Special Issue "The Role of Growth Regulators in Crop under Abiotic Stress"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Breeding and Genetics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jana Okleštková
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Palacký University and Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, CZ-771 47 Olomouc, Czech Republic
Interests: analysis of plant hormones; brassinosteroids; crosstalk of BRs and ethylene; immunochemistry of phytohormones

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

In addition to developmental processes, endogenous plant hormones play crucial roles in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Phytohormones (auxins, brassinosteroids, cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellins, jasmonates, abscisic, and salicylic acids) are the key mediators of plant responses to various abiotic stress. However, these hormones usually engage in crosstalk with each other to increase the survival of plants. It has been shown that the direct application of such hormones to plant roots, shoots, leaves, buds and flowers increases resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. Phytohormones can improve drought tolerance and water use efficiency, improve temperature tolerance, improve nitrogen use efficiency, promote shoot elongation and generation, stimulate root growth and lateral root development, and promote photosynthesis. The use of phytohormones or their synthetic derivatives on crops can improve yields in fields affected by global climate change. Recently, great efforts have been devoted to understanding the phytohormone regulatory mechanisms in plant response to various stresses; however, many questions still remain unanswered. This Special Issue is focused on introducing the latest interesting findings on the roles of phytohormones and their crosstalk in the abiotic stress adaptation of major crops. We therefore invite submissions on topics including, but not limited to, the following: (1) the effect of plant hormones on the growth and development of crops; (2) the use of plant hormone derivatives as biostimulants to increase yields; (3) phytohormonal profiling during stress conditions; (4) phytohormonal crosstalk as a response to abiotic stresses.

Sincerely,

Dr. Jana Okleštková
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • abiotic stress
  • crops
  • plant hormones
  • synthetic derivatives of phytohormones
  • phytohormonal crosstalk
  • hormonal regulation of plant responses under stress factors
  • stress adaptation
  • climate change

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Improvement of Tillering and Grain Yield by Application of Cytokinin Derivatives in Wheat and Barley
Agronomy 2021, 11(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010067 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Three cytokinin derivatives (CKd) designated as RR-G, RR-O, and RR-V applied by foliar spraying at tillering, and one compound previously described as a cytokinin antagonist (CKa) designated as RR-P applied as a seed coating were tested in winter wheat and spring barley in [...] Read more.
Three cytokinin derivatives (CKd) designated as RR-G, RR-O, and RR-V applied by foliar spraying at tillering, and one compound previously described as a cytokinin antagonist (CKa) designated as RR-P applied as a seed coating were tested in winter wheat and spring barley in field trial experiments. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the compounds that were tested on the number of productive tillers, grain yield, and endogenous CK content. With the exception of the compound RR-V, the measured parameters clearly showed the stimulatory effects of CKd on tillering and grain yield in spring barley and winter wheat. The RR-V showed a stimulatory effect on the number of productive tillers and yield in spring barley, but not in winter wheat. Although in winter wheat CKa stimulated both the number of productive tillers and the grain yield, there was an inhibitory effect in terms of the number of productive tillers observed in spring barley. The results of the endogenous cytokinin analysis suggested, among others, the importance of the role of isopentenyl-adenine types of cytokinins in the tillering of spring barley. In conclusion, the cytokinin derivative compounds with an agonistic or antagonistic role showed strong potential for application in the future development of plant growth regulators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Growth Regulators in Crop under Abiotic Stress)
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Article
Impact of Drought Exerted during Spike Development on Tillering, Yield Parameters and Grain Chemical Composition in Semi-Dwarf Barley Mutants Deficient in the Brassinosteroid Metabolism
Agronomy 2020, 10(10), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101595 - 18 Oct 2020
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Drought is a major factor limiting plant development and negatively affecting crop yield. It was reported that mutants defective in the brassinosteroid (BR) metabolism from several species, including barley (Hordeum vulgare), show improved tolerance to drought during the vegetative phase of [...] Read more.
Drought is a major factor limiting plant development and negatively affecting crop yield. It was reported that mutants defective in the brassinosteroid (BR) metabolism from several species, including barley (Hordeum vulgare), show improved tolerance to drought during the vegetative phase of growth. Hence, semi-dwarf barley mutants defective in the BR metabolism may be regarded as an alternative in breeding programs. Occurrence of drought during spike development has a profound effect on yield. Thus, determining reaction of the semi-dwarf, BR-deficient barley mutants to drought during the reproductive phase is crucial. This study was conducted on barley Near-Isogenic Lines defective in the BR metabolism and the reference ‘Bowman’ cultivar. The experiments were performed under laboratory (optimal watering and drought) and field conditions. The following yield-related parameters were analyzed: total tillering, productive tillering, average grain weight per plant and per spike, as well as weight of 1000 seeds. Additionally, an analysis of chemical composition of grain was performed. The BR-insensitive BW312 line showed the highest values of the productive tillering and grain weight per plant under the drought conditions. Perturbations in the BR metabolism did not have any significant deteriorating effect on the contents of grain chemical ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Growth Regulators in Crop under Abiotic Stress)
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Article
Effect of Exogenous Application of Amino Acids L-Arginine and Glycine on Maize under Temperature Stress
Agronomy 2020, 10(6), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060769 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Temperature strongly influences the growth of maize, particularly in the early growth stages. The exogenous application of some amino acids has been proven to have a positive effect on plant growth and development under stressful conditions. The objective of the study was to [...] Read more.
Temperature strongly influences the growth of maize, particularly in the early growth stages. The exogenous application of some amino acids has been proven to have a positive effect on plant growth and development under stressful conditions. The objective of the study was to evaluate the response of maize that was grown under an optimal and stress (fluctuating) temperature to L-Arginine (L-Arg) and Glycine (Gly) application. In the study, it was assumed that the exogenously applied amino acids would alleviate the adverse effects of temperature stress on the maize height, as well as on the biomass of shoots and roots. Ten concentrations of each amino acid from 0.006 mM to 9.0 mM were tested under constant temperature conditions 20–22 °C/23–25 °C (night/day) an fluctuating stress of rising and dropping temperatures between 12–15 °C (night) and 30–38 °C (day). The amino acids were applied to the crop at growth stages V3–V4. In plants that were obtained from seeds pre-treated with L-Arg and Gly, the amino acids increased both the length of radicles and the number of lateral roots. A large discrepancy between the effects of the two amino acids was observed after foliar application. Under optimal thermal conditions, L-Arg increased the mass of shoots and roots by 55–59%. Under stress conditions, root mass was increased even by 100% when compared to the control plants. The best results were recorded at concentrations of 6 mM and 3 mM. Plants that were treated with Gly concentrations generally reached the height of untreated plants or less. It was shown that Gly applied at concentrations of 0.2 mM to 3 mM has a negative effect on the fresh mass of the crop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Growth Regulators in Crop under Abiotic Stress)
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Article
Exogenous Brassinolide Enhances the Growth and Cold Resistance of Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings under Chilling Stress
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040488 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
This paper aims to elucidate the effects of exogenous brassinolide (BL) on maize germination and seedling growth under chilling stress. The cold-resistant maize hybrid Tiannong 9 and the cold-sensitive hybrid Tianhe 1 were soaked at the germination stage (6 °C) and leaves were [...] Read more.
This paper aims to elucidate the effects of exogenous brassinolide (BL) on maize germination and seedling growth under chilling stress. The cold-resistant maize hybrid Tiannong 9 and the cold-sensitive hybrid Tianhe 1 were soaked at the germination stage (6 °C) and leaves were sprayed at seedling stage (4 °C), with BL at concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/L. The germination rate of the maize seeds and the changes in seedling biomass, antioxidant, photosynthetic, and plant endogenous hormone systems and chloroplast ultrastructures were determined. The results showed that the optimum concentration of BL to alleviate chilling stress in maize seedlings was 0.1 mg/L. This rate effectively increased the germination rate and plant biomass of maize and significantly increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (Tr), and seedling auxin (IAA), gibberellin (GA3) and trans zeatin nucleoside (t-ZR) contents under chilling stress. In addition, BL significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, abscisic acid (ABA) content, and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci). In the comparison of mesophyll cells, the chloroplast membrane of the treatment group was tightly attached to the stroma, and some of the plasma membranes were dissolved, but the overall structure of the chloroplast was relatively complete, and the osmiophilic granules were relatively few. The exogenous application of BL can effectively alleviate the damage caused by a low temperature in maize, maintain the normal characteristics of seedlings in chilling environments, and ensure the development and growth of plant tissue in the later stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Growth Regulators in Crop under Abiotic Stress)
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Review

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Review
The Role of Stress-Responsive Transcription Factors in Modulating Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants
Agronomy 2020, 10(6), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060788 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
Abiotic stresses, such as drought, high temperature, and salinity, affect plant growth and productivity. Furthermore, global climate change may increase the frequency and severity of abiotic stresses, suggesting that development of varieties with improved stress tolerance is critical for future sustainable crop production. [...] Read more.
Abiotic stresses, such as drought, high temperature, and salinity, affect plant growth and productivity. Furthermore, global climate change may increase the frequency and severity of abiotic stresses, suggesting that development of varieties with improved stress tolerance is critical for future sustainable crop production. Improving stress tolerance requires a detailed understanding of the hormone signaling and transcriptional pathways involved in stress responses. Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are key stress-response hormones in plants, and some stress-responsive transcription factors such as ABFs and MYCs function as direct components of ABA and JA signaling, playing a pivotal role in plant tolerance to abiotic stress. In addition, extensive studies have identified other stress-responsive transcription factors belonging to the NAC, AP2/ERF, MYB, and WRKY families that mediate plant response and tolerance to abiotic stress. These suggest that transcriptional regulation of stress-responsive genes is an essential step to determine the mechanisms underlying plant stress responses and tolerance to abiotic stress, and that these transcription factors may be important targets for development of crops with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms underlying plant abiotic stress responses, focusing on ABA and JA metabolism and signaling pathways. We then summarize the diverse array of transcription factors involved in plant responses to abiotic stress, while noting their potential applications for improvement of stress tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Growth Regulators in Crop under Abiotic Stress)
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