original research papers addressing aspects of the relationship between maternal nutrition and fetal and newborn health and well-being, both in domesticated and wild animals.

Dr. Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes
Prof. Víctor Hugo Parraguez Gamboa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • maternal nutrition
  • fetal growth and development
  • placental function
  • pregnancy outcome
  • newborn health.

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Maternal Supplementation with Polyphenols and Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy: Effects on Growth, Metabolism, and Body Composition of the Offspring
Animals 2020, 10(11), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111946 - 22 Oct 2020
Abstract
Maternal supplementation with antioxidants and n3 PUFAs may be a promising strategy to reduce the risk of intrauterine growth restriction and preterm delivery, which may diminish the appearance of low-birth-weight neonates. The present study aimed to determine benefits and risks of a dietary [...] Read more.
Maternal supplementation with antioxidants and n3 PUFAs may be a promising strategy to reduce the risk of intrauterine growth restriction and preterm delivery, which may diminish the appearance of low-birth-weight neonates. The present study aimed to determine benefits and risks of a dietary supplementation combining hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenol from olive leaves and fruits, and n3 PUFAs, from linseed oil, on developmental patterns and metabolic traits of offspring in swine, a model of IUGR pregnancies. The results obtained indicate that maternal supplementation with hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy has no deleterious effects on the reproductive traits of the sows (prolificacy, homogeneity of the litter, and percentage of stillborns and low-birth-weight, LBW, piglets) and the postnatal features of the piglets (growth patterns, adiposity, and metabolic traits). Conversely, in spite of a lower mean weight and corpulence at birth, piglets from the supplemented sows showed higher average daily weight gain and fractional growth rate. Thus, at juvenile stages afterwards, the offspring from the treated group reached higher weight and corpulence, with increased muscle development and better lipidemic and fatty acid profiles, in spite of similar adiposity, than offspring in the control group. However, much caution and more research are still needed before practical recommendation and use in human pregnancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Maternal Supplementation with Dietary Betaine during Gestation to Improve Twin Lamb Survival
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101749 - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
Betaine increases the synthesis of creatine, an energy-rich amino acid that increases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and has neuroprotective properties which may improve post-natal lamb survival. This study determined whether maternal betaine supplementation during gestation would improve body weight, thermoregulation, time to stand and [...] Read more.
Betaine increases the synthesis of creatine, an energy-rich amino acid that increases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and has neuroprotective properties which may improve post-natal lamb survival. This study determined whether maternal betaine supplementation during gestation would improve body weight, thermoregulation, time to stand and suck, colostrum intake and survival to weaning of twin lambs. Twin-bearing Merino ewes received dietary betaine at either 0 g/day (Control, CTL), 2 g/day from ram introduction to parturition (Early betaine, EB) or 4 g/day from Day 80 of gestation to parturition (Late betaine, LB). Ewes were housed individually during parturition and measures were collected at 4, 24 and 72 h and Day 7 post-partum, and at marking (53.2 ± 0.2 days of age) and weaning (99.3 ± 0.2 days of age). The EB treatment resulted in heavier lambs at weaning compared with CTL and LB lambs (p < 0.05). Time to stand and suck from birth was longer in EB lambs (p < 0.05), whereas, the interval from birth to first suck was shorter for LB lambs (p < 0.05). Lamb survival rate was the highest for LB lambs at 72 h and Day 7 (p < 0.05), and lowest for EB lambs on Day 7 (p < 0.05). These data indicated that betaine supplementation at 4 g/day during the second half of pregnancy improved twin lamb survival to Day 7 and shortened the interval from birth to first suck; whereas feeding ewes 2 g/day of betaine for the duration of pregnancy increased twin lamb body weight at weaning, but increased both the time to attain behavioural milestones and mortalities before Day 7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Open AccessArticle
Examining the Effects of Whole Crop Wheat Silage on Ewe Performance during Late Gestation Compared to Traditional Grass Silage across Three Prolific Breed Types
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091554 - 02 Sep 2020
Abstract
Provision of adequate nutrient intake in late gestation of the ewe is an important determinant of dam and offspring performance. A 2 × 3 factorial design experiment examining two forage types, whole crop wheat silage (WCWS) or grass silage (GS) offered to one [...] Read more.
Provision of adequate nutrient intake in late gestation of the ewe is an important determinant of dam and offspring performance. A 2 × 3 factorial design experiment examining two forage types, whole crop wheat silage (WCWS) or grass silage (GS) offered to one of three prolific breed types, (Belclare X, Lleyn X, Mule (Bluefaced Leicester × Blackface Mountain)), was conducted. Forage type had no impact on dry matter (DM) or metabolizable energy (ME) intake, body weight and body condition score change, or colostrum production (p > 0.05). Ewes offered WCWS had lower crude protein (CP) intake (p < 0.0001) and a lower combined litter weight (p < 0.05). Mule ewes consumed less DM, CP, (p < 0.05), and ME (p < 0.01) compared to Belclare X and Lleyn X ewes however, water intake per kg DM consumed did not differ with breed type (p > 0.05). Colostrum yield over the first 18 h postpartum was lower for Mule ewes compared to other breed types (p < 0.05). In conclusion, results from this study suggest nutrient concentration and balance as opposed to forage type is important for late gestation nutrition and breed type can impact feed intake and colostrum yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of a Ration Negative in Dietary Cation–Anion Difference and Varying Calcium Supply Fed before Calving on Colostrum Quality of the Dams and Health Status and Growth Performance of the Calves
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091465 - 20 Aug 2020
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of diets negative in dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD) or restricted in Ca fed prepartum to dairy cows for three weeks on colostrum yield and composition, and the health and growth performance of their calves. Thirty-six pregnant non-lactating Holstein-Friesian [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of diets negative in dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD) or restricted in Ca fed prepartum to dairy cows for three weeks on colostrum yield and composition, and the health and growth performance of their calves. Thirty-six pregnant non-lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly assigned to three isoenergetic diets: (1) low Ca: 0.24% Ca, DCAD: +86 mEq/kg; (2) high Ca: 1.23% Ca, DCAD: +95 mEq/kg; and (3) low DCAD: 1.28% Ca, DCAD: −115 mEq/kg (all dry matter (DM) basis). While colostrum quality was not affected, low Ca supply prepartum tended to increase the colostrum yield compared to high Ca (low Ca = 8.81 vs. high Ca = 5.39 kg). However, calves from cows fed low DCAD showed higher serum concentrations of K, lower body weight (BW), starter feed intake and average daily weight gain before weaning compared to low Ca and high Ca calves (53.12 vs. 57.68 and 57.32 kg) but BW was similar postweaning (d 70). In addition, calves from dams fed low DCAD were more likely to develop diarrhea and had increased number of days with abnormal fecal scores. Consequently, calves from low DCAD dams had to be treated more frequently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Maternal Diet with Fish Oil Might Decrease the Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Sows, but Increase the Susceptibility to Inflammatory Stimulation in their Offspring
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091455 - 19 Aug 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the maternal diet with fish oil on the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in sows, and the protective effect on the piglets suckling the sows fed the diet with fish oil in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the maternal diet with fish oil on the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in sows, and the protective effect on the piglets suckling the sows fed the diet with fish oil in the context of inflammatory stimulation. Twelve sows were divided into two groups. Sows were fed soybean oil diet (SD) or soybean oil + fish oil diet (FD) from gestation to lactation period. The blood samples of sows were collected from the auricular vein at the 16th day of lactation. One piglet was selected from each litter on the 14th day after birth. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the neck muscle after pre-treatment blood samples were collected from the anterior vena cava of piglets. The blood samples of piglets were collected at 5 h and 48 h post-LPS injection from the front cavity vein. Liver samples were collected at 48 h post-LPS injection. The FD diet significantly increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the plasma of lactating sow, decreased the levels of alkaline phosphatase(AKP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α) in the plasma of lactating sows, and increased the level of immunoglobulin G(IgG) in the colostrum and interleukin-10(IL-10) in the milk (p < 0.05). In the FD group, the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) significantly increased in the plasma of piglets at 48 h post-LPS injection (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the relative expression of GSH-Px mRNA was decreased in the FD group (p < 0.05). However, the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6(IL-6) in the plasma of piglets were significantly higher in the FD group pre- and post-LPS injection (p < 0.05). The ratio of the phosphonated extracellular regulated protein kinases to the extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK/ERK) protein in the livers of piglets was decreased (p < 0.05), but the expression of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) mRNA and the ratio of the phosphonated inhibitor of NF-κB to the inhibitor of NF-κB (p-IκB-α/IκB-α) protein was increased in the livers of piglets (p < 0.05). These results indicate that a maternal diet with fish oil might decrease the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in sows, and enhance the antioxidative ability but increase the susceptibility to inflammatory stimulation in their progenies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Intake of Spineless Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica During Late Pregnancy Improves Progeny Performance in Underfed Sheep
Animals 2020, 10(6), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10060995 - 07 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The present study tested whether feeding ewes during the last third of pregnancy with cladodes of Opuntia (untreated or protein-enriched), as an alternative to alfalfa hay, would improve milk yield as well as the pre- and post-natal growth of their lambs. Sixty mature [...] Read more.
