Special Issue "Application of Fluid Mechanics in Air Quality Management of Agricultural Facilities and Rural Environment"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Se-Woon Hong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Rural and Biosystems Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea
Interests: atmospheric dispersion in rural areas; micro-environmental control in agricultural buildings; fluid dynamic analysis for agricultural structures; agricultural wind engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air quality has a great influence on agricultural productivity as well as on the health of farm workers. For intensive farming, it is of utmost importance in providing the most favorable air conditions for individual crops and animals. Furthermore, air pollutants emitted from agricultural production systems, such as ammonia from heavily fertilized fields and livestock waste, pesticides from crop fields, particulate matters from grain processing, bioaerosols and pathogens from livestock facilities, soil dusts from dry fields, and other gases and odors, can threaten nearby residents, environment, and ecosystems when they spread over rural areas.

Over the decades, we have struggled to manage air quality in agricultural facilities and rural environment and developed relevant methodologies and tools. Fluid mechanics is one of the strong approaches that predict and assess air quality impacts of engineering systems and has been actively used for this research topic. It applies knowledge on the movement of air and airborne pollutants to research and facilitates a visual understanding of air flows. It provides better insight into ongoing processes and makes predictions about potential solutions thereafter.

The goal of this Special Issue is to provide the members of multidisciplinary communities with a collection of manuscripts that present recent trends and innovative studies. Please share your success and ongoing research. Submissions on (but not limited to) the following topics are invited: 1) microclimate control or air quality management in greenhouses, livestock barns, warehouses, storages, silos, etc.; 2) atmospheric dispersion of gases, odors, dust, chemicals, or other pollutants emitted by agricultural activities in rural environment; 3) innovative and novel application of fluid mechanics to develop air quality control systems for agricultural production systems; and 4) agronomic practices based on knowledge and findings related to fluid mechanics.

Dr. Se-Woon Hong
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fluid mechanics
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Microclimate control
  • Atmospheric dispersion
  • Air quality
  • Air scrubber
  • Greenhouse
  • Livestock barn
  • Silos
  • Agricultural buildings
  • Ammonia
  • Livestock odor
  • Pesticide drift
  • Bioaerosol dispersion
  • Dust removal

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Dynamic Energy Exchange Modelling for a Plastic-Covered Multi-Span Greenhouse Utilizing a Thermal Effluent from Power Plant
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081461 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 274
Abstract
To utilize the energy in the thermal effluent, many attempts have been made to use the thermal effluent for agricultural facilities such as greenhouses. As the first step, it is important to estimate the energy loads of the greenhouse for deciding a suitable [...] Read more.
To utilize the energy in the thermal effluent, many attempts have been made to use the thermal effluent for agricultural facilities such as greenhouses. As the first step, it is important to estimate the energy loads of the greenhouse for deciding a suitable scale for the heating and cooling. Then, it is available to estimate the energy efficiency of the thermal effluent heat pump system installed in the greenhouse. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to design and validate an energy model of the experimental greenhouse growing Irwin mangoes and to estimate the annual and maximum energy loads using building energy simulation (BES). Field experiments were conducted in a multi-span plastic-covered greenhouse growing Irwin mangoes to measure the internal environments of the greenhouse and crop characteristics. The energy exchange model of the greenhouse considering crop, cladding, heat pump was developed using BES. The BES model was validated using the data measured at field experiments. The designed model was found to be able to provide satisfactory estimates of the changes of the internal air temperature of the greenhouse (R2 = 0.94 and d = 0.97). The hourly energy loads computed by using the validated model were used to analyse the periodic and maximum energy loads according to the growth stage of the cultivated crops. Finally, the energy costs were compared according to the type of energy source based on the calculated annual energy loads. The average energy cost when using the thermal effluent—heat pump system was found to be 68.21% lower than that when a kerosene boiler was used. Full article
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Article
Integrated Building Energy Simulation–Life Cycle Assessment (BES–LCA) Approach for Environmental Assessment of Agricultural Building: A Review and Application to Greenhouse Heating Systems
Agronomy 2021, 11(6), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061230 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 367
Abstract
A substantial reduction in the environmental impacts related to the construction and operation of agricultural buildings is needed to adapt to the continuing development of agriculture. The life cycle assessment (LCA) is a methodology used to quantify the environmental impact of different processes [...] Read more.
A substantial reduction in the environmental impacts related to the construction and operation of agricultural buildings is needed to adapt to the continuing development of agriculture. The life cycle assessment (LCA) is a methodology used to quantify the environmental impact of different processes involved in the production and therefore has been increasingly applied to assess the environmental burden. However, most LCA-related research studies have focused on the overall environmental impact of the entire system without considering the energy load of the agricultural buildings. By integrating the LCA tool with other design tools such as the building energy simulation (BES), the identification of environmental hotspots and the mitigation options become possible during the design process. Thus, the objective of the paper was to identify the current integration approaches used to combine BES and LCA results to assess the environmental impact of different heating systems such as absorption heat pump (AHP) using energy from thermal effluent, electricity-powered heat pump and kerosene-powered boilers used in a conventional multi-span Korean greenhouse. The assessment result revealed that the environmental impact caused using a kerosene-powered boiler is largest in terms of the acidification potential (AP), global warming potential (GWP) and Eutrophication Potential (EP) of 1.15 × 100 kg SO2-eq, 1.13 × 102 kg CO2-eq and 1.62 × 10−1 kg PO4-eq, respectively. Detailed analysis of the result showed that the main contributor for greenhouse gas emission was caused by the type, amount and source of energy used to heat the greenhouse, which contributed to a maximum of 86.59% for case 1, 96.69% for case 2 and a maximum of 96.47% for case 3, depending on the type of greenhouse gas being considered. Full article
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Article
Impact Analysis of Environmental Conditions on Odour Dispersion Emitted from Pig House with Complex Terrain Using CFD
Agronomy 2020, 10(11), 1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111828 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 646
Abstract
With the rise in livestock production, the odour concentration emitted from livestock facilities has significantly increased. For this reason, odour complaints have become a major issue. The dispersion of the odour into the atmosphere is affected by various factors (wind speed, wind direction, [...] Read more.
With the rise in livestock production, the odour concentration emitted from livestock facilities has significantly increased. For this reason, odour complaints have become a major issue. The dispersion of the odour into the atmosphere is affected by various factors (wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability, terrain condition, ventilation type, and so on). Thus, a thorough analysis on the factor influencing odour dispersion is necessary to establish regulations and policies for odour management. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate odour dispersion generated from a pig house with complex terrain using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and to statistically determine the key factor for odour dispersion. By comparing CFD-computed results with field-measured data, an appropriate grid size, time step, and turbulence model of the CFD model were determined. Considering various factors, case studies were performed using the validated CFD model. The CFD-computed results showed that odour dispersion distance at the level of 1 OU m−3 ranged from 129.7 to 1488.1 m. The prediction of odour dispersion distance varies with the change of factor being analysed. Finally, the statistical analysis showed that the most influential factor that affected odour dispersion distance was the wind speed with a t-value: −9.057. Full article
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Review

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Review
Fluid Dynamic Approaches for Prediction of Spray Drift from Ground Pesticide Applications: A Review
Agronomy 2021, 11(6), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061182 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Spray drifts have been studied by mathematical models and computer simulations as an essential complement to lab and field tests, among which are fluid dynamic approaches that help to understand the transport of spray droplets in a turbulent atmosphere and their potential impacts [...] Read more.
Spray drifts have been studied by mathematical models and computer simulations as an essential complement to lab and field tests, among which are fluid dynamic approaches that help to understand the transport of spray droplets in a turbulent atmosphere and their potential impacts to the environment. From earlier fluid mechanical models to highly computational models, scientific advancement has led to a more realistic prediction of spray drift, but the current literature lacks reviews showing the trends and limitations of the existing approaches. This paper is to review the literature on fluid-mechanical-based modelling of spray drift resulting from ground spray applications. Consequently, it provides comprehensive understanding of the transition and development of fluid dynamic approaches and the future directions in this research field. Full article
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