Special Issue "Accumulation and Distribution of Elements in Crop Plants"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Gareth J. Norton
Website
Guest Editor
School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building – G41, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK
Interests: plant genomics; cereal genetics; soil biology; soil chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human diets can often be lacking in key essential elements, for example iron, zinc and selenium. One mechanism to rectify this is through increasing the concentration and bioavailability of these key essential elements in plant produce. On the other hand, plant produce can be a pathway for unwanted elements, like arsenic and cadmium entering the human diet. There are numerous ways that elemental uptake and accumulation can be modified in crop plants, through both agronomic practises and crop development.

This Special Issue calls for manuscripts that explore the accumulation of both essential elements and potentially toxic elements in plants, with a focus on methods for increasing essential nutrient accumulation and mitigating potentially toxic elements in crop plants.

Dr. Gareth J. Norton
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • biofortification
  • micronutrients
  • plant breeding
  • agronomic methods
  • hyperaccumulate

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Inter-Taxa Differences in Iodine Uptake by Plants: Implications for Food Quality and Contamination
Agronomy 2015, 5(4), 537-554; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy5040537 - 09 Nov 2015
Cited by 4
Abstract
Although iodine is not essential for plants, they take it up readily and, in foodchains, are significant sources of iodine for organisms with an essential requirement for it. During several nuclear accidents radioiodine has been an important component of releases of radioactivity and [...] Read more.
Although iodine is not essential for plants, they take it up readily and, in foodchains, are significant sources of iodine for organisms with an essential requirement for it. During several nuclear accidents radioiodine has been an important component of releases of radioactivity and has caused serious contamination of foodchains. Differences in iodine uptake by different plant taxa are, therefore, important to nutritional and radioecological studies. Using techniques we have developed for a range of other elements, we analyzed inter-taxa differences in radioiodine uptake by 103 plant species and between varieties of two species, and analyzed them using a recent, phylogenetically-informed, taxonomy. The results show that there are significant differences in uptake above and below the species level. There are significant differences between Monocots and Eudicots in iodine uptake, and, in particular, hierarchical ANOVA revealed significant differences between Genera within Families. These analyses of the taxonomic origin of differences in plant uptake of iodine can help the prediction of crop contamination with radioiodine and the management of stable iodine in crops for nutritional purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accumulation and Distribution of Elements in Crop Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Differences in Aluminium Accumulation and Resistance between Genotypes of the Genus Fagopyrum
Agronomy 2015, 5(3), 418-434; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy5030418 - 28 Aug 2015
Cited by 5
Abstract
Aluminium (Al) toxicity is a major factor reducing crop productivity worldwide. There is a broad variation in intra- and inter-specific Al resistance. Whereas the Al resistance mechanisms have generally been well explored in Al-excluding plant species, Al resistance through Al accumulation and Al [...] Read more.
Aluminium (Al) toxicity is a major factor reducing crop productivity worldwide. There is a broad variation in intra- and inter-specific Al resistance. Whereas the Al resistance mechanisms have generally been well explored in Al-excluding plant species, Al resistance through Al accumulation and Al tolerance is not yet well understood. Therefore, a set of 94 genotypes from three Fagopyrum species with special emphasis on F. esculentum Moench were screened, with the objective of identifying genotypes with greatly differing Al accumulation capacity. The genotypes were grown in Al-enriched peat-based substrate for 21 days. Based on the Al concentration of the xylem sap, which varied by a factor of five, only quantitative but not qualitative genotypic differences in Al accumulation could be identified. Aluminium and citrate and Al and Fe concentrations in the xylem sap were positively correlated suggesting that Fe and Al are loaded into and transported in the xylem through related mechanisms. In a nutrient solution experiment using six selected F. esculentum genotypes differing in Al and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap the significant correlation between Al and iron transport in the xylem could be confirmed. Inhibition of root elongation by Al was highly significantly correlated with root oxalate-exudation and leaf Al accumulation. This suggests that Al-activated oxalate exudation and rapid transport of Al to the shoot are prerequisites for the protection of the root apoplast from Al injury and thus overall Al resistance and Al accumulation in buckwheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accumulation and Distribution of Elements in Crop Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
The Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Rhizophagus intraradices Reduces the Negative Effects of Arsenic on Soybean Plants
Agronomy 2015, 5(2), 188-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy5020188 - 29 May 2015
Cited by 16
Abstract
Arsenic (As) in soils causes several detrimental effects, including death. Arsenic toxicity in soybean plants (Glycine max L.) has been little studied. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) increase the tolerance of host plants to abiotic stress, like As. We investigated the effects of AM fungi [...] Read more.
Arsenic (As) in soils causes several detrimental effects, including death. Arsenic toxicity in soybean plants (Glycine max L.) has been little studied. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) increase the tolerance of host plants to abiotic stress, like As. We investigated the effects of AM fungi on soybean grown in As-contaminated soils. A pot experiment was carried out in a glasshouse, at random with five replications. We applied three levels of As (0, 25, and 50 mg As kg−1), inoculated and non-inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (N.C. Schenck & G.S. Sm.) C. Walker & A. Schüßler. Plant parameters and mycorrhizal colonization were measured. Arsenic in the substrate, roots, and leaves was quantified. Arsenic negatively affected the AM percentage of spore germination and hyphal length. As also affected soybean plants negatively: an extreme treatment caused a reduction of more than 77.47% in aerial biomass, 68.19% in plant height, 78.35% in number of leaves, and 44.96% reduction in root length, and delayed the phenological evolution. Mycorrhizal inoculation improved all of these parameters, and decreased plant As accumulation (from 7.8 mg As kg−1 to 6.0 mg As kg−1). AM inoculation showed potential to reduce As toxicity in contaminated areas. The AM fungi decreased As concentration in plants following different ways: dilution effect, less As intake by roots, and improving soybean tolerance to As. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accumulation and Distribution of Elements in Crop Plants)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Heavy Metals in Crop Plants: Transport and Redistribution Processes on the Whole Plant Level
Agronomy 2015, 5(3), 447-463; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy5030447 - 09 Sep 2015
Cited by 49
Abstract
Copper, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel and molybdenum are essential micronutrients for plants. However, when present in excess they may damage the plant or decrease the quality of harvested plant products. Some other heavy metals such as cadmium, lead or mercury are not needed [...] Read more.
Copper, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel and molybdenum are essential micronutrients for plants. However, when present in excess they may damage the plant or decrease the quality of harvested plant products. Some other heavy metals such as cadmium, lead or mercury are not needed by plants and represent pollutants. The uptake into the roots, the loading into the xylem, the acropetal transport to the shoot with the transpiration stream and the further redistribution in the phloem are crucial for the distribution in aerial plant parts. This review is focused on long-distance transport of heavy metals via xylem and phloem and on interactions between the two transport systems. Phloem transport is the basis for the redistribution within the shoot and for the accumulation in fruits and seeds. Solutes may be transferred from the xylem to the phloem (e.g., in the small bundles in stems of cereals, in minor leaf veins). Nickel is highly phloem-mobile and directed to expanding plant parts. Zinc and to a lesser degree also cadmium are also mobile in the phloem and accumulate in meristems (root tips, shoot apex, axillary buds). Iron and manganese are characterized by poor phloem mobility and are retained in older leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accumulation and Distribution of Elements in Crop Plants)
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Open AccessReview
Trace Element Management in Rice
Agronomy 2015, 5(3), 374-404; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy5030374 - 18 Aug 2015
Cited by 16
Abstract
Trace elements (TEs) are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals [...] Read more.
Trace elements (TEs) are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling in the rice field is a practical solution to cope with TEs deficiency. Adjustment of soil physicochemical properties, biological process such as microbial activities, and fertilization helps to control TEs mobilization in soil. Modifications in root architecture, metal transporters activity, and physiological processes are also promising approaches to enhance TEs accumulation in grains. Through genetic manipulation, these modifications help to increase TE mining capacity of rice plants as well as transport and trafficking of TEs into the grains. The present review summarizes that regulation of TE mobilization in soil, and the genetic improvement of TE acquisition traits help to boost essential TE content in rice grain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accumulation and Distribution of Elements in Crop Plants)
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Open AccessReview
Minichromosomes: Vectors for Crop Improvement
Agronomy 2015, 5(3), 309-321; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy5030309 - 06 Jul 2015
Abstract
Minichromosome technology has the potential to offer a number of possibilities for expanding current biofortification strategies. While conventional genome manipulations rely on random integration of one or a few genes, engineered minichromosomes would enable researchers to concatenate several gene aggregates into a single [...] Read more.
Minichromosome technology has the potential to offer a number of possibilities for expanding current biofortification strategies. While conventional genome manipulations rely on random integration of one or a few genes, engineered minichromosomes would enable researchers to concatenate several gene aggregates into a single independent chromosome. These engineered minichromosomes can be rapidly transferred as a unit to other lines through the utilization of doubled haploid breeding. If used in conjunction with other biofortification methods, it may be possible to significantly increase the nutritional value of crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accumulation and Distribution of Elements in Crop Plants)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report
Phosphorus Deficiency Alters Nutrient Accumulation Patterns and Grain Nutritional Quality in Rice
Agronomy 2016, 6(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy6040052 - 28 Oct 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
The accumulation of biomass and mineral nutrients during the post-anthesis period was investigated in field-grown rice plants cultivated in phosphorus (P)-sufficient vs. P-deficient soil. Phosphorus deficiency reduced biomass accumulation by around 30%, and reduced the accumulation of all nutrients in aboveground plant biomass [...] Read more.
The accumulation of biomass and mineral nutrients during the post-anthesis period was investigated in field-grown rice plants cultivated in phosphorus (P)-sufficient vs. P-deficient soil. Phosphorus deficiency reduced biomass accumulation by around 30%, and reduced the accumulation of all nutrients in aboveground plant biomass except sulfur (S) and copper (Cu). Ultimately, grain zinc (Zn), Cu, and calcium (Ca) concentrations were significantly higher in P-deficient plants, while grain magnesium (Mg) concentrations were significantly lower. While P deficiency caused a 40% reduction in the concentration of the anti-nutrient phytate in the grain, this was offset by a 40% reduction in grain starch lysophospholipids, which have positive benefits for human health and grain quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accumulation and Distribution of Elements in Crop Plants)
Open AccessBrief Report
Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mineral Concentrations
Agronomy 2016, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy6010009 - 28 Jan 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N) fertilizers (EEFs) may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, [...] Read more.
Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N) fertilizers (EEFs) may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, urea-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and polymer-coated urea (PCU) to determine whether any delays in biomass production alter the accumulation patterns, and subsequent grain concentrations, of key mineral nutrients. Plant growth and mineral accumulation and partitioning to grains did not differ significantly between plants fertilized with urea or urea-DMPP. In contrast, biomass accumulation and the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese were delayed during the early growth phase of plants fertilized with PCU. However, plants in the PCU treatment ultimately compensated for this by increasing growth and nutrient uptake during the latter vegetative stages so that no differences in biomass or nutrient accumulation generally existed among N fertilizer treatments at anthesis. Delayed biomass accumulation in rice fertilized with PCU does not appear to reduce the total accumulation of mineral nutrients, nor to have any impact on grain mineral nutrition when biomass and grain yields are equal to those of rice grown with urea or urea-DMPP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accumulation and Distribution of Elements in Crop Plants)
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