Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Gas Emissions in Agriculture: Sources and Sinks, Environmental Factors and Regulatory Mechanisms Involved, and Mitigation Strategies

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Farming Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2021) | Viewed by 7140

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Soil Microbiology and Symbiotic Systems, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (EEZ), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 18008 Granada, Spain
Interests: composts; legumes; organic matter; organic and biological fertilizers; nitrous oxide; rhizobium; soil microorganisms; symbiotic nitrogen fixation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Soil Microbiology and Symbiotic Systems, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (EEZ), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Granada, Spain
Interests: nitrous oxide emissions; rhizobium-legume symbiosis; nitrogen fixation; denitrification; nitric oxide

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Soil and Plant Microbiology, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, 18008 Granada, Spain
Interests: CRP/FNR transcription factors; denitrification; microoxia; nitrogen fixation; polyhydroxybutyrate; rhizobia; symbiosis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Soil Microbiology and Symbiotic Systems, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (EEZ), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Granada, Spain
Interests: nitrification; denitrification; sources and sinks of nitrous oxide; legume-endosymbionts biodiversity; sustainable agriculture; PGPRs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are an important concern because of their direct effect on global warming and climate change. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2019), agriculture, forestry, and other land uses contributed to 23% of the total net anthropogenic GHGs emissions during 2007–2016, which represented 13%, 44%, and 81% of the carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), respectively. Agricultural soils are the main source of anthropogenic N2O, which are emitted especially during inefficient nitrogen (N) utilization, over-doses, or non-synchronised mineral fertiliser application to crops. This N excess produces an important imbalance in the soil N cycle, leading to concomitant environmental risks such as an increase in the GHGs fluxes, soil acidification, biological diversity losses, and human health and economy problems. For these reasons, GHG mitigation strategies should be focused in pursuing agricultural practices that could lead to a reduction in the over-application of N fertilizers, without compromising the yield productivity.

We invite the scientific community to contribute TO this Special Issue with research articles and reviews including chemical, biological, or multidisciplinary aspects of the N2O emissions derived from agronomy. Studies based on CO2, CH4, and N2O soil emissions; N cycle processes; fertilizer application; agricultural management practices; microbial diversity; or alternatives to mineral fertilizers are also welcomed.

Dr. Germán Tortosa
Dr. María J. Delgado
Dr. Socorro Mesa
Prof. Eulogio J. Bedmar
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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19 pages, 5728 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a New Generation of Coated Fertilizers to Reduce the Leaching of Mineral Nutrients and Greenhouse Gas (N2O) Emissions
by Fatima Zahra Benlamlih, Mohammed S. Lamhamedi, Steeve Pepin, Lahcen Benomar and Younès Messaddeq
Agronomy 2021, 11(6), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061129 - 1 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3044
Abstract
The increased use of fertilizers in agriculture and forest and horticulture nurseries contributes to the pollution of water resources and greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study is to evaluate a new generation of fertilizers coated with new biodegradable polymers in terms [...] Read more.
The increased use of fertilizers in agriculture and forest and horticulture nurseries contributes to the pollution of water resources and greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study is to evaluate a new generation of fertilizers coated with new biodegradable polymers in terms of physical quality, release kinetics, and their effect on reducing nitrate leaching and N2O emissions and compare them to uncoated fertilizers (Urea, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and KCl) having the same mineral nutrient concentration. In a peat-based substrate, the release of mineral nutrients was similar in both types of fertilizer. Two hours after application, Urea released 34% more urea than Biodrix N, the difference disappearing after one day. The leaching of cumulative ammonium nitrogen after 20 days was reduced by 40% and 26% respectively by Aminaex and Biodrix N compared to Urea. In a peat-based substrate containing 30% (v/v) of compost, the cumulative nitrate leaching was reduced by 54% by Biodrix N and by 41% by Aminaex compared to Urea. The highest average N2O flux was observed on the first day for Urea, whereas for Aminaex and Biodrix N, N2O emissions increased on the third day, reaching a peak of efflux on day 10. A 10-day delay of the N2O efflux emissions and a longer period of emissions were observed in treatments containing Aminaex and Biodrix N compared to Urea. Cumulative N2O efflux was 142, 154, and 171 mg m−2, respectively, for Urea, Aminaex, and Biodrix N over a 20-day period. These new biodegradable polymer-coated nitrogen fertilizers can reduce mineral nutrient leaching in the event of heavy rainfall and lower maximum N2O emissions in comparison with conventional nitrogen sources. Full article
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20 pages, 1600 KiB  
Article
Effects of Environmental Drivers and Agricultural Management on Soil CO2 and N2O Emissions
by Márton Dencső, Ágota Horel, Igor Bogunovic and Eszter Tóth
Agronomy 2021, 11(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010054 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3289
Abstract
Understanding the roles of natural drivers and anthropogenic activities in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of arable fields is crucial for adopting the most appropriate agricultural management. This study investigated the effect of two tillage treatments of mouldboard ploughing (MP) and no-tillage (NT), and [...] Read more.
Understanding the roles of natural drivers and anthropogenic activities in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of arable fields is crucial for adopting the most appropriate agricultural management. This study investigated the effect of two tillage treatments of mouldboard ploughing (MP) and no-tillage (NT), and the environmental factors (soil water content and temperature, carbon content and nitrogen forms) on soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The research was conducted on chernozem soil under winter wheat cultivation. Besides field monitoring, several laboratory experiments took place to examine the effects of environmental drivers and fertilization management on soil GHG emissions. We observed no significant difference between the CO2 emission of MP and NT during a full year period. Nevertheless, significant differences were found in the sub-periods (more particularly during vegetation and then after harvest). NT had higher CO2 emission than MP in all laboratory experiments (p < 0.001) and in the after harvest period of the field trial, measured on bare soil (p < 0.0001). NT had significantly higher N2O emission both under laboratory (p < 0.0001) and field conditions (p < 0.0081). Different fertilization showed no distinguishable effect on N2O emission in the laboratory. This study confirms that N2O emission of the arable field depended more on soil water content than soil temperature, and vice-versa for CO2 emission. Full article
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