Special Issue "Bovine and Non-bovine Milk Quality"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Cattle".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Massimo Mozzon
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy
Interests: emerging food technologies; food quality; chemistry and structure of food lipids; mass spectrometry; instrumental chromatographic techniques; edible insects; vegetable oils
Prof. Marina Pasquini
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy
Interests: milk production and composition, caseins, somatic cell counts, quality of animal food products (milk, cheese, meat), milk protein genes, animal genetics and breeding programs, conventional and organic livestock farming systems, edible insects.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The human consumption of milk from other mammals dates back to the Neolithic Revolution, which occurred independently in several locations, from 9000–7000 BC in Mesopotamia to 3500–3000 BC in the Americas. Since that age, milk has been playing a major contribution to the human diet in many different countries: cows, but also sheep, goats, yaks, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, reindeer and camels have been traditionally used by different ethnic groups. Recently, research interest and capital investment have increased in the use of equine, donkey and camel milk for feeding young infants affected by severe bovine milk allergy. It is not surprising therefore, that a considerable attention has been paid to improving the compositional and hygienic quality of mammalian milks, as well as their technological attitudes to transformation.

This Special Issue is therefore open to all contributions aimed at increasing the knowledge about the different aspects of quality of bovine and non-bovine milks for human consumption. We invite original research papers and reviews that address physical and chemical properties of milk from different species, factors affecting milk yield and composition, hygienic quality, milk contaminants (mycotoxins, pesticides, veterinary residues), technological quality (clotting attitude, creaming properties, cheese yield), novel thermal and non-thermal technologies for milk safety and preservation. Additional topics may include: effect of milk protein genotypes on milk traits, markers of milk processing, sensory profiling of milks, microbiology of raw and market milks, analytical methods for quality control, food safety systems in milk processing.

Prof. Massimo Mozzon
Prof. Marina Pasquini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • milk composition and yield
  • milk protein genes
  • genetic polymorphism of milk proteins
  • lipid composition
  • technological properties
  • cheesemaking aptitude of milk
  • milk microbiology
  • milk preservation
  • bovine milk
  • non-bovine milk

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Mammary Gland Echotexture and Milk Composition in Cows
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112005 - 30 Oct 2020
Abstract
Thirty clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian cows underwent twice daily machine milking and ultrasonographic examinations of the udder just prior to and after milking. Digital ultrasonographic images of each udder quarter were subjected to computer-assisted echotextural analyses to obtain mean numerical pixel values (NPVs) and [...] Read more.
Thirty clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian cows underwent twice daily machine milking and ultrasonographic examinations of the udder just prior to and after milking. Digital ultrasonographic images of each udder quarter were subjected to computer-assisted echotextural analyses to obtain mean numerical pixel values (NPVs) and pixel heterogeneity (PSD) of the mammary gland parenchyma. The average milk yield and pH were higher (p < 0.05) in the morning, whereas crude fat, total solids, solids non-fat and citric acid content were higher (p < 0.05) during the evening milking period. Mean NPVs and PSDs of the mammary gland parenchyma were greater (p < 0.05) after than before milking. There were significant correlations among echotextural characteristics of the udder and protein percentage, lactose content and freezing point depression determined in the milk samples collected in the morning and crude protein, casein, lactose and solids non-fat in the evening. Our results can be interpreted to suggest that computerized analysis of the mammary gland ultrasonograms has the makings of a technique for estimating non-fat milk constituents in cows. However, future validating studies are necessary before this method can be employed in commercial settings and research. Moreover, significant inter-quarter differences in udder echogenicity may necessitate further echotextural studies of separate quarters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine and Non-bovine Milk Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring and Characteristics of Major Mastitis Pathogens from Bulk Tank Milk in Korea
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091562 - 02 Sep 2020
Abstract
In many countries, bulk tank milk (BTM) has been used for examining milk and analyzed as an important part of milk quality assurance programs. The objectives of this study were to investigate milk quality and the presence of major mastitis pathogens in BTM, [...] Read more.
In many countries, bulk tank milk (BTM) has been used for examining milk and analyzed as an important part of milk quality assurance programs. The objectives of this study were to investigate milk quality and the presence of major mastitis pathogens in BTM, and to compare the characteristics of BTM by dairy factory or company. A total of 1588 batches of BTM samples were collected from 396 dairy farms of seven dairy factories owned by four companies in Korea. The means of individual bacterial counts (IBC) and somatic cell count (SCC) were 3.7 × 104 cells/mL and 1.1 × 105 cells/mL, respectively, and no significant differences among dairy factories were observed. The most common pathogen was Staphylococcus spp. (60.1%), followed by E. faecalis (53.8%), E. coli (37.6%) and Streptococcus spp. (22.5%). Enterococcus spp. showed the highest resistance to tetracyclines (51.1% to 73.9%) and macrolides (46.5%). S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) showed the highest resistance to penicillin (28.4% and 40.2%, respectively), and three (3.2%) S. aureus and seven (3.3%) CNS were also methicillin-resistant. These data show the diverse prevalence and characteristics of major mastitis pathogens among factories, and support the development of strong monitoring and prevention programs of mastitis pathogens by commercial dairy operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine and Non-bovine Milk Quality)
Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Proteolytic Activity of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Flower Extracts on Bovine Casein to Obtain Bioactive Peptides
Animals 2020, 10(5), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050914 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this work is to establish the most suitable proteolysis conditions to obtain bovine casein hydrolysates containing peptides with antioxidant and antihypertensive capacity. To this end, the proteolytic activity of Cynara scolymus L. flower extracts was characterized on whole bovine casein, [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to establish the most suitable proteolysis conditions to obtain bovine casein hydrolysates containing peptides with antioxidant and antihypertensive capacity. To this end, the proteolytic activity of Cynara scolymus L. flower extracts was characterized on whole bovine casein, evaluating the effect of several factors (pH, temperature, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, and hydrolysis time). The optimal conditions to carry out the hydrolysis with the C. scolymus L. extract were as follows: pH 6.2, 50 °C, and 0.023 mg·mL−1 of extract-protein concentration. A Michaelis constant (Km) value of 5.66 mg·mL−1 and a maximum rate of reaction (Vmax) of 8.47 mUAbs∙min−1 were observed. The optimal hydrolysis time was 17 h. The casein hydrolysates obtained with these conditions contained peptides with antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity: 30.89%; Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) against 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical (ABTS●+): 4.43 mM Trolox equivalent·mg−1 peptide) and antihypertensive activity, showing 55.05% angiotensin-converting enzyme-I inhibition in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine and Non-bovine Milk Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Suitability of the Nisin Z-producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CBM 21 to be Used as an Adjunct Culture for Squacquerone Cheese Production
Animals 2020, 10(5), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050782 - 30 Apr 2020
Abstract
This research investigated the technological and safety effects of the nisin Z producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CBM 21, tested as an adjunct culture for the making of Squacquerone cheese in a pilot-scale plant. The biocontrol agent remained at a high level throughout [...] Read more.
This research investigated the technological and safety effects of the nisin Z producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CBM 21, tested as an adjunct culture for the making of Squacquerone cheese in a pilot-scale plant. The biocontrol agent remained at a high level throughout the cheese refrigerated storage, without having a negative influence on the viability of the conventional Streptococcus thermophilus starter. The inclusion of CBM 21 in Squacquerone cheesemaking proved to be more effective compared to the traditional one, to reduce total coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. Moreover, the novel/innovative adjunct culture tested did not negatively modify the proteolytic patterns of Squacquerone cheese, but it gave rise to products with specific volatile and texture profiles. The cheese produced with CBM 21 was more appreciated by the panelists with respect to the traditional one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine and Non-bovine Milk Quality)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Natural Preservatives from Plant in Cheese Making
Animals 2020, 10(4), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040749 - 24 Apr 2020
Abstract
Today, consumers are increasingly demanding safety alternatives concerning the use of synthetic additives in the food industry, as well as healthy food. As a result, a major number of plant-derived preservatives have been tested in the food industry. These natural ingredients have antioxidant [...] Read more.
Today, consumers are increasingly demanding safety alternatives concerning the use of synthetic additives in the food industry, as well as healthy food. As a result, a major number of plant-derived preservatives have been tested in the food industry. These natural ingredients have antioxidant properties and have shown to increase the bioactive molecules levels and the microbiological stability of the food items. The effect of the plant-based preservatives on the sensorial properties of the new products has also to be considered, because natural preservatives could result in sensorial characteristics that may not be accepted by the consumers. Cheese is a dairy product widely appreciated all over the world, but it is also susceptible to contamination by pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms; therefore, the use of preservatives in cheese making represents an important step. This review deals with one of the innovation in the cheese sector, which is the addition of natural preservatives. Several aspects are discussed, such as the effect of natural ingredients on the microbial stability of cheese, and their influence on the chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the cheeses. Although the promising results, further studies are needed to confirm the use of natural preservatives from plants in cheese making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine and Non-bovine Milk Quality)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Characterization of proteolytic activity of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) flower extracts on bovine casein to obtain bioactive peptides.

Bueno-Gavilá, Estefanía, Abellán, A. , Bermejo, M.S., Salazar, E., Cayuela, J.M., Prieto, D. and Tejada, L.

Abstract: The aim of this work is to establish the most suitable proteolysis conditions to obtain bovine casein hydrolysates containing peptides with antioxidant and antihypertensive capacity. To this end, the proteolytic activity of Cynara scolymus L. flower extracts was characterized on whole bovine casein, evaluating the effect of several factors (pH, temperature, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time). The optimal conditions to carry out the hydrolysis with the C. scolymus L. extract were: pH 6.2, 50 °C, 11 mg·mL-1 of substrate concentration and 23 μg·mL-1 of extract-protein concentration. A Km value of 5.66 mg·mL-1 and a Vmax of 8.47 mUAbs∙min-1 was observed. The optimal hydrolysis time was 17 hours. The casein hydrolysates obtained with these conditions contained peptides with antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging capacity: 30.89%; TEAC against ABTS●+: 4.43 mM Trolox equivalents·mg-1 peptides) and antihypertensive activity, showing 55.05% angiotensin converting enzyme I inhibition in vitro).

 

2. Natural Preservatives from Plant in Cheese Making

Mena Ritota and Pamela Manzi 

Abstract: Today, consumers are increasingly demanding safety alternatives concerning the use of synthetic additives in the food industry, as well as healthy food. As a result, a major number of plant-derived preservatives have been tested in the food industry. These natural ingredients have antioxidant properties and have shown to increase the bioactive molecules levels as well as the microbiological stability of the food items. The effect of the plant-based preservatives on the sensorial properties of the new products has also to be considered, because natural preservatives could result in sensorial characteristics that may not be accepted by the consumers. Cheese is a dairy product widely appreciated all over the world, but it is also a food susceptible to contamination by pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms; therefore, the use of preservatives in cheese making is an unavoidable step. This review deals with one of the innovation in the cheese sector, which is the addition of natural preservatives into the cheese making process. Several aspects are discussed, such as the effect of natural ingredients on the microbial stability of cheese, and their influence on the chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the cheeses.

3. Refining the knowledge on factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in cow milk

Mélissa Duplessis1,2,*, Simon Dufour2,3, Annie Fréchette2,3, William Poisson4, Lya Blais5, Jennifer Ronholm2,6,7

1 Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada, Centre de recherche et développement de Sherbrooke, 2000 rue College, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada

2 Regroupement FRQ-NT Op+Lait, 3200 rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada

3 Département de pathologie et microbiologie, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, 3200 rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada

4 Département des sciences animales, Université Laval, 2425 rue de l’Agriculture, Québec, QC, Canada

5 Département de microbiologie et d’infectiologie, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. De l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada

6 Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada

7 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada

* Correspondence: [email protected]

ABSTRACT: Milk is an excellent source of vitamin B12 (B12) for humans; being able to guarantee a high and constant concentration would enhance the consumer perception of milk as a healthy choice. The aim of the paper was to gather additional knowledge on factors that could explain B12 variation in cow milk through 2 observational studies: 1) Relationship between milk B12 and ruminal conditions, such as pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations and 2) Impact of bedding on B12 of bulk tank milk. For study 1, 72 milk and ruminal liquid samples were obtained from Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannula between 10 and 392 days in milk. For study 2, bulk tank milk samples were obtained from 83 commercial herds; 26 using recycled manure solid bedding and 57 using straw bedding. Milk samples were analyzed for B12 using radioassay. Using principal component regression analysis, we observed that ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio for cows receiving the early lactation ration were positively related with milk B12. Bedding did not influence milk B12 in bulk tank, which averaged 4,276 pg/mL. In conclusion, as B12 is synthesized by ruminal bacteria, optimizing ruminal conditions had positive effect on milk B12, while bedding management appeared to have no influence.

Keywords: cyanocobalamin, environmental factor, cattle, milk quality, bovine milk  

 

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