Refining Knowledge of Factors Affecting Vitamin B12 Concentration in Bovine Milk
Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada, Centre de Recherche et Développement de Sherbrooke, 2000 rue College, Sherbrooke, QC J1M 0C8, Canada
Regroupement FRQ-NT Op+Lait, 3200 rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
Département de Pathologie et Microbiologie, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, 3200 rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
Département des Sciences Animales, Université Laval, 2425 rue de l’Agriculture, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Département de Microbiologie et D’infectiologie, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. De l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Massimo Mozzon and Marina Pasquini
Received: 3 February 2021
Revised: 11 February 2021
Accepted: 12 February 2021
Published: 18 February 2021
Milk is considered a staple and complete food that contains several essential nutrients for humans. For instance, it is an excellent natural source of vitamin B12 (B12) due to the presence in the bovine rumen of a myriad of bacteria and archaea capable of producing the vitamin. This vitamin is only produced by prokaryotic microorganisms; vegetal products do not naturally contain it. A 250-mL glass of milk contains about 46% of the daily recommended dietary allowance of B12 for individuals over 13 years old. However, B12 concentration is variable in milk; therefore, identifying factors contributing to its variation is critical to ensure a stable B12 supply for consumers. The aims of these experiments are to gather more knowledge on possible sources of variation in B12 concentrations in milk in order to optimize and stabilize its levels and thereby improve the perception of milk in terms of its health benefits. We observed that B12 concentration increases when the conditions of the rumen are optimal, such as with elevated pH. We also studied if bedding type—e.g., recycled manure solid bedding or straw, which has been reported to impact milk microbiota—could have an impact on milk B12 concentration. In this study, no such correlation was detected. This paper is one of a series seeking to elucidate factors responsible for variations in milk B12 concentration.