The present study tested whether feeding ewes during the last third of pregnancy with cladodes of Opuntia (untreated or protein-enriched), as an alternative to alfalfa hay, would improve milk yield as well as the pre- and post-natal growth of their lambs. Sixty mature Rambouillet ewes and their progeny were randomly allocated among three nutritional treatments: (i) Control, fed alfalfa; (ii) Opuntia, fed untreated cladodes; (iii) E-Opuntia, fed protein-enriched cladodes (pre-treated with urea and ammonium sulphate). Birth weight did not differ among treatments (p > 0.05) but Control ewes produced more milk than both groups of Opuntia-fed ewes (p < 0.05). However, milk yield was not related to the growth of the progeny (p > 0.05) because lambs from E-Opuntia-fed ewes grew faster (p < 0.01) and were heavier at weaning (p < 0.05) than lambs from the other two groups. We conclude that Opuntia (with or without protein enrichment) can be used as an alternative to alfalfa hay for feeding ewes during the last third of pregnancy and therefore reduce production costs under extensive conditions in arid and semiarid regions. Moreover, protein-enriched Opuntia appears to improve postnatal lamb growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Supplementation of Underfed Twin-Bearing Ewes with Herbal Vitamins C and E: Impacts on Birth Weight, Postnatal Growth, and Pre-Weaning Survival of the Lambs
Animals 2020, 10(4), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040652 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Twin-bearing pregnancies of sheep reared in harsh environmental conditions result in maternal undernutrition and feto-maternal oxidative stress, leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We assessed the efficiency of supplementation with antioxidant herbal vitamins C and E alone or in combination with concentrate throughout [...] Read more.
Twin-bearing pregnancies of sheep reared in harsh environmental conditions result in maternal undernutrition and feto-maternal oxidative stress, leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We assessed the efficiency of supplementation with antioxidant herbal vitamins C and E alone or in combination with concentrate throughout gestation on pregnancy outcomes, pre-weaning growth, and survival of twin lambs from grazing ewes at the Magellan Steppe. Four groups (n = 30 each) of twin-bearing ewes received a base natural prairie (P) diet, supplemented with either herbal vitamins C 500 mg and E 350 IU per day (V) or concentrated food (S); groups were: P, P + V, P + S, and P + VS. Vitamins and concentrate were supplemented until parturition. At birth, lambs were weighed, and blood was drawn for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) evaluation. Lamb body weight (BW) and survival rate were evaluated at mid-lactation (60 days) and at weaning (120 days). Vitamin supplementation resulted in increased lamb birth weight and TAC, with a trend towards higher BW at weaning, while nutritional supplementation only had a positive effect on birth weight. Lamb survival was higher in both vitamin supplemented groups. In conclusion, supplementation with herbal vitamins C and E alone or in combination with concentrate food during pregnancy may constitute a good nutritional strategy for sheep reared in harsh environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Maternal and Early Postnatal Diet Supplemented with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers Affect Lipid Profile in Hearts of Offspring Rats with Mammary Tumors
Animals 2020, 10(3), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030464 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Linking the early life environment with later health status is known as “developmental programming”. This study aimed to assess whether the introduction of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) into the maternal diet affects the content fatty acids (FAs), conjugated FAs (CFAs), cholesterol, oxysterols, malondialdehyde [...] Read more.
Linking the early life environment with later health status is known as “developmental programming”. This study aimed to assess whether the introduction of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) into the maternal diet affects the content fatty acids (FAs), conjugated FAs (CFAs), cholesterol, oxysterols, malondialdehyde (MDA) and tocopherols in the hearts of their female offspring treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and if offspring supplementation enhanced the effect of maternal supplementation. FA, cholesterol and oxysterol contents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, while contents of CFAs and MDA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode detection. The supplementation of mothers with CLAs significantly decreased the amount of atherogenic saturated FAs and enhanced the level of eicosapentaenoic FA in the hearts of offspring. Continuous progeny supplementation decreased the content of arachidonic acid in hearts. Supplementation of the maternal diet with CLAs and its continuation during the postnatal period increased the ratio of hypo to hypercholesterolemic FAs. Significantly fewer oxysterols were detected in the hearts of progeny of dams fed with CLAs as compared to the offspring of mothers receiving safflower oil. Both fetal and postnatal CLA intake significantly reduced 7β-hydroxycholesterol accumulation. It can be concluded that CLA supplementation during the fetal and postnatal period may be an effective method of maintaining the cardiac health status of newborns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sows Gestational Methionine/Lysine Ratio on Maternal and Placental Hydrogen Sulfide Production
Animals 2020, 10(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020251 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
The placenta is a unique bond between the mother and the fetus during pregnancy, and a proper placental angiogenesis is vital for fetal development. H2S is an endogenous stimulator of angiogenesis that is mainly produced by the methionine transsulfurationpathway. The goal [...] Read more.
The placenta is a unique bond between the mother and the fetus during pregnancy, and a proper placental angiogenesis is vital for fetal development. H2S is an endogenous stimulator of angiogenesis that is mainly produced by the methionine transsulfurationpathway. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of gestational dietary methionine on maternal and placental H2S production in sows. Multiparous sows (Large×White; third parity; n = 65) were randomly allocated into five groups, with feed diets comprisingstandardized ileal digestible methionine/lysine (Met/Lys) ratios of 0.27 (nutrient requirements of swine (NRC); 2012 level), 0.32, 0.37, 0.42, and 0.47, respectively. The litter size and weight at birth were measured and recorded. Maternal blood samples were obtained at embryonic day (E) E40 d, E90 d, and E114 d of gestation. The placental samples were collected at parturition. The results showed that maternal plasma H2S concentration was not affected at E40 d. However, the maternal plasma H2S concentration changed quadratically with the dietary Met/Lys ratio at E90 d (p < 0.01) and E114 d (p = 0.03). The maximum maternal plasma H2S concentration was at the dietary Met/Lys ratio of 0.37. Meanwhile, maternal plasma H2S concentration was positively correlated with piglets born alive (p < 0.01) and litter weight (p < 0.01). Consistent with the maternal plasma, the placental H2S concentration also changed quadratically with the dietary Met/Lys ratio (p = 0.03); the Met/Lys ratio of 0.37 showed the maximum H2S concentration. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the gestational dietary Met/Lys ratio could affect maternal and placental H2S concentrations, which may be an important molecular mechanism affecting placental angiogenesis and piglet development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Circulating Concentrations of Key Regulators of Nitric Oxide Production in Undernourished Sheep Carrying Single and Multiple Fetuses
Animals 2020, 10(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010065 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the blood concentrations of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and L-homoarginine, which are regulators of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, in single, twin, and triplet pregnancies in ewes undergoing either a dietary energy restriction [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the blood concentrations of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and L-homoarginine, which are regulators of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, in single, twin, and triplet pregnancies in ewes undergoing either a dietary energy restriction or receiving 100% of their energy requirements. From day 24 to 100 of pregnancy, the ewes were fed ryegrass hay and two different iso-proteic concentrates fulfilling either 100% of ewes’ energy requirements (control group; n = 30, 14 singleton pregnancies, 12 twin pregnancies, and 4 triplet pregnancies) or only 45% (feed-restricted group; n = 29; 11 singleton pregnancies, 15 twin pregnancies, and 3 triplet pregnancies). Blood samples were collected monthly to measure, by capillary electrophoresis, the circulating concentrations of arginine, ADMA, homoarginine, SDMA, and of other amino acids not involved in NO synthesis to rule out possible direct effects of diet restriction on their concentrations. No differences between groups were observed in the circulating concentrations of most of the amino acids investigated. L-homoarginine increased markedly in both groups during pregnancy (p < 0.001). SDMA (p < 0.01), L-arginine, and ADMA concentrations were higher in feed-restricted ewes than in controls. The L-arginine/ADMA ratio, an indicator of NO production by NOS, decreased towards term without differences between groups. The ADMA/SDMA ratio, an index of the ADMA degrading enzyme activity, was higher in controls than in feed-restricted ewes (p < 0.001). Obtained results show that circulating concentrations of L-arginine, of its metabolites, and the ratio between NO synthesis boosters and inhibitors are altered in energy-restricted ewes, and that these alterations are more marked in ewes carrying multiple fetuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Developmental Programming Caused by Maternal Nutrient Intake on Postnatal Performance of Beef Heifers and Their Calves
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121072 - 03 Dec 2019
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the effects of maternal subnutrition in early pregnancy on the growth and reproductive performance of female offspring during their rearing, first gestation, and lactation. We inseminated 21 Parda and 15 Pirenaica multiparous cows and assigned them to a [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the effects of maternal subnutrition in early pregnancy on the growth and reproductive performance of female offspring during their rearing, first gestation, and lactation. We inseminated 21 Parda and 15 Pirenaica multiparous cows and assigned them to a CONTROL (100% of nutrition requirements) or SUBNUT (65%) diet until day 82 of gestation. Cows were fed 100% requirements afterward. During the rearing of female offspring, growth, physiological profiles and ovarian follicular dynamic were studied. At 16 months old, heifers were inseminated. After first calving, dam–calf weights were recorded during lactation. Heifers born from CONTROL cows were heavier at weaning (four months old) than heifers born from SUBNUT cows, but this difference disappeared at the end of rearing and during the first gestation and lactation periods. All heifers reached puberty at a similar age and live weight. During rearing, SUBNUT heifers had higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, urea, and cholesterol and a lower antral follicle count than CONTROL, but no difference was found in their fertility rate. After heifer first calving, dam–calf weights were similar among groups. In conclusion, maternal undernutrition reduced offspring postnatal gains at weaning, compromising metabolic status and follicle population during rearing but did not impair performance in the first gestation and lactation periods of beef heifers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Increased Consumption of Sulfur Amino Acids by Both Sows and Piglets Enhances the Ability of the Progeny to Adverse Effects Induced by Lipopolysaccharide
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121048 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study determined the effects of increased consumption of sulfur amino acids (SAA), as either DL-Met or Hydroxy-Met (OH-Met), by sows and piglets on their performance and the ability of the progeny to resist a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty primiparous sows were fed [...] Read more.
This study determined the effects of increased consumption of sulfur amino acids (SAA), as either DL-Met or Hydroxy-Met (OH-Met), by sows and piglets on their performance and the ability of the progeny to resist a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty primiparous sows were fed a diet adequate in SAA (CON) or CON + 25% SAA, either as DL-Met or OH-Met from gestation day 85 to postnatal day 21. At 35 d old, 20 male piglets from each treatment were selected and divided into 2 groups (n = 10/treatment) for a 3 × 2 factorial design [diets (CON, DL-Met or OH-Met) and challenge (saline or LPS)]. OH-Met and/or DL-Met supplementation increased (p ≤ 0.05) piglets’ body weight gain during day 0–7 and day 7–14. Sow’s milk quality was improved in the supplemented treatments compared to the CON. The LPS challenge decreased (p ≤ 0.05) piglets’ performance from 35 to 63 d and increased (p ≤ 0.05) the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-a, and malondialdehyde. Plasma albumin, total protein, total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase decreased post-challenge. The results were better with OH-Met than DL-Met. The increase of Met consumption, particularly as OH-Met increased piglets’ growth performance during the lactation phase and the challenging period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Effects of Maternal Subnutrition in Early Pregnancy on Cow-Calf Performance, Immunological and Physiological Profiles during the Next Lactation
Animals 2019, 9(11), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110936 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of undernutrition during the first third of gestation on cow-calf performance, immunological and physiological profiles during the next lactation in two cattle breeds. Fifty-three Parda de Montaña (PA) and 32 Pirenaica (PI) cows were inseminated, assigned [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of undernutrition during the first third of gestation on cow-calf performance, immunological and physiological profiles during the next lactation in two cattle breeds. Fifty-three Parda de Montaña (PA) and 32 Pirenaica (PI) cows were inseminated, assigned to one of two diets (CONTROL or SUBNUT; 100% or 65% of their requirements) until day 82 of gestation, and fed 100% of the requirements during gestation and next lactation. Cow and calf performance were assessed during lactation. Colostrum and cow-calf plasma samples were analyzed to assess the passive transfer of immunoglobulins and to characterize energy metabolism. At calving, SUBNUT cows had a lower body condition score, which impaired most of the cow-calf parameters. All cows had considerable weight losses during lactation except for SUBNUT-PI cows. Colostrum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was lower in SUBNUT-PI cows, and milk fat content was higher in SUBNUT cows. SUBNUT calves had lower values of body measurements at weaning, and calves born from SUBNUT-PI dams had lower milk intake and the lowest average daily gain (ADG), which was reflected in their lower plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration. In conclusion, undernutrition in early gestation in suckler cows had long-term effects on offspring postnatal growth, this physiological evidence being more severe in Pirenaica cow-calf pairs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition on Fetal and Newborns Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop