Management of Weeds and Herbicide Resistance

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Protection, Diseases, Pests and Weeds".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2024) | Viewed by 15381

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Department of Agronomics, Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, UTP University of Science and Technology, Kaliskiego Ave. 7,E,311, 85 796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Interests: agricultural plant science; integrated cropping; weed management; experimental methods in agronomy
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Guest Editor
Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 31-120 Krakow, Poland
Interests: weed science; herbicide resistance; crop–weed interactions, allelopathy, botanical herbicides
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The response of weeds to herbicides is expressed by the degree of their destruction, which depends on the mode of action of the herbicide, environmental factors, physiological mechanisms, and the biochemical reactions of plants. Each weed species has a lower and upper tolerance limit to the herbicide. Thus, the herbicide causes the extinction of susceptible individuals in the population, but also a positive selection of herbicide-resistant individuals, especially when used continuously or repeated periodically. With time, herbicide-resistant weeds become dominant in the ecological niche, also due to competition between resistant and susceptible weeds and crops. In this context, proper weed management is important to reduce the negative impact of resistant individuals on phytocenosis, including non-chemical methods of controlling resistant weeds.

Prof. Dr. Anna Wenda-Piesik
Dr. Agnieszka Synowiec
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • development of herbicide resistance
  • molecular background of herbicide resistance
  • biology and physiology of herbicide-resistant weeds
  • competition between resistant and susceptible weeds and crops
  • management of herbicide-resistant weed

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 1961 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Cultivation Systems on Weed Suppression and the Canopy Architecture of Spring Barley
by Roman Wacławowicz, Magdalena Giemza, Elżbieta Pytlarz and Anna Wenda-Piesik
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13091747 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Under the pro-environmental principles of agricultural production, soil cultivation and organic fertilization are of particular importance as strategical elements in reducing weed infestation in the context of sustainable agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of long-term practices that [...] Read more.
Under the pro-environmental principles of agricultural production, soil cultivation and organic fertilization are of particular importance as strategical elements in reducing weed infestation in the context of sustainable agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of long-term practices that are used in regenerative agriculture (reducing soil tillage, cover crop management, and mineral nitrogen fertilization) on canopy weed infestation and the elements of spring barley architecture. Understanding the impact of the studied factors influences decision-making regarding weed infestation control, and thus may contribute to a reduction in herbicide use. A two-factor field experiment was conducted using the split-plot method. The main factors were four cultivation methods: 1. conventional tillage without a cover crop, 2. conventional tillage + cover crop, 3. reduced tillage + cover crop, and 4. no tillage + cover crop. The subplot factor was differentiated via nitrogen fertilization, at 40, 80, or 120 kg N∙ha−1. The research covered canopy weed infestation and the parameters of spring barley canopy architecture. The species composition; the number and weight of weeds; and, for barley, the leaf area index (LAI), density, length, and tillers were determined. The test results were statistically analyzed (ANOVA) in a series of experiments while using Tukey’s test for a significance level of p = 0.05. Additionally, simple linear regression analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and data clustering (CA) were utilized. The study showed that simplified tillage contributed to reducing the number of weeds in the barley tillering stage, while also contributing to an increase in weed infestation during grain harvest. Plowing in the cover crop did not reduce the presence of undesirable plants in the canopy, while increasing doses of nitrogen fertilization contributed to a reduction in the number of weeds without affecting their mass. Weed infestation was also affected by meteorological conditions. Increased rainfall in the early stages of barley development benefits the number of weeds, especially in terms of traditional cultivation. Simplified tillage resulted in a reduction in barley density, height, and LAI, as well as an increase in the branching of the tested cereal. A significant negative correlation was also found between the weed infestation of the barley canopy and the characteristics of the canopy architecture. The PCA showed that the highest tillering of barley was provided at the lowest intensity of weed infestation. In turn, the CA indicated that the significantly higher LAI that resulted from a higher density and length of barley was attributed to the simplified cultivation treatments and the practice of direct sowing. It is a comprehensive method that can favor barley growth and development conditions while weakening weed infestation potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Weeds and Herbicide Resistance)
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12 pages, 616 KiB  
Article
Weed Competition on Soybean Varieties from Different Relative Maturity Groups
by João Victor dos Santos Caldas, Alessandro Guerra da Silva, Guilherme Braga Pereira Braz, Sergio de Oliveira Procópio, Itamar Rosa Teixeira, Matheus de Freitas Souza and Laís Tereza Rêgo Torquato Reginaldo
Agriculture 2023, 13(3), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13030725 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
One factor limiting the achievement of high yields in the soybean crop is weed interference. The level of weed interference can vary according to the specificities of the weed community but also due to the agronomic characteristics of the soybean varieties. The objective [...] Read more.
One factor limiting the achievement of high yields in the soybean crop is weed interference. The level of weed interference can vary according to the specificities of the weed community but also due to the agronomic characteristics of the soybean varieties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of weed interference on soybean varieties of different relative maturity groups (RMG). A field experiment was implemented in a randomized complete block design, in a 3 × 4 factorial scheme, with five replications. The treatments were composed of the varieties BMX Flecha® (RMG 6.6), BMX Power® (RMG 7.3), and BMX Bônus® (RMG 7.9), associated with the following four weed managements: weeding throughout the cycle; weeded up to 20 days after emergence (DAE); weeded after 20 DAE until the end of soybean cycle; not weeded throughout the entire cycle. There was no interaction between the effects of the varieties and the weed management for emergence speