Special Issue "Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Bartosz Kierończyk
Website
Guest Editor
Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland
Interests: non-ruminant nutrition, poultry, companion animals, feed additives, insects as food and feed, GIT microbiology, GIT physiology
Dr. Mateusz Rawski
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland
Interests: aquaculture, fish nutrition, exotic pets, feed additives, GIT microbiology, insects as food and feed, alternatives protein processing, bone mineralization, GIT

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, in this era of global environmental crisis, animal nutrition must be transformed into a sustainable area of production to save the planet for future generations. The main issue concerning whole animal production over the next decade will be providing high-quality products for the growing human population without the negative impact of ocean overfishing, the decreasing of water resources, farmland degradation, and deforestation while at the same time preserving biodiversity. Considering the abovementioned worldwide circumstances, we would like to encourage leading scientists working on the topics of alternative protein sources, the circular economy, and the reuse of resources, as well as environmentally friendly feed product processing, to submit original research or review papers.

In particular, we invite original research papers and reviews that address any aspect of the use of alternative proteins in animal nutrition relating to negative environmental footprint reduction and limitation of GMO products, as well as EU legislation and NGO opinions. Topics of special interest are the use of alternative proteins such as oilseeds, grain legumes, forage legumes, leaves, and aquatic and microbial peptides, as well as insects, with respect to nutritional aspects, i.e., nutrient quality, occurrence of anti-nutritional or toxic factors, inclusion levels, etc.; technical aspects, i.e., processing requirements, texture, seasonality, etc.; or animal production aspects, i.e., growth performance, physiology and immunology status, metabolic response, final product quality, health, etc. In particular, papers on the practical use of alternative proteins in animal nutrition are welcome.

Dr. Bartosz Kierończyk
Dr. Mateusz Rawski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • livestock nutrition
  • aquaculture
  • alternative proteins
  • non-GMO products
  • nutritional value
  • productivity traits
  • product quality
  • environmental footprint
  • animal health
  • pet nutrition

Published Papers (17 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
The Quality of Eggs from Rosa 1 Hens Fed Diets Containing Seeds of Legume Plants (Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus angustifolius, and Pisum sativum) in Two Laying Phases
Animals 2020, 10(11), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111942 - 22 Oct 2020
Abstract
This study analyzes the eggs’ quality from hens fed with alternative protein to soybean meal (SBM) in relation to laying phase. Here, 226 hens are divided into the control (I) and experimental (II) groups and reared for 50 weeks. There were two feeding [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the eggs’ quality from hens fed with alternative protein to soybean meal (SBM) in relation to laying phase. Here, 226 hens are divided into the control (I) and experimental (II) groups and reared for 50 weeks. There were two feeding phases (weeks 1–36; 37–50). Quality was assessed for 20 eggs from each group. The eggs are analyzed for their external and internal traits. A higher albumen weight in II and higher weights of the components were found in the 37–50 weeks for both groups, also in the percentage of yolk and albumen, however lower eggshell percentage was found for both groups, at the same time they were less durable and found to be thinner. In II, the La Roche color and the L*, b* were lower, but the a* increased, as did the albumen height. In the second phase, the La Roche and DSM color were higher, while the Haugh unit and albumen height decreased. Factors’ interaction was demonstrated for color. Legumes can partly substitute SBM in feed for hens. There were no negative effects on the eggs’ quality for most traits. The differences between the laying phases are due to the natural course and the physiology of laying hens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Replacement of Soybean Meal with Heat-Treated Canola Meal in Finishing Diets of Meatmaster Lambs: Physiological and Meat Quality Responses
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101735 - 24 Sep 2020
Abstract
The study investigated whether heat treatment (190 °C for 90 min) could improve the quality of expeller canola meal (CM) protein in finishing diets of Meatmaster lambs. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by partially (50%) or completely replacing SBM as the [...] Read more.
The study investigated whether heat treatment (190 °C for 90 min) could improve the quality of expeller canola meal (CM) protein in finishing diets of Meatmaster lambs. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by partially (50%) or completely replacing SBM as the major protein source with untreated or heat-treated CM in a commercial lamb finishing diet. Diets were randomly allocated to 40 lambs (24.73 ± 1.311 kg; 4.5 months old) for 77 days. No dietary differences were observed for growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. Diets had no effect (p > 0.05) on blood parameters, except for hemoglobin and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Lambs that were fed the control diet had higher hemoglobin concentration compared with lambs on CM-containing diets. The highest AST value was observed when SBM was completely replaced with untreated CM (159.88 IU/L), while complete replacement with heat-treated CM resulted in the lowest AST value (103.25 IU/L). All lambs had a body condition score of 3 at slaughter. It was concluded that heat treatment did not improve the protein value of CM. However, CM inclusion promoted similar growth performance and meat quality parameters in lambs as SBM. Untreated CM can be used to completely substitute SBM in finishing diets of Meatmaster lambs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Consumer Acceptance of Meat from Animals Reared on Insect Meal as Feed
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081312 - 30 Jul 2020
Abstract
Insect protein production requires much less land, feed, and water, and thus has a much smaller ecological footprint than animal protein production, which is important for reducing global warming. Poultry, pigs, and fish consume insects in nature, so insect meal could be a [...] Read more.
Insect protein production requires much less land, feed, and water, and thus has a much smaller ecological footprint than animal protein production, which is important for reducing global warming. Poultry, pigs, and fish consume insects in nature, so insect meal could be a good substitute for soybean and fishmeal as a protein source in diets. The aim of this study was to examine consumer opinion on meat that originated from animals whose diet contained insect meal. The study was conducted in Hungary in 2020 (N = 414). On a scale of 1–7, respondents gave much lower scores (3.96) to this product than that which originated from a free-range system (5.11; p < 0.001). Male, more highly educated, and 30–39 year-old respondents gave significantly higher scores than other groups. The most important factor in accepting insect meal in animal feed was “no risk”, while the least important factor was “replacement of Genetically Modified (GM) soybeans”. Since free-range animals also consume insects, the difference in the attitude of respondents was based on their aversion to insects, while accepting free-range as the best animal welfare system. Thus, more emphasis should be placed on the benefits of insect meal in animal feed in order to bring about awareness and acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Tenebrio molitor Larvae Meal Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Growing Pigs
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071151 - 07 Jul 2020
Abstract
The hypothesis tested was that dietary inclusion of insect meal (IM) causes an alteration in the cecal microbiota composition and its fermentation activity of growing pigs. Five-week-old male crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 pigs each, and fed isonitrogenous [...] Read more.
The hypothesis tested was that dietary inclusion of insect meal (IM) causes an alteration in the cecal microbiota composition and its fermentation activity of growing pigs. Five-week-old male crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 pigs each, and fed isonitrogenous diets either without (CON) or with 5% IM (IM5) or 10% IM (IM10) from Tenebrio molitor larvae for four weeks. The relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes was lower in group IM10 than in group CON (p < 0.05), whereas the relative abundance of Firmicutes and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes-ratio tended to be higher in groups IM10 and IM5 than in group CON (p < 0.1). The relative abundance of the Proteobacteria tended to be higher in group IM10 than in groups CON and IM5 (p < 0.1). The concentrations of the total short-chain fatty acids in the cecal digesta did not differ between the three groups, but the concentrations of the branched-chain fatty acids in the cecal digesta were higher in group IM5 and IM10 than in group CON (p < 0.05). The present study shows for the first time that the replacement of soybean meal by Tenebrio molitor larvae meal causes a shift of the cecal microbial community and its fermentation activity in growing pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Diet Based on Legume Seeds and Rapeseed Meal on Pig Performance and Meat Quality
Animals 2020, 10(6), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061084 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess the impact of a total dietary replacement of extracted soybean meal (SBM) on body weight gain and pork quality. DanBred hybrid piglets were divided into four groups of 10 piglets each. Groups I (males) and [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to assess the impact of a total dietary replacement of extracted soybean meal (SBM) on body weight gain and pork quality. DanBred hybrid piglets were divided into four groups of 10 piglets each. Groups I (males) and II (females) were the control groups and fed a standardized SBM-based complete feed. The experimental groups III (males) and IV (females) were offered a diet in which the SBM was replaced with extracted rapeseed meal (RSM) and legume plants (pea and yellow lupin). After 83 days of fattening, the animals were slaughtered. Based on the collected data, the daily weight gain (DWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. In addition, longissimus dorsi muscle was subjected to physicochemical analyses, including the basic chemical composition. All the analyses were performed in accordance with the applicable methodologies. As a result of this experiment, no interactions were found between the experimental factors (sex and diet). The replacement of SMB by legumes and RSM resulted in a significant reduction in the final body weight of growing–finishing pigs. Additionally, daily body weight gain was reduced between 35–83 days, and through the whole fattening period (0–83 days). Most pork meat quality parameters were not affected by the type of mix feed and sex (p > 0.05). The fattening pigs that were fed legume seeds and RSM had significantly reduced fatness (p > 0.05) compared to the control pigs. In males, there was also a significantly lower pH45 (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that feeding pigs with diets containing legume plants and extracted rapeseed meal does not affect the pork meat quality, but it may worsen the body weight gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Hydrolyzed Insect Meals in Sea Trout Fingerling (Salmo trutta m. trutta) Diets on Growth Performance, Microbiota and Biochemical Blood Parameters
Animals 2020, 10(6), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061031 - 13 Jun 2020
Abstract
The present study is the first introduction of hydrolyzed superworm meal in sea trout nutrition. It was conducted to evaluate the effects of inclusion in the diet of hydrolyzed insect meals as a partial replacement for fishmeal on growth performance, feed utilization, organosomatic [...] Read more.
The present study is the first introduction of hydrolyzed superworm meal in sea trout nutrition. It was conducted to evaluate the effects of inclusion in the diet of hydrolyzed insect meals as a partial replacement for fishmeal on growth performance, feed utilization, organosomatic indices, serum biochemical parameters, gut histomorphology, and microbiota composition of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta). The experiment was performed on 225 sea trout fingerlings distributed into three groups (3 tanks/treatment, 25 fish/tank). The control diet was fishmeal-based. In the experimental groups, 10% of hydrolyzed mealworm (TMD) and superworm (ZMD) meals were included. The protein efficiency ratio was lower in the TMD and ZMD. Higher organosomatic indices and liver lipid contents were found in the group fed ZMD. The ZMD increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and decreased levels of alkaline phosphatase. The Aeromonas spp. and Enterococcus spp. populations decreased in the ZMD. The concentrations of the Carnobacterium spp. decreased in the ZMD and TMD, as did that of the Lactobacillus group in the TMD. In conclusion, insect meals may be an alternative protein source in sea trout nutrition, as they yield satisfying growth performance and have the capability to modulate biochemical blood parameters and microbiota composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Plasmatic Urea Nitrogen in Growing Rabbits with Different Combinations of Dietary Levels of Lysine, Sulphur Amino Acids and Threonine
Animals 2020, 10(6), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10060946 - 29 May 2020
Abstract
A total of 27 experimental diets were formulated starting from the same basal mixture, with a moderate content of crude protein and digestible energy (155 g and 9.86 MJ/kg of digestible matter (DM), respectively, both estimated). The contents of lysine, sulphur amino acids [...] Read more.
A total of 27 experimental diets were formulated starting from the same basal mixture, with a moderate content of crude protein and digestible energy (155 g and 9.86 MJ/kg of digestible matter (DM), respectively, both estimated). The contents of lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine were variable. The first one, close to the current recommendations (Medium, M; 8.1, 5.8 and 6.9 g/kg DM for lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine, respectively), and two other levels were on average 15% higher (High, H; 9.4, 6.6 and 7.8 g/kg DM for lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine, respectively) or lower (Low, L; 6.7, 4.9 and 5.7 g/kg DM for lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine, respectively). Diets were named with three letters, indicating lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine levels, respectively. In total, 918 weaned rabbits (28 days old) were used (34 per diet). At weaning, animals were fed ad libitum with a commercial diet until day 46, day 47 each collective cage was randomly switched to one experimental diet. At day 48, blood samples were collected at 08:00h then the animals were subjected to 10 h of fasting and a second blood sample was extracted at 21.00h. At 08:00h, Pasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN) was higher with the L level of lysine (p < 0.001), unaffected by the level of sulphur amino acids and increased with the level of threonine (p < 0.001). At 21:00h, minimum PUN was observed with the MHL diet (14.72 ± 0.661 mg/dL). Taken into account the usual recommendations (established for a diet containing 11.3 MJ DE/kg DM, and then being 0.72, 0.51 and 0.61 g/MJ DE for lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine, respectively), these results suggest that a diet containing more lysine and sulphur amino acids per energy unit (around 0.82 and 0.67 g/MJ DE) could better fit the growing rabbit requirements, although studies on the effects of such a diet on performance and protein retention are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Performance Results and Concentrations of Biochemical Indices and Mineral Elements in Blood Serum of Fatteners Fed Diets Containing Mixtures of Raw Seeds of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) or Blue Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)
Animals 2020, 10(5), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050858 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Two experiments were conducted with fatteners (♀ (Landrace × Yorkshire) × ♂ duroc), 50 animals each (10 pigs per group). The fatteners from the control group (C) were administered feed mixtures with genetically modified soybean meal (SBM-GM) used as the only protein source; [...] Read more.
Two experiments were conducted with fatteners (♀ (Landrace × Yorkshire) × ♂ duroc), 50 animals each (10 pigs per group). The fatteners from the control group (C) were administered feed mixtures with genetically modified soybean meal (SBM-GM) used as the only protein source; whereas these from experimental groups (E1–E4) received feed mixtures in which the SBM-GM was replaced with increasing amounts of raw seeds of pea (Experiment I) or blue lupin (Experiment II): E1—5.0%, E2—10.0%, E3—15.0%, and E4—17.5%. Once the fattening period was completed, production results were determined, and selected blood serum indices were assayed to establish the effect of the nutritional factor on body homeostasis and health status of the animals. Pigs from all groups revealed a similar growth rate and meatiness (p > 0.05). In Experiment I serum analyses showed lower (p < 0.001) concentrations of: cholesterol in E1, E3 and E4; creatinine in E1 and E4 and urea in E3 and E4, compared to the C. In Experiment II, lower (p < 0.001) concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine-aminotransferase, total protein, and Mg were determined in the serum of fatteners from E1–E4 compared to the C. Even though values of all analyzed blood markers differed among the groups, in most cases they fitted within reference values for the species, which indicates the maintenance of body homeostasis. Study results show that there are no contraindications to the use of pea and blue lupin seeds as alternative feed materials to SBM-GM in pig fattening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Growth Performance and Carcass Quality in Broiler Chickens Fed on Legume Seeds and Rapeseed Meal
Animals 2020, 10(5), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050846 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance parameters, carcass quality, and meat traits in broiler chickens fed on diets containing legume seeds and rapeseed meal as an alternative to soybean meal. In this study, 448 male ROSS 308 chicks [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance parameters, carcass quality, and meat traits in broiler chickens fed on diets containing legume seeds and rapeseed meal as an alternative to soybean meal. In this study, 448 male ROSS 308 chicks were divided into subgroups: a control group (I) fed on soybean meal (SBM), and six experimental groups II—rapeseed meal (RSM); III—white lupin (WY); IV—yellow lupin (YL); V—narrow-leaved lupin NLL; VI—pea (Pe); and VII—faba bean (FB). After 42 days of rearing, 10 birds from each group were slaughtered and dissected. The control group was characterized by better growth performance compared to the other groups. In addition, the European Broiler Index was lower in each experimental group compared to the SBM group. A lower dressing percentage was found only in the NLL group. The muscle content in birds from the RSM and FB groups was significantly higher than in the other groups, but the fat content was lower. Meat from SBM group was characterized by the highest protein content, but a reduced content of fat and water in the muscles. The most similar results were found between the control group and the FB group receiving a diet based on faba beans. Furthermore, lupins had a similar effect on the carcass traits when used in the diets. The quality of meat in broilers fed on faba beans with the addition of potato protein and brewers’ yeast was similar to that of those fed on soybean meal, because the antinutrients were the lowest in faba bean seeds. Faba beans are proposed as a possible alternative source of protein in poultry diets. Other legume seeds should be analyzed in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Cafeteria-Type Feeding of Chickens Indicates a Preference for Insect (Tenebrio molitor) Larvae Meal
Animals 2020, 10(4), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040627 - 06 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aimed to determine whether broiler chickens display a preference for Tenebrio molitor larvae (TM) meal by evaluating ingredient acceptability and birds’ performance. Sixty 14-day-old male chickens were assigned into two treatment groups (5 birds/pen, n = 6) in a cafeteria-type study: [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine whether broiler chickens display a preference for Tenebrio molitor larvae (TM) meal by evaluating ingredient acceptability and birds’ performance. Sixty 14-day-old male chickens were assigned into two treatment groups (5 birds/pen, n = 6) in a cafeteria-type study: the control (C) group, and the TM group. Each pen was equipped with one bell drinker and four through feeders allocated side by side; all feeders of the C group contained a complete standard diet whereas each feeder of the TM group contained one of the following ingredients: ground corn, extruded semi-whole soybean, vitamin-mineral supplement mixture, and TM meal. Feed intake was recorded daily and growth was monitored periodically up to day 32. Chickens which had access to individual feed components showed a delay to display preference for TM, but consumed, overall, up to 50% of the total intake as TM meal. Feed intake and growth performance were lower in all periods for TM group (p < 0.02), whereas feed conversion ratio was improved on days 22–28 and days 29–32 of age (p < 0.01). Data from bivariate and multidimensional analysis indicate that birds started to reach a balance of ingredient intake at 25 days of age, showing a high correlation between consumption of each ingredient and the day of the experiment. Chickens exhibited a preference for T. molitor meal, resulting in improved feed efficiency, which allows us to conclude that it can be a suitable feed alternative for poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Soybean Meal Substitution by Raw Chickpea Seeds on Thermal Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Subcutaneous Fat Tissue of Broiler Chickens
Animals 2020, 10(3), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030533 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, the effect of soybean meal substitution by raw chickpea seeds on the thermal properties and fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat tissue of broiler chickens was examined. The experiment, performed on Ross 308 chickens, lasted for 42 days. Tight subcutaneous [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of soybean meal substitution by raw chickpea seeds on the thermal properties and fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat tissue of broiler chickens was examined. The experiment, performed on Ross 308 chickens, lasted for 42 days. Tight subcutaneous fat tissue was analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements while the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue was determined chromatographically. There was no effect of soybean meal substitution on fat crystallization temperature or crystallization enthalpy. However, the total calorimetric enthalpy of the melting of low-melting monounsaturated and saturated triacylglycerols differed between groups. Fatty acid proportions in the subcutaneous fat tissue of broiler chickens were also altered. Among others, chickpea seed inclusion decreased the content of main saturated acid (palmitic acid) and increased the content of main monounsaturated (oleic) and tri-unsaturated (linolenic) acids. The results show that the soybean meal substitution by raw chickpea seeds in the feed can affect the structural properties of adipose tissue in broiler chickens, including the thermal transformation of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to the numerous physiological functions of subcutaneous fat tissue, understanding these mechanisms can promote the use of alternative protein both in poultry and human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Quality and Physicochemical Traits of Carcasses and Meat from Geese Fed with Lupin-Rich Feed
Animals 2020, 10(3), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030519 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyze the quality of geese meat receiving feed with soybean meal (group 1), yellow lupin (group 2), narrow-leaved lupin (group 3), or white lupin (group 4). In total, 400 male White Kołuda® geese were randomly [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to analyze the quality of geese meat receiving feed with soybean meal (group 1), yellow lupin (group 2), narrow-leaved lupin (group 3), or white lupin (group 4). In total, 400 male White Kołuda® geese were randomly assigned to four groups, with 10 replicates and 10 birds each, during the 77-day rearing period. After the end of the rearing period, 10 birds from each group were slaughtered and dissected. Meat quality traits were measured. Based on the production results, it can be concluded that geese use fodder with yellow and white lupin to the same degree as in the case of the control group and higher body weight gain was recorded in the first rearing period. In contrast, the use of narrow-leaved lupin in mixtures for geese worsened the feed used. Meat traits were similar in all groups, including the content of muscles and fat in the carcass (p > 0.05), excluding abdominal fat. The weight of abdominal fat and its proportion in the carcass were higher (p < 0.05) in geese from group 4. A higher (p < 0.05) pH was found in group 1. The protein and intramuscular fat content in breast muscles was highest (p < 0.05) in geese from group 4, and a higher water content was found in group 1. The protein content in leg muscles was higher in group 3, and the fat content was higher in group 4 (p < 0.05). The color and water-holding capacity of meat were comparable in all groups (p > 0.05). The analysis revealed a positive effect of replacing soybean meal with alternative protein sources, especially yellow and white lupin, on the growth performance and quality of goose meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Chickpea in Substitution of Soybean Meal on Milk Production, Blood Profile and Reproductive Response of Primiparous Buffaloes in Early Lactation
Animals 2020, 10(3), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030515 - 19 Mar 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the use of chickpea meal in substitution of soybean meal on plasma metabolites, reproductive response, milk yield and composition and milk coagulation traits of primiparous buffaloes in early lactation. Eighteen primiparous buffaloes were blocked by [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the use of chickpea meal in substitution of soybean meal on plasma metabolites, reproductive response, milk yield and composition and milk coagulation traits of primiparous buffaloes in early lactation. Eighteen primiparous buffaloes were blocked by age, body weight and days in milk and equally allotted to two experimental groups from 10 to 100 days of lactation. The experimental diets consisted of the same forage integrated with two different isonitrogenous and isoenergetic concentrates containing either 210 g/kg of soybean meal or 371 g/kg chickpea. The use of chickpea meal had no negative effects on dry matter intake (p = 0.69), body condition score (p = 0.33) and milk yield (p = 0.15). Neither milk composition nor blood metabolites were influenced by dietary treatments (p > 0.05), but an increment of urea concentrations in milk (p < 0.05) and blood plasma (p < 0.001) were observed in buffaloes fed chickpeas. Moreover, no effect (p > 0.05) of the dietary treatment was highlighted on milk coagulation traits as well as buffalo reproductive responses. We concluded that soybean meal can be replaced by chickpea meal in the diet for primiparous dairy buffaloes in the early lactation period without impairing their productive and reproductive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Diet Containing Wheat Gluten Supplemented with Dipeptides or Amino Acids on the Morphology of White Muscle of Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)
Animals 2020, 10(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030388 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Nutrition affects the metabolism of muscle cells and myogenic progenitor cells which play a crucial role in the growth and development of the muscle tissue. Because of the fact that the development process of yellow perch muscle tissue is not well known, the [...] Read more.
Nutrition affects the metabolism of muscle cells and myogenic progenitor cells which play a crucial role in the growth and development of the muscle tissue. Because of the fact that the development process of yellow perch muscle tissue is not well known, the study aimed to analyze the influence of diets containing wheat gluten and supplemented with Lys and Gly in dipeptides or free form. Fish were allocated into 12 tanks and divided into four groups. Two of the experimental diets were supplemented Lys-Gly in the dipeptide form (DP group) or free amino acids (FAA group). The third was not supplemented with lysine (LF group). The fourth group of fish was fed commercial starter Bio-Oregon (C group). Histological or histomorphometric analyses were conducted: white muscle area, the total number of muscle fibers, the total number of white muscle nuclei, muscle fiber area, number of proliferating myonuclei. Fish fed LF diet showed the lowest number of nuclei and satellite cells proliferation. Results in DP and FAA groups were similar to that observed in fish fed C diet. Summarizing, wheat gluten-based diets supplemented with Lys-Gly dipeptide or free Lys and Gly amino acids exert beneficial effects on the morphology of yellow perch white muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Quality of Carcass and Meat from Geese Fed Diets with or without Soybean Meal
Animals 2020, 10(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020200 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
The aim of the study was to compare the carcass and meat quality of geese fed with soybean meal or yellow lupin. In total, 210 White Kołuda® geese were divided into 2 groups (1, soybean meal (SBM); 2, yellow lupin (YL), potato [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to compare the carcass and meat quality of geese fed with soybean meal or yellow lupin. In total, 210 White Kołuda® geese were divided into 2 groups (1, soybean meal (SBM); 2, yellow lupin (YL), potato protein, and brewer’s yeast) of 5 replications (21 birds per each). After 16 weeks, 10 geese (5 females, 5 males) from each group were slaughtered. Carcass dissection was done, and major physicochemical traits were analysed (pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, color, and chemical composition of muscles). Weight of leg muscles and their proportion in the carcass were higher (p < 0.05) in SBM. Breast muscles from SBM were characterized by increased (p < 0.05) drip loss, enhanced (p < 0.05) content of protein, water, collagen and connective tissue, and lower (p < 0.05) fat content. Leg muscles from SBM were characterized by higher (p < 0.05) protein and water content but decreased (p < 0.05) salt and fat content compared to YL. The addition of YL (approx. 28%), potato protein, and brewer’s yeast had no negative effect on most meat traits and could partly replace SBM as a protein source in geese feeding. Hence, yellow lupin, potato protein and brewer’s yeast can be used in geese rearing followed by fattening with oats. Some producers do not have the option of using soybean meal. Small-scale farms use their own crop resources, so lupins can be an alternative source of protein for soybean meal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Dietary Protein Sources Substituting Soybean Meal on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Ducks
Animals 2020, 10(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010133 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
The study aimed to examine the growth performance and meat quality of Pekin ducks fed diets consisting of various protein source alternatives (groups: II—yellow lupin (YL) and rapeseed meal (RSM); III—YL and narrow-leaved lupin (NLL); IV—pea and YL; V—RSM, YL, NLL and pea) [...] Read more.
The study aimed to examine the growth performance and meat quality of Pekin ducks fed diets consisting of various protein source alternatives (groups: II—yellow lupin (YL) and rapeseed meal (RSM); III—YL and narrow-leaved lupin (NLL); IV—pea and YL; V—RSM, YL, NLL and pea) to (I) soybean meal (SBM) and RSM. Four hundred and twenty ducks were assigned to five groups with six replicates (14 birds per group). After 7 weeks, 10 ducks from each group were slaughtered. Breast muscles were analyzed for water-holding capacity, drip loss, color, and elasticity. Productivity parameters did not differ between groups I and II but were lower in V. The weight of carcass, neck with skin, skin with subcutaneous fat and total fat were highest in group II. The proportion of wings was higher in group V. In group II, lightness (L*) was higher, but redness (a*) was lower. In groups, I and III, L* was lower and a* was higher. Breast muscles contained more protein in groups I and II, more fat in groups I and III and more water in groups II and IV. The inclusion of vegetable protein alternatives to SBM in duck diets provided the best results in birds fed with YL and RSM (ratio of 1:0:31 in starter and 1:0.81 in grower). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Synthetic and Crystalline Amino Acids: Alternatives to Soybean Meal in Chicken-Meat Production
Animals 2020, 10(4), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040729 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
: This review explores the premise that non-bound (synthetic and crystalline) amino acids are alternatives to soybean meal, the dominant source of protein, in diets for broiler chickens. Non-bound essential and non-essential amino acids can partially replace soybean meal so that requirements are [...] Read more.
: This review explores the premise that non-bound (synthetic and crystalline) amino acids are alternatives to soybean meal, the dominant source of protein, in diets for broiler chickens. Non-bound essential and non-essential amino acids can partially replace soybean meal so that requirements are still met but dietary crude protein levels are reduced. This review considers the production of non-bound amino acids, soybeans, and soybean meal and discusses the concept of reduced-crude protein diets. There is a focus on specific amino acids, including glycine, serine, threonine, and branched-chain amino acids, because they may be pivotal to the successful development of reduced-crude protein diets. Presently, moderate dietary crude protein reductions of approximately 30 g/kg are feasible, but more radical reductions compromise broiler performance. In theory, an ‘ideal’ amino acid profile would prevent this, but this is not necessarily the case in practice. The dependence of the chicken-meat industry on soybean meal will be halved if crude protein reductions in the order of 50 g/kg are attained without compromising the growth performance of broiler chickens. In this event, synthetic and crystalline, or non-bound, amino acids will become viable alternatives to soybean meal in chicken-meat production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Back to TopTop