Special Issue "Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management"

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Protection, Diseases, Pest and Weeds".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Anna Kocira
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Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, State School of Higher Education in Chełm, Pocztowa 54, 22-100 Chełm, Poland
Interests: abiotic stress; biostimulants; crop production; plant physiology; nutritional and nutraceutical quality; weed control
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Mariola Staniak
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Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation-State Research Institute, Department of Forage Crop Production, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
Interests: abiotic stress; plant physiology; weed control; biodiversity; organic farming; legumes

Special Issue Information

Satisfying consumer needs through the production of healthy and nutritious agricultural products is a substantial challenge facing modern agriculture. However, agricultural production should be carried out with care for plant health, biological safety of products, and environmental safety while minimizing the risks to human health. Therefore, the implementation of agricultural practices while respecting these principles is very important for improving the quantity and quality of crops. Additionally, ecosystems have altered as a result of human activities and climate change, resulting in the reduction of biodiversity and creation of new niches where pests can thrive. This is of particular importance in 2020, as the United Nations General Assembly declared this year as the International Year of Plant Health (IYPH), with “protecting plants, protecting life” as a leading subject.

This Special Issue will promote the subject of plant health and emphasize the importance of preventing the spread of pests, including weeds, which cause substantial economic losses. Research articles will cover topics related to the biology and harmfulness of weeds, particularly in connection with crop health, segetal weed communities and their biodiversity, and integrated methods of weed control. For this Special Issue, we welcome all types of articles, including original research, opinions, and reviews.

Dr. Anna Kocira
Dr. Mariola Staniak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agriculture is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biodiversity
  • weed management
  • weed biology
  • cropping systems
  • sustainable agriculture

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Weed Flora and Soil Seed Bank Composition as Affected by Tillage System in Three-Year Crop Rotation
Agriculture 2020, 10(5), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10050186 - 24 May 2020
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest around agricultural science and practice in conservation tillage systems that are compatible with sustainable agriculture. The aim of this study was to assess the qualitative and quantitative changes in weed flora and soil seed [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest around agricultural science and practice in conservation tillage systems that are compatible with sustainable agriculture. The aim of this study was to assess the qualitative and quantitative changes in weed flora and soil seed bank under reduced tillage and no-till (direct sowing) in comparison with traditional ploughing. In the crop rotation: pea/rape—winter wheat—winter wheat the number and dry weight of weeds increased with the simplification of tillage. The seed bank was the largest under direct sowing and about three times smaller in traditional ploughing. Under direct sowing, most weed seeds were accumulated in the top soil layer 0–5 cm, while in the ploughing system most weed seeds occurred in deeper layers: 5–10 and 10–20 cm. In the reduced and no-till systems, a greater percentage of perennial and invasive species, such as Conyza canadensis L., was observed. The results show that it is possible to maintain weed infestation in the no-till system at a level that does not significantly affect winter wheat yield and does not pose a threat of perennial and invasive weeds when effective herbicide protection is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytotoxic Effect of Herbicides on Various Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] Genotypes and Plant Chlorophyll Fluorescence
Agriculture 2020, 10(5), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10050185 - 23 May 2020
Abstract
Camelina is an oil plant classified as a minor crop. The small acreage is the main cause of the small amount of plant protection products that are registered for use on camelina plantations. This contributes to difficulties in the protection of this plant. [...] Read more.
Camelina is an oil plant classified as a minor crop. The small acreage is the main cause of the small amount of plant protection products that are registered for use on camelina plantations. This contributes to difficulties in the protection of this plant. In the conducted experiment, the genetic similarity of genotypes of camelina was compared. The effect of selected herbicides (propaquizafop at rate 70 g a.i. ha−1, quizalofop-p-ethyl at rate 50 g a.i. ha−1, clopyralid at rate 90 g a.i. ha−1, and picloram at rate 24 g a.i. ha−1 applied in the three-four-leaves growth stage of camelina) on six individual genotypes of the plant and plant chlorophyll fluorescence after the use of these substances was also determined. The Przybrodzka variety showed the lowest level of damage in the assessment carried out 42 days after herbicide application and the damages of plants after quizalofop-p-ethyl and propaquizafop was completely gone. The variety Przybrodzka had the lowest genetic similarity to all analyzed genotypes. In other cases, genetic similarity of analyzed genotypes could not be linked to herbicide-related damage. Picloram contributed to the greatest damage to test plants and had the greatest impact on the operation of photosystem II (PSII). However, the level of plant chlorophyll fluorescence parameter values indicates small PSII damage for all substances and the possibility of subsequent plant regeneration. The results of the presented research indicate that it is worth referring to several plant varieties in phytotoxicity studies of herbicides towards arable crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Weed Infestation and Health of Organically Grown Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rausch.) Depending on Selected Foliar Sprays and Row Spacing
Agriculture 2020, 10(5), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10050168 - 13 May 2020
Abstract
Chamomile is a herbal plant of very high economic importance worldwide. Its organically grown raw material is particularly valuable. Under organic farming conditions, weeds and fungal diseases are an important problem in a chamomile plantation. Seeking agronomic solutions designed to eliminate the occurrence [...] Read more.
Chamomile is a herbal plant of very high economic importance worldwide. Its organically grown raw material is particularly valuable. Under organic farming conditions, weeds and fungal diseases are an important problem in a chamomile plantation. Seeking agronomic solutions designed to eliminate the occurrence of these pathogens in chamomile crops is constantly valid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of some foliar sprays (enhancing the condition of the crop plant and its competition against pathogens) and different row spacing of two chamomile cultivars on weed infestation and health of a chamomile plantation. The study results presented in this paper were collected from field experiments carried out in the organic system in the village of Dys (the central Lublin region, Poland) over the period 2014–2016. Experiments were conducted on podzolic soil (class III) as a split-block design in 3 replicates in plots with an area of 525 m2 (6.25 m2 a single plot). This study included two chamomile cultivars (“Złoty Łan”, “Mastar”). The second experimental factor was single or double foliar application of three bioproducts (Herbagreen Basic, Bio-algeen, Effective Microorganisms—EM Farming). The other experimental factor was a different row spacing of chamomile (40 cm and 30 cm). The obtained study results show that 10–16 annual weed species and 1–3 perennial species occurred in both chamomile cultivars. Foliar application of the bioproducts contributed to a reduction in the total number of weeds in the crop, but at the same time to greater weed species diversity. In the control treatments (without the bioproducts), the dominance of several weed species (Viola arvensis, Galeopsis tetrahit, Spergula arvensis, Juncus bufonius, Scleranthus annuus) and lower biodiversity of the weed flora were observed. The largest reduction (by about 20%) in the number of annual weeds was found under the influence of the bioproducts Herbagreen Basic and Bio-algeen applied once. Bio-algeen and Effective Microorganisms (EM), in turn, had a significant effect on decreasing the weed weight. A narrower (30 cm) row spacing of chamomile had a significant impact on reducing the weight of weeds in chamomile crops compared to the wider spacing, which was 40 cm. It should be concluded that infection of the chamomile plantation with fungal diseases was overall at a low level. Significantly higher infection with fungal diseases was found in the case of the cultivar “Mastar”, regardless of the experimental factors. A statistically proven decrease in infection of chamomile plants with fungal diseases was determined under lower crop density conditions (a row spacing of 40 cm). Chamomile plants were found to exhibit better health under the influence of double application of the biofertilizers Herbagreen Basic and Bio-algeen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and New Approaches for Management)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

The influence of farming system on weed infestation and productivity of narrow-leaved lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)

Abstract: The modern agricultural industry is facing with many challenges. The main is the production of adequate food for an ever-increasing human population according to sustainable agronomy practice. For this reason agricultural policy of the European Union is recommending legumes cultivation as environment-friendly. The role of legumes is very important in crop rotation because of a lot of benefits: improve soil physical conditions, nitrogen fixation, reduction of erosion from water and wind as well as increasing soil organic matter. A real problem in the cultivation of legumes is weed infestation, so it is important from a practical point of view to define a farming system that will allow them to be reduced. Furthermore it is very important to find the way, how to decrease cost produce of legume to encourage farmers to cultivation of those crops.

The aim of the study was to evaluate weed infestation and productivity of narrow-leaved lupin cultivated under different farming systems (low-, medium- and high-input).

A two–factor field experiment in 2011–2015 at the Experimental Station in Gorzyń (52◦33’53 N, 15◦53’42 E; Poland) was conducted. The first factor consisted farming system: low-input (LI; without fertilization and chemical protection), medium-input (MI; medium level of fertilization and chemical protection) and high-input (conventional-CONV; high level of fertilization and chemical protection). The second factor was cultivar of narrow-leaved lupin: determinate cv. Regent and indeterminate cv. Kalif. Sowing dates depended on soil water conditions in each year of study. The sowing depth was 4 cm and the row space was 18 cm. Plots were drilled with a double disk drill (Great Plains, Solid Stand 10’ equipped with a fluted coulter for residue cutting, a double disk for seed placement, and a press wheel, 3 m wide). Lupin was harvested using a 1.5 m wide Wintersteiger Classic Plot Combine annually in July.

Analysis of weed infestation was carried out two weeks before seed harvesting. Weed density was counted in each growing season with sampling areas of 1 m×1 m quadrates placed randomly on each plot. Weeds were sorted according to species. Plant material was oven dried at 80 ◦C for 48 h and dry weights corresponding to the aboveground biomasses were determined. Weed infestation was expressed as the number and dry mass of weeds per unit area (m2).

Farming system significantly modified the weed infestation. The seed yield depended on weather conditions during growing period of lupin and experimental factors. There was also assessed protein yield. The lowest protein yield was found in 2011 and the highest in 2014. Compare to CONV, LI significantly decreased protein yield (by about 200 kg per ha). Determinate cultivar Regent produced lower protein yield by 100 kg per ha compare to indeterminate cultivar Kalif. Experimental factors did not influence on protein content in seeds, which ranged average from 307 g kg-1 in LI to 317 g kg-1 in CONV independent of cultivars.

Biodiversity in Fields of Grain in South-Eastern Poland

Abstract: The aim of this study was to establish the presence and quantity of weed species in fields of grain in the south-eastern part of Poland. The conducted research will enable the categorisation of segetal flora characteristic for the given crop, and the determination of its quantity and species composition, and thus it will be possible to evaluate the degree of weed infestation of crops in commercial farms from this region. The research was conducted in commercial farms in the Strzyżowski District (49°52′ N, 21°48′ E) in 2018. The evaluation of weed infestation of grain crops was based on a quantitative and qualitative (framework) method and an agro-phytosociological method. The biodiversity of weed communities was measured with the Shannon index prior to grain harvest. The evaluation of crop and weed growth stage was based on the BBCH-scale. Moreover, fresh mass of individual plant species was determined with the weight method. The paper presents the species composition of weeds infesting winter and spring grains. Based on the results of spring research involving the framework method, it was determined that the condition and degree of weed infestation in the objects was very diverse before farmers commenced weed control procedures. The research showed that the majority of weed infestation (70%) involved dicot weeds, whereas monocot weeds were a lesser threat to grain crops. The greatest weed infestation was observed in winter wheat, and the least in oat crops. The most frequent weeds at the farms were Brassica napus L. and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. The dominating weed species in individual grain species were: in fields of winter wheat: Anthemis arvensis, Cirsium arvense, Equisetum arvense, Polygonum convolvulus, Apera spica-venti; in spring wheat: Cirsium arvense, Equisetum arvense, Sinapis arvensis; in spring barley: Equisetum arvense, Galium aparine, Avena fatua; in corn: Chenopodium album, Elymus repens, Equisetum arvense, Polygonum convolvulus, Cirsium arvense; in spring triticale: Anthemis arvensis, Apera spica-venti, Equisetum arvense, Lamium amplexicaule, Polygonum lapathifolium oraz Vicia sativa, Vicia cracca, Vicia tetrasperma; in fields of rye: Equisetum arvense and Cirsium arvense.

Keywords: segetal flora; weed quantity; weed mass; grain species

Changes in the Floristic Composition of Weeds in Potato Cultivation under the Influence of Various Methods of Care

Abstract: The results of the study were based on field experiment carried out in 2007-2009 at the IHAR-PIB experimental Station in Jadwisin on fawn soil with loamy sand granulometric composition. The experiment was based on the method of randomized sub-blocks in a dependent, split-plot system, in three replications. The first-order factor were potato varieties: Irga and Fianna, the second-order factor were methods of weed control: 1) Control object - no chemical protection; 2) Extensive mechanical treatments (every 2 weeks) from planting until rows close; 3) Sencor 70 WG – before potato emergence; 4) Sencor 70 WG + Titus 25 WG + Trend 90 EC – before potato emergence; 5) Sencor 70 WG after potato emergence; 6) Sencor 70 WG + Titus 25 WG + Trend 90 EC – after potato emergence; 7) Sencor 70 WG + Fusilade Forte 150 EC after potato emergence; 8) Sencor 70 WG + Apyros 75 WG 26.5 + Atpolan 80 SC after potato emergence. 300 dm ha-1 of water was used to spray plants with herbicides. In order to compare the effectiveness of the examined control methods, weed infestation was assessed by the quantitative and qualitative method, twice: after closing the rows and just before harvesting the tubers. The number and floristic composition of weeds were determined. Before harvesting the crop, fresh and dry weed was additionally determined. The use of herbicides in reducing weeds, and in particular mixtures of preparations, has enabled a larger spectrum of chemical action and resulted in greater destruction efficiency than mechanical weed control.

Keywords: potato; cultivar; weed control methods; monocotyledonous weeds; dicotyledonous weeds

Biological and Agrotechnical Aspects of Weed Control in the Cultivation of Early Potato Varieties under Covers

Abstract: Problems with weed infestation under covers were the reason to conduct research on the regulation of weed infestation in potato cultivation for early harvest. The field experiment was carried out in 2015-2017 at the Experimental Station for Cultivar Assessment in Uhnin (51°34 'N, 23°02'E). The experiment was carried out using the method of random subblocks, in a dependent system (split-split-plot). The first order factor was edible potato varieties 'Denar' and 'Lord'. The second order factor was cultivation technologies: A) traditional technology – as a standard object, B) technology using polyethylene film cover, C) technology using polypropylene agrotextile. The third order factor were weed management methods: 1) mechanical as a control object, 2) mechanical and chemical care using Afalon Dispersion 450 SC preparation, 3) mechanical and chemical care using Plateen 41.5 WG herbicide, 4) mechanical and chemical care using a mixture of herbicides Afalon Dispersion 450 SC + Command 480 EC. Studies have shown that good thermal conditions in covered soil promote not only the development of potato plants, but also weeds. The degree of soil coverage in objects covered with covers was much higher than in objects without covers. Mechanical and chemical care proved to be more effective than mechanical care. The best effectiveness in limiting both fresh and dry weed mass in potato cultivation under covers was achieved using mechanical and chemical care using a mixture of herbicides Afalon Dispersion 450 SC + Command 480 EC.

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