Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 91420

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 33, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
Interests: non-ruminant nutrition; poultry; companion animals; feed additives; insects as food and feed; alternative protein and energy source; GIT microbiology; GIT physiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Zoology, Laboratory of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture, Poznań University of Life Science, Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-625 Poznań, Poland
Interests: aquaculture; fish nutrition; exotic pets; feed additives; GIT microbiology; insects as food and feed; alternative protein processing; bone mineralization; GIT development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, in this era of global environmental crisis, animal nutrition must be transformed into a sustainable area of production to save the planet for future generations. The main issue concerning whole animal production over the next decade will be providing high-quality products for the growing human population without the negative impact of ocean overfishing, the decreasing of water resources, farmland degradation, and deforestation while at the same time preserving biodiversity. Considering the abovementioned worldwide circumstances, we would like to encourage leading scientists working on the topics of alternative protein sources, the circular economy, and the reuse of resources, as well as environmentally friendly feed product processing, to submit original research or review papers.

In particular, we invite original research papers and reviews that address any aspect of the use of alternative proteins in animal nutrition relating to negative environmental footprint reduction and limitation of GMO products, as well as EU legislation and NGO opinions. Topics of special interest are the use of alternative proteins such as oilseeds, grain legumes, forage legumes, leaves, and aquatic and microbial peptides, as well as insects, with respect to nutritional aspects, i.e., nutrient quality, occurrence of anti-nutritional or toxic factors, inclusion levels, etc.; technical aspects, i.e., processing requirements, texture, seasonality, etc.; or animal production aspects, i.e., growth performance, physiology and immunology status, metabolic response, final product quality, health, etc. In particular, papers on the practical use of alternative proteins in animal nutrition are welcome.

Dr. Bartosz Kierończyk
Dr. Mateusz Rawski
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • livestock nutrition
  • aquaculture
  • alternative proteins
  • non-GMO products
  • nutritional value
  • productivity traits
  • product quality
  • environmental footprint
  • animal health
  • pet nutrition

Published Papers (22 papers)

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19 pages, 312 KiB  
Article
Effects of Raw and Fermented Rapeseed Cake on Growth Performance, Methane Production, and Breast Meat Fatty Acid Composition in Broiler Chickens
by Min Gao, Adam Cieślak, Bartosz Kierończyk, Haihao Huang, Yulianri R. Yanza, Anita Zaworska-Zakrzewska, Damian Józefiak and Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122250 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by 15% raw or fermented rapeseed cake (RRC or FRC) to broilers’ diets on growth performance, nutrient utilization, methane emission, and breast muscle fatty acid (FA) composition. A [...] Read more.
The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by 15% raw or fermented rapeseed cake (RRC or FRC) to broilers’ diets on growth performance, nutrient utilization, methane emission, and breast muscle fatty acid (FA) composition. A total of 420 one-day-old female Ros 308 broilers were used in three independent experiments (300 birds in the first experiment and 60 in the second and third experiments). In each trial, three treatments were set up: a control group (without rapeseed), and diets replaced soybean meal with 15% addition of RRC or FRC. Birds fed the FRC diet experienced no effect (p > 0.05) on performance or nutrients utilization. Methane emission and total methanogen population in the ceca was decreased (p < 0.05) with the FRC diet. The concentrations of n-3 and n-6 FAs in the breast tissue of fourteen-day-old birds were not affected (p > 0.05) by FRC. However, the n-6/n-3 ratio in the breast muscle of 28-day-old birds was reduced (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the replacement of SBM by FRC in the broiler diets did not show any unfavorable effects on performance or nutrient utilization. Furthermore, the breast meat FA profile was improved, methanogen counts significantly decreased, and methane emission was limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
18 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Standardised Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility in Field Pea Seeds of Two Cultivars Differing in Flower Colour for Broiler Chickens: Effects of Bird Age and Microbial Protease
by Witold Szczurek and Sylwester Świątkiewicz
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112099 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
This study aimed to determine and compare standardised ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients of amino acids (AA) in raw seeds of the white-(WF) and the coloured-flowered (CF) field pea cultivar as sole sources of AA in the diets fed to broiler chickens aged 14 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine and compare standardised ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients of amino acids (AA) in raw seeds of the white-(WF) and the coloured-flowered (CF) field pea cultivar as sole sources of AA in the diets fed to broiler chickens aged 14 or 28 days. An additional purpose was to check the influence of exogenous protease added to pea-based assay diets on AA SID in birds at both ages. Each assay diet was offered to six replicate pens. On both sampling days, the contents from the lower half of the ileum were collected for determination of the apparent digestibility values. The SID coefficients were calculated using ileal endogenous AA losses determined from birds fed an N-free diet. Results indicated a substantial advantage of WF pea over CF pea as a source of digestible Lys, Met, Cys, His, Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Asp and Glu for 14-day-old chickens. With the exception of methionine and cysteine, there was no significant difference between these two cultivars in the SID values of AA in 28-day-old birds. The protease increased SID of nutritionally essential AA from WF pea-based diet at both ages, and from CF pea-based diet in chickens aged 28 days. In conclusion, the SID coefficients of indispensable AA determined at 14 days of age in low-tannin WF peas are not applicable to the formulation of grower-type feeds containing seeds of CF cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
14 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Growth Performance, Gut Environment and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Weaned Piglets Fed a Diet Supplemented with Raw and Fermented Narrow-Leafed Lupine Seeds
by Anita Zaworska-Zakrzewska, Małgorzata Kasprowicz-Potocka, Robert Mikuła, Marcin Taciak, Ewa Pruszyńska-Oszmałek and Andrzej Frankiewicz
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112084 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
The aim of this study was to: (1) provide controlled fermentation of narrow-leafed lupine seeds; (2) monitor seed composition, and (3) determine the influence of fermentation on the performance, gut environment and physiology, and selected blood metabolic parameters, in young pigs. Firstly, the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to: (1) provide controlled fermentation of narrow-leafed lupine seeds; (2) monitor seed composition, and (3) determine the influence of fermentation on the performance, gut environment and physiology, and selected blood metabolic parameters, in young pigs. Firstly, the effect of 24 h lupine seed fermentation by bacteria and yeast on seed chemical composition was determined. It increased contents of crude protein, crude fiber and ash, but reduced nitrogen-free extractive levels. The amino acid profile of fermented lupine (FL) was similar to that of raw lupine (RL) seeds, whereas the contents of oligosaccharides and P-phytate decreased significantly, in contrast to alkaloids. In fermented feed, pH dropped from 5.5 to 3.9. In the 28-day experiment, 24 male pigs were divided into three groups. The control group was fed a soybean meal diet (SBM), whereas in the experimental diets, 50% of SBM protein was replaced by RL or FL. Afterwards, eight pigs from each group were euthanized and their digesta and blood samples were collected. The FL use did not affect pigs’ performance, nor their metabolic, microbial and most gastrointestinal tract parameters, but influenced crypt depth. Fermentation affected concentrations of short chain fatty acids and p-cresole in the proximal colon segment. In the small intestine, the levels of acetate and butyrate decreased, and, in the caecum, the propionate level decreased. Fermentation significantly lowered the pH of the middle colon digesta and ammonia contents compared to RL. A part of SBM may be successfully replaced by RL and FL in young pigs’ diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
16 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of the Composition and Contamination of Soybean Cultivated in Europe and Limitation of Raw Soy Seed Content in Weaned Pigs’ Diets
by Anita Zaworska-Zakrzewska, Małgorzata Kasprowicz-Potocka, Magdalena Twarużek, Robert Kosicki, Jan Grajewski, Zuzanna Wiśniewska and Andrzej Rutkowski
Animals 2020, 10(11), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111972 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of European soy seeds. A mycological and toxigenic screening was carried out on 18 varieties of soy seeds harvested in Poland. Moreover, the level of soybean meal (SBM) substitution by raw soybean [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of European soy seeds. A mycological and toxigenic screening was carried out on 18 varieties of soy seeds harvested in Poland. Moreover, the level of soybean meal (SBM) substitution by raw soybean seeds was analysed in terms of its effect on young pigs’ performance (body weight gain, feed intake, feed utilisation) along with apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter and crude protein in the diets. In a 28-day trial, 48 male pigs were tested using a marker method with TiO2. In their diets, SBM was replaced by soy seeds in the amounts of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. In the last 3 days of the experiment, samples of excreta from each animal separately were collected three times per day. The chemical composition of soybean seeds differed in terms of their contents of crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fibre and raffinose family oligosaccharides, as well as the trypsin inhibitor activity. Seeds were also contaminated with fungi, yeast and mycotoxins, mainly zearalenone and deoxynivalenol. The ATTD of crude protein ranged from 70.6% to 77.6% and that of dry matter from 93.5% to 94.6%, with no differences between the groups being found (p > 0.05). Pigs’ performance parameters were reduced strongly with increasing amounts of raw seeds in the diets (p < 0.05). The results indicate that only a 5% addition of raw soy seeds in pigs‘ diet is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
10 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
The Quality of Eggs from Rosa 1 Hens Fed Diets Containing Seeds of Legume Plants (Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus angustifolius, and Pisum sativum) in Two Laying Phases
by Joanna Kuźniacka, Jakub Biesek, Mirosław Banaszak, Małgorzata Grabowicz and Marek Adamski
Animals 2020, 10(11), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111942 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
This study analyzes the eggs’ quality from hens fed with alternative protein to soybean meal (SBM) in relation to laying phase. Here, 226 hens are divided into the control (I) and experimental (II) groups and reared for 50 weeks. There were two feeding [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the eggs’ quality from hens fed with alternative protein to soybean meal (SBM) in relation to laying phase. Here, 226 hens are divided into the control (I) and experimental (II) groups and reared for 50 weeks. There were two feeding phases (weeks 1–36; 37–50). Quality was assessed for 20 eggs from each group. The eggs are analyzed for their external and internal traits. A higher albumen weight in II and higher weights of the components were found in the 37–50 weeks for both groups, also in the percentage of yolk and albumen, however lower eggshell percentage was found for both groups, at the same time they were less durable and found to be thinner. In II, the La Roche color and the L*, b* were lower, but the a* increased, as did the albumen height. In the second phase, the La Roche and DSM color were higher, while the Haugh unit and albumen height decreased. Factors’ interaction was demonstrated for color. Legumes can partly substitute SBM in feed for hens. There were no negative effects on the eggs’ quality for most traits. The differences between the laying phases are due to the natural course and the physiology of laying hens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
12 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Replacement of Soybean Meal with Heat-Treated Canola Meal in Finishing Diets of Meatmaster Lambs: Physiological and Meat Quality Responses
by Mpolokeng Sekali, Victor Mlambo, Upenyu Marume and Manny Mathuthu
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101735 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2295
Abstract
The study investigated whether heat treatment (190 °C for 90 min) could improve the quality of expeller canola meal (CM) protein in finishing diets of Meatmaster lambs. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by partially (50%) or completely replacing SBM as the [...] Read more.
The study investigated whether heat treatment (190 °C for 90 min) could improve the quality of expeller canola meal (CM) protein in finishing diets of Meatmaster lambs. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by partially (50%) or completely replacing SBM as the major protein source with untreated or heat-treated CM in a commercial lamb finishing diet. Diets were randomly allocated to 40 lambs (24.73 ± 1.311 kg; 4.5 months old) for 77 days. No dietary differences were observed for growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. Diets had no effect (p > 0.05) on blood parameters, except for hemoglobin and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Lambs that were fed the control diet had higher hemoglobin concentration compared with lambs on CM-containing diets. The highest AST value was observed when SBM was completely replaced with untreated CM (159.88 IU/L), while complete replacement with heat-treated CM resulted in the lowest AST value (103.25 IU/L). All lambs had a body condition score of 3 at slaughter. It was concluded that heat treatment did not improve the protein value of CM. However, CM inclusion promoted similar growth performance and meat quality parameters in lambs as SBM. Untreated CM can be used to completely substitute SBM in finishing diets of Meatmaster lambs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
10 pages, 399 KiB  
Article
Consumer Acceptance of Meat from Animals Reared on Insect Meal as Feed
by Katalin Szendrő, Mónika Zita Nagy and Katalin Tóth
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081312 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4997
Abstract
Insect protein production requires much less land, feed, and water, and thus has a much smaller ecological footprint than animal protein production, which is important for reducing global warming. Poultry, pigs, and fish consume insects in nature, so insect meal could be a [...] Read more.
Insect protein production requires much less land, feed, and water, and thus has a much smaller ecological footprint than animal protein production, which is important for reducing global warming. Poultry, pigs, and fish consume insects in nature, so insect meal could be a good substitute for soybean and fishmeal as a protein source in diets. The aim of this study was to examine consumer opinion on meat that originated from animals whose diet contained insect meal. The study was conducted in Hungary in 2020 (N = 414). On a scale of 1–7, respondents gave much lower scores (3.96) to this product than that which originated from a free-range system (5.11; p < 0.001). Male, more highly educated, and 30–39 year-old respondents gave significantly higher scores than other groups. The most important factor in accepting insect meal in animal feed was “no risk”, while the least important factor was “replacement of Genetically Modified (GM) soybeans”. Since free-range animals also consume insects, the difference in the attitude of respondents was based on their aversion to insects, while accepting free-range as the best animal welfare system. Thus, more emphasis should be placed on the benefits of insect meal in animal feed in order to bring about awareness and acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
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17 pages, 2002 KiB  
Article
Tenebrio molitor Larvae Meal Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Growing Pigs
by Sandra Meyer, Denise K. Gessner, Garima Maheshwari, Julia Röhrig, Theresa Friedhoff, Erika Most, Holger Zorn, Robert Ringseis and Klaus Eder
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071151 - 7 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
The hypothesis tested was that dietary inclusion of insect meal (IM) causes an alteration in the cecal microbiota composition and its fermentation activity of growing pigs. Five-week-old male crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 pigs each, and fed isonitrogenous [...] Read more.
The hypothesis tested was that dietary inclusion of insect meal (IM) causes an alteration in the cecal microbiota composition and its fermentation activity of growing pigs. Five-week-old male crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 pigs each, and fed isonitrogenous diets either without (CON) or with 5% IM (IM5) or 10% IM (IM10) from Tenebrio molitor larvae for four weeks. The relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes was lower in group IM10 than in group CON (p < 0.05), whereas the relative abundance of Firmicutes and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes-ratio tended to be higher in groups IM10 and IM5 than in group CON (p < 0.1). The relative abundance of the Proteobacteria tended to be higher in group IM10 than in groups CON and IM5 (p < 0.1). The concentrations of the total short-chain fatty acids in the cecal digesta did not differ between the three groups, but the concentrations of the branched-chain fatty acids in the cecal digesta were higher in group IM5 and IM10 than in group CON (p < 0.05). The present study shows for the first time that the replacement of soybean meal by Tenebrio molitor larvae meal causes a shift of the cecal microbial community and its fermentation activity in growing pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
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13 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Diet Based on Legume Seeds and Rapeseed Meal on Pig Performance and Meat Quality
by Anna Zmudzińska, Bartosz Bigorowski, Mirosław Banaszak, Aleksandra Roślewska, Marek Adamski and Marcin Hejdysz
Animals 2020, 10(6), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061084 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3352
Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess the impact of a total dietary replacement of extracted soybean meal (SBM) on body weight gain and pork quality. DanBred hybrid piglets were divided into four groups of 10 piglets each. Groups I (males) and [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to assess the impact of a total dietary replacement of extracted soybean meal (SBM) on body weight gain and pork quality. DanBred hybrid piglets were divided into four groups of 10 piglets each. Groups I (males) and II (females) were the control groups and fed a standardized SBM-based complete feed. The experimental groups III (males) and IV (females) were offered a diet in which the SBM was replaced with extracted rapeseed meal (RSM) and legume plants (pea and yellow lupin). After 83 days of fattening, the animals were slaughtered. Based on the collected data, the daily weight gain (DWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. In addition, longissimus dorsi muscle was subjected to physicochemical analyses, including the basic chemical composition. All the analyses were performed in accordance with the applicable methodologies. As a result of this experiment, no interactions were found between the experimental factors (sex and diet). The replacement of SMB by legumes and RSM resulted in a significant reduction in the final body weight of growing–finishing pigs. Additionally, daily body weight gain was reduced between 35–83 days, and through the whole fattening period (0–83 days). Most pork meat quality parameters were not affected by the type of mix feed and sex (p > 0.05). The fattening pigs that were fed legume seeds and RSM had significantly reduced fatness (p > 0.05) compared to the control pigs. In males, there was also a significantly lower pH45 (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that feeding pigs with diets containing legume plants and extracted rapeseed meal does not affect the pork meat quality, but it may worsen the body weight gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
20 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Hydrolyzed Insect Meals in Sea Trout Fingerling (Salmo trutta m. trutta) Diets on Growth Performance, Microbiota and Biochemical Blood Parameters
by Zuzanna Mikołajczak, Mateusz Rawski, Jan Mazurkiewicz, Bartosz Kierończyk and Damian Józefiak
Animals 2020, 10(6), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061031 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 4255
Abstract
The present study is the first introduction of hydrolyzed superworm meal in sea trout nutrition. It was conducted to evaluate the effects of inclusion in the diet of hydrolyzed insect meals as a partial replacement for fishmeal on growth performance, feed utilization, organosomatic [...] Read more.
The present study is the first introduction of hydrolyzed superworm meal in sea trout nutrition. It was conducted to evaluate the effects of inclusion in the diet of hydrolyzed insect meals as a partial replacement for fishmeal on growth performance, feed utilization, organosomatic indices, serum biochemical parameters, gut histomorphology, and microbiota composition of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta). The experiment was performed on 225 sea trout fingerlings distributed into three groups (3 tanks/treatment, 25 fish/tank). The control diet was fishmeal-based. In the experimental groups, 10% of hydrolyzed mealworm (TMD) and superworm (ZMD) meals were included. The protein efficiency ratio was lower in the TMD and ZMD. Higher organosomatic indices and liver lipid contents were found in the group fed ZMD. The ZMD increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and decreased levels of alkaline phosphatase. The Aeromonas spp. and Enterococcus spp. populations decreased in the ZMD. The concentrations of the Carnobacterium spp. decreased in the ZMD and TMD, as did that of the Lactobacillus group in the TMD. In conclusion, insect meals may be an alternative protein source in sea trout nutrition, as they yield satisfying growth performance and have the capability to modulate biochemical blood parameters and microbiota composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
9 pages, 640 KiB  
Article
Plasmatic Urea Nitrogen in Growing Rabbits with Different Combinations of Dietary Levels of Lysine, Sulphur Amino Acids and Threonine
by Pablo Jesús Marín-García, Mari Carmen López-Luján, Luís Ródenas, Eugenio Melchor Martínez-Paredes, Enrique Blas and Juan José Pascual
Animals 2020, 10(6), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10060946 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
A total of 27 experimental diets were formulated starting from the same basal mixture, with a moderate content of crude protein and digestible energy (155 g and 9.86 MJ/kg of digestible matter (DM), respectively, both estimated). The contents of lysine, sulphur amino acids [...] Read more.
A total of 27 experimental diets were formulated starting from the same basal mixture, with a moderate content of crude protein and digestible energy (155 g and 9.86 MJ/kg of digestible matter (DM), respectively, both estimated). The contents of lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine were variable. The first one, close to the current recommendations (Medium, M; 8.1, 5.8 and 6.9 g/kg DM for lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine, respectively), and two other levels were on average 15% higher (High, H; 9.4, 6.6 and 7.8 g/kg DM for lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine, respectively) or lower (Low, L; 6.7, 4.9 and 5.7 g/kg DM for lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine, respectively). Diets were named with three letters, indicating lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine levels, respectively. In total, 918 weaned rabbits (28 days old) were used (34 per diet). At weaning, animals were fed ad libitum with a commercial diet until day 46, day 47 each collective cage was randomly switched to one experimental diet. At day 48, blood samples were collected at 08:00h then the animals were subjected to 10 h of fasting and a second blood sample was extracted at 21.00h. At 08:00h, Pasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN) was higher with the L level of lysine (p < 0.001), unaffected by the level of sulphur amino acids and increased with the level of threonine (p < 0.001). At 21:00h, minimum PUN was observed with the MHL diet (14.72 ± 0.661 mg/dL). Taken into account the usual recommendations (established for a diet containing 11.3 MJ DE/kg DM, and then being 0.72, 0.51 and 0.61 g/MJ DE for lysine, sulphur amino acids and threonine, respectively), these results suggest that a diet containing more lysine and sulphur amino acids per energy unit (around 0.82 and 0.67 g/MJ DE) could better fit the growing rabbit requirements, although studies on the effects of such a diet on performance and protein retention are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
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12 pages, 706 KiB  
Article
Performance Results and Concentrations of Biochemical Indices and Mineral Elements in Blood Serum of Fatteners Fed Diets Containing Mixtures of Raw Seeds of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) or Blue Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)
by Marcin Sońta, Martyna Batorska, Justyna Więcek and Anna Rekiel
Animals 2020, 10(5), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050858 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
Two experiments were conducted with fatteners (♀ (Landrace × Yorkshire) × ♂ duroc), 50 animals each (10 pigs per group). The fatteners from the control group (C) were administered feed mixtures with genetically modified soybean meal (SBM-GM) used as the only protein source; [...] Read more.
Two experiments were conducted with fatteners (♀ (Landrace × Yorkshire) × ♂ duroc), 50 animals each (10 pigs per group). The fatteners from the control group (C) were administered feed mixtures with genetically modified soybean meal (SBM-GM) used as the only protein source; whereas these from experimental groups (E1–E4) received feed mixtures in which the SBM-GM was replaced with increasing amounts of raw seeds of pea (Experiment I) or blue lupin (Experiment II): E1—5.0%, E2—10.0%, E3—15.0%, and E4—17.5%. Once the fattening period was completed, production results were determined, and selected blood serum indices were assayed to establish the effect of the nutritional factor on body homeostasis and health status of the animals. Pigs from all groups revealed a similar growth rate and meatiness (p > 0.05). In Experiment I serum analyses showed lower (p < 0.001) concentrations of: cholesterol in E1, E3 and E4; creatinine in E1 and E4 and urea in E3 and E4, compared to the C. In Experiment II, lower (p < 0.001) concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine-aminotransferase, total protein, and Mg were determined in the serum of fatteners from E1–E4 compared to the C. Even though values of all analyzed blood markers differed among the groups, in most cases they fitted within reference values for the species, which indicates the maintenance of body homeostasis. Study results show that there are no contraindications to the use of pea and blue lupin seeds as alternative feed materials to SBM-GM in pig fattening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
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16 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Growth Performance and Carcass Quality in Broiler Chickens Fed on Legume Seeds and Rapeseed Meal
by Jakub Biesek, Joanna Kuźniacka, Mirosław Banaszak, Sebastian Kaczmarek, Marek Adamski, Andrzej Rutkowski, Anna Zmudzińska, Katarzyna Perz and Marcin Hejdysz
Animals 2020, 10(5), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050846 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 9171
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance parameters, carcass quality, and meat traits in broiler chickens fed on diets containing legume seeds and rapeseed meal as an alternative to soybean meal. In this study, 448 male ROSS 308 chicks [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance parameters, carcass quality, and meat traits in broiler chickens fed on diets containing legume seeds and rapeseed meal as an alternative to soybean meal. In this study, 448 male ROSS 308 chicks were divided into subgroups: a control group (I) fed on soybean meal (SBM), and six experimental groups II—rapeseed meal (RSM); III—white lupin (WY); IV—yellow lupin (YL); V—narrow-leaved lupin NLL; VI—pea (Pe); and VII—faba bean (FB). After 42 days of rearing, 10 birds from each group were slaughtered and dissected. The control group was characterized by better growth performance compared to the other groups. In addition, the European Broiler Index was lower in each experimental group compared to the SBM group. A lower dressing percentage was found only in the NLL group. The muscle content in birds from the RSM and FB groups was significantly higher than in the other groups, but the fat content was lower. Meat from SBM group was characterized by the highest protein content, but a reduced content of fat and water in the muscles. The most similar results were found between the control group and the FB group receiving a diet based on faba beans. Furthermore, lupins had a similar effect on the carcass traits when used in the diets. The quality of meat in broilers fed on faba beans with the addition of potato protein and brewers’ yeast was similar to that of those fed on soybean meal, because the antinutrients were the lowest in faba bean seeds. Faba beans are proposed as a possible alternative source of protein in poultry diets. Other legume seeds should be analyzed in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
13 pages, 586 KiB  
Article
Cafeteria-Type Feeding of Chickens Indicates a Preference for Insect (Tenebrio molitor) Larvae Meal
by Marcos Antonio Nascimento Filho, Raquel Tatiane Pereira, Ana Beatriz Santos de Oliveira, Diana Suckeveris, Alvaro Mario Burin Junior, Thiago de Araújo Mastrangelo, Diego Vicente da Costa and José Fernando Machado Menten
Animals 2020, 10(4), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040627 - 6 Apr 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4016
Abstract
This study aimed to determine whether broiler chickens display a preference for Tenebrio molitor larvae (TM) meal by evaluating ingredient acceptability and birds’ performance. Sixty 14-day-old male chickens were assigned into two treatment groups (5 birds/pen, n = 6) in a cafeteria-type study: [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine whether broiler chickens display a preference for Tenebrio molitor larvae (TM) meal by evaluating ingredient acceptability and birds’ performance. Sixty 14-day-old male chickens were assigned into two treatment groups (5 birds/pen, n = 6) in a cafeteria-type study: the control (C) group, and the TM group. Each pen was equipped with one bell drinker and four through feeders allocated side by side; all feeders of the C group contained a complete standard diet whereas each feeder of the TM group contained one of the following ingredients: ground corn, extruded semi-whole soybean, vitamin-mineral supplement mixture, and TM meal. Feed intake was recorded daily and growth was monitored periodically up to day 32. Chickens which had access to individual feed components showed a delay to display preference for TM, but consumed, overall, up to 50% of the total intake as TM meal. Feed intake and growth performance were lower in all periods for TM group (p < 0.02), whereas feed conversion ratio was improved on days 22–28 and days 29–32 of age (p < 0.01). Data from bivariate and multidimensional analysis indicate that birds started to reach a balance of ingredient intake at 25 days of age, showing a high correlation between consumption of each ingredient and the day of the experiment. Chickens exhibited a preference for T. molitor meal, resulting in improved feed efficiency, which allows us to conclude that it can be a suitable feed alternative for poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
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12 pages, 954 KiB  
Article
Effect of Soybean Meal Substitution by Raw Chickpea Seeds on Thermal Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Subcutaneous Fat Tissue of Broiler Chickens
by Waldemar Paszkiewicz, Siemowit Muszyński, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Mykola Zhyla, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Anna Arczewska-Włosek and Ewa Tomaszewska
Animals 2020, 10(3), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030533 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3414
Abstract
In this study, the effect of soybean meal substitution by raw chickpea seeds on the thermal properties and fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat tissue of broiler chickens was examined. The experiment, performed on Ross 308 chickens, lasted for 42 days. Tight subcutaneous [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of soybean meal substitution by raw chickpea seeds on the thermal properties and fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat tissue of broiler chickens was examined. The experiment, performed on Ross 308 chickens, lasted for 42 days. Tight subcutaneous fat tissue was analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements while the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue was determined chromatographically. There was no effect of soybean meal substitution on fat crystallization temperature or crystallization enthalpy. However, the total calorimetric enthalpy of the melting of low-melting monounsaturated and saturated triacylglycerols differed between groups. Fatty acid proportions in the subcutaneous fat tissue of broiler chickens were also altered. Among others, chickpea seed inclusion decreased the content of main saturated acid (palmitic acid) and increased the content of main monounsaturated (oleic) and tri-unsaturated (linolenic) acids. The results show that the soybean meal substitution by raw chickpea seeds in the feed can affect the structural properties of adipose tissue in broiler chickens, including the thermal transformation of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to the numerous physiological functions of subcutaneous fat tissue, understanding these mechanisms can promote the use of alternative protein both in poultry and human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
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14 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Quality and Physicochemical Traits of Carcasses and Meat from Geese Fed with Lupin-Rich Feed
by Joanna Kuźniacka, Marcin Hejdysz, Mirosław Banaszak, Jakub Biesek, Sebastian Kaczmarek, Małgorzata Grabowicz, Andrzej Rutkowski and Marek Adamski
Animals 2020, 10(3), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030519 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2563
Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyze the quality of geese meat receiving feed with soybean meal (group 1), yellow lupin (group 2), narrow-leaved lupin (group 3), or white lupin (group 4). In total, 400 male White Kołuda® geese were randomly [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to analyze the quality of geese meat receiving feed with soybean meal (group 1), yellow lupin (group 2), narrow-leaved lupin (group 3), or white lupin (group 4). In total, 400 male White Kołuda® geese were randomly assigned to four groups, with 10 replicates and 10 birds each, during the 77-day rearing period. After the end of the rearing period, 10 birds from each group were slaughtered and dissected. Meat quality traits were measured. Based on the production results, it can be concluded that geese use fodder with yellow and white lupin to the same degree as in the case of the control group and higher body weight gain was recorded in the first rearing period. In contrast, the use of narrow-leaved lupin in mixtures for geese worsened the feed used. Meat traits were similar in all groups, including the content of muscles and fat in the carcass (p > 0.05), excluding abdominal fat. The weight of abdominal fat and its proportion in the carcass were higher (p < 0.05) in geese from group 4. A higher (p < 0.05) pH was found in group 1. The protein and intramuscular fat content in breast muscles was highest (p < 0.05) in geese from group 4, and a higher water content was found in group 1. The protein content in leg muscles was higher in group 3, and the fat content was higher in group 4 (p < 0.05). The color and water-holding capacity of meat were comparable in all groups (p > 0.05). The analysis revealed a positive effect of replacing soybean meal with alternative protein sources, especially yellow and white lupin, on the growth performance and quality of goose meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
14 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
Effects of Chickpea in Substitution of Soybean Meal on Milk Production, Blood Profile and Reproductive Response of Primiparous Buffaloes in Early Lactation
by Francesco Serrapica, Felicia Masucci, Raffaele Romano, Fabio Napolitano, Emilio Sabia, Alessandra Aiello and Antonio Di Francia
Animals 2020, 10(3), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030515 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3620
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the use of chickpea meal in substitution of soybean meal on plasma metabolites, reproductive response, milk yield and composition and milk coagulation traits of primiparous buffaloes in early lactation. Eighteen primiparous buffaloes were blocked by [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the use of chickpea meal in substitution of soybean meal on plasma metabolites, reproductive response, milk yield and composition and milk coagulation traits of primiparous buffaloes in early lactation. Eighteen primiparous buffaloes were blocked by age, body weight and days in milk and equally allotted to two experimental groups from 10 to 100 days of lactation. The experimental diets consisted of the same forage integrated with two different isonitrogenous and isoenergetic concentrates containing either 210 g/kg of soybean meal or 371 g/kg chickpea. The use of chickpea meal had no negative effects on dry matter intake (p = 0.69), body condition score (p = 0.33) and milk yield (p = 0.15). Neither milk composition nor blood metabolites were influenced by dietary treatments (p > 0.05), but an increment of urea concentrations in milk (p < 0.05) and blood plasma (p < 0.001) were observed in buffaloes fed chickpeas. Moreover, no effect (p > 0.05) of the dietary treatment was highlighted on milk coagulation traits as well as buffalo reproductive responses. We concluded that soybean meal can be replaced by chickpea meal in the diet for primiparous dairy buffaloes in the early lactation period without impairing their productive and reproductive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
9 pages, 1159 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Diet Containing Wheat Gluten Supplemented with Dipeptides or Amino Acids on the Morphology of White Muscle of Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)
by Maciej Kamaszewski, Maciej Wójcik, Agata Krawczyńska and Teresa Ostaszewska
Animals 2020, 10(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030388 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2537
Abstract
Nutrition affects the metabolism of muscle cells and myogenic progenitor cells which play a crucial role in the growth and development of the muscle tissue. Because of the fact that the development process of yellow perch muscle tissue is not well known, the [...] Read more.
Nutrition affects the metabolism of muscle cells and myogenic progenitor cells which play a crucial role in the growth and development of the muscle tissue. Because of the fact that the development process of yellow perch muscle tissue is not well known, the study aimed to analyze the influence of diets containing wheat gluten and supplemented with Lys and Gly in dipeptides or free form. Fish were allocated into 12 tanks and divided into four groups. Two of the experimental diets were supplemented Lys-Gly in the dipeptide form (DP group) or free amino acids (FAA group). The third was not supplemented with lysine (LF group). The fourth group of fish was fed commercial starter Bio-Oregon (C group). Histological or histomorphometric analyses were conducted: white muscle area, the total number of muscle fibers, the total number of white muscle nuclei, muscle fiber area, number of proliferating myonuclei. Fish fed LF diet showed the lowest number of nuclei and satellite cells proliferation. Results in DP and FAA groups were similar to that observed in fish fed C diet. Summarizing, wheat gluten-based diets supplemented with Lys-Gly dipeptide or free Lys and Gly amino acids exert beneficial effects on the morphology of yellow perch white muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
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11 pages, 268 KiB  
Article
The Quality of Carcass and Meat from Geese Fed Diets with or without Soybean Meal
by Jakub Biesek, Joanna Kuźniacka, Mirosław Banaszak and Marek Adamski
Animals 2020, 10(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020200 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2724
Abstract
The aim of the study was to compare the carcass and meat quality of geese fed with soybean meal or yellow lupin. In total, 210 White Kołuda® geese were divided into 2 groups (1, soybean meal (SBM); 2, yellow lupin (YL), potato [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to compare the carcass and meat quality of geese fed with soybean meal or yellow lupin. In total, 210 White Kołuda® geese were divided into 2 groups (1, soybean meal (SBM); 2, yellow lupin (YL), potato protein, and brewer’s yeast) of 5 replications (21 birds per each). After 16 weeks, 10 geese (5 females, 5 males) from each group were slaughtered. Carcass dissection was done, and major physicochemical traits were analysed (pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, color, and chemical composition of muscles). Weight of leg muscles and their proportion in the carcass were higher (p < 0.05) in SBM. Breast muscles from SBM were characterized by increased (p < 0.05) drip loss, enhanced (p < 0.05) content of protein, water, collagen and connective tissue, and lower (p < 0.05) fat content. Leg muscles from SBM were characterized by higher (p < 0.05) protein and water content but decreased (p < 0.05) salt and fat content compared to YL. The addition of YL (approx. 28%), potato protein, and brewer’s yeast had no negative effect on most meat traits and could partly replace SBM as a protein source in geese feeding. Hence, yellow lupin, potato protein and brewer’s yeast can be used in geese rearing followed by fattening with oats. Some producers do not have the option of using soybean meal. Small-scale farms use their own crop resources, so lupins can be an alternative source of protein for soybean meal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
15 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Protein Sources Substituting Soybean Meal on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Ducks
by Joanna Kuźniacka, Jakub Biesek, Mirosław Banaszak, Andrzej Rutkowski, Sebastian Kaczmarek, Marek Adamski and Marcin Hejdysz
Animals 2020, 10(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010133 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4456
Abstract
The study aimed to examine the growth performance and meat quality of Pekin ducks fed diets consisting of various protein source alternatives (groups: II—yellow lupin (YL) and rapeseed meal (RSM); III—YL and narrow-leaved lupin (NLL); IV—pea and YL; V—RSM, YL, NLL and pea) [...] Read more.
The study aimed to examine the growth performance and meat quality of Pekin ducks fed diets consisting of various protein source alternatives (groups: II—yellow lupin (YL) and rapeseed meal (RSM); III—YL and narrow-leaved lupin (NLL); IV—pea and YL; V—RSM, YL, NLL and pea) to (I) soybean meal (SBM) and RSM. Four hundred and twenty ducks were assigned to five groups with six replicates (14 birds per group). After 7 weeks, 10 ducks from each group were slaughtered. Breast muscles were analyzed for water-holding capacity, drip loss, color, and elasticity. Productivity parameters did not differ between groups I and II but were lower in V. The weight of carcass, neck with skin, skin with subcutaneous fat and total fat were highest in group II. The proportion of wings was higher in group V. In group II, lightness (L*) was higher, but redness (a*) was lower. In groups, I and III, L* was lower and a* was higher. Breast muscles contained more protein in groups I and II, more fat in groups I and III and more water in groups II and IV. The inclusion of vegetable protein alternatives to SBM in duck diets provided the best results in birds fed with YL and RSM (ratio of 1:0:31 in starter and 1:0.81 in grower). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)

Review

Jump to: Research

20 pages, 495 KiB  
Review
Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor Larvae) as an Alternative Protein Source for Monogastric Animal: A Review
by Jinsu Hong, Taehee Han and Yoo Yong Kim
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112068 - 8 Nov 2020
Cited by 128 | Viewed by 16982
Abstract
Edible insects have been used as an alternative protein source for food and animal feed, and the market size for edible insects has increased. Tenebrio molitor larvae, also known as mealworm and yellow mealworm, are considered a good protein source with nutritional value, [...] Read more.
Edible insects have been used as an alternative protein source for food and animal feed, and the market size for edible insects has increased. Tenebrio molitor larvae, also known as mealworm and yellow mealworm, are considered a good protein source with nutritional value, digestibility, flavor, and a functional ability. Additionally, they are easy to breed and feed for having a stable protein content, regardless of their diets. Therefore, T. molitor larvae have been produced industrially as feed for pets, zoo animals, and even for production animals. To maintain the nutrient composition and safety of T. molitor larvae, slaughtering (heating or freezing) and post-slaughtering (drying and grinding) procedures should be improved for animal feed. T. molitor larvae are also processed with defatting or hydrolysis before grinding. They have a high quality and quantity of protein and amino acid profile, so are considered a highly sustainable protein source for replacing soybean meal or fishmeal. T. molitor has a chitin in its cuticle, which is an indigestible fiber with positive effects on the immune system. In studies of poultry, the supplementation of T. molitor larvae improved the growth performance of broiler chickens, without having negative effects on carcass traits, whereas some studies have reported that there were no significant differences in the growth performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens. In studies of swine, the supplementation of T. molitor larvae improved the growth performance and protein utilization of weaning pigs. Furthermore, 10% of T. molitor larvae showed greater amino acid digestibility than conventional animal proteins in growing pigs. However, there are some challenges regarding the biosafety, consumer’s acceptance, and price for the use of T. moiltor larvae in animal feed. Consequently, T. molitor larvae could be used as an alternative or sustainable protein source in monogastric animal feed with a consideration of the nutritional values, biosafety, consumer’s acceptance, and market price of T. molitor larvae products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
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20 pages, 355 KiB  
Review
Synthetic and Crystalline Amino Acids: Alternatives to Soybean Meal in Chicken-Meat Production
by Peter H. Selle, Juliano Cesar de Paula Dorigam, Andreas Lemme, Peter V. Chrystal and Sonia Y. Liu
Animals 2020, 10(4), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040729 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 7334
Abstract
: This review explores the premise that non-bound (synthetic and crystalline) amino acids are alternatives to soybean meal, the dominant source of protein, in diets for broiler chickens. Non-bound essential and non-essential amino acids can partially replace soybean meal so that requirements are [...] Read more.
: This review explores the premise that non-bound (synthetic and crystalline) amino acids are alternatives to soybean meal, the dominant source of protein, in diets for broiler chickens. Non-bound essential and non-essential amino acids can partially replace soybean meal so that requirements are still met but dietary crude protein levels are reduced. This review considers the production of non-bound amino acids, soybeans, and soybean meal and discusses the concept of reduced-crude protein diets. There is a focus on specific amino acids, including glycine, serine, threonine, and branched-chain amino acids, because they may be pivotal to the successful development of reduced-crude protein diets. Presently, moderate dietary crude protein reductions of approximately 30 g/kg are feasible, but more radical reductions compromise broiler performance. In theory, an ‘ideal’ amino acid profile would prevent this, but this is not necessarily the case in practice. The dependence of the chicken-meat industry on soybean meal will be halved if crude protein reductions in the order of 50 g/kg are attained without compromising the growth performance of broiler chickens. In this event, synthetic and crystalline, or non-bound, amino acids will become viable alternatives to soybean meal in chicken-meat production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
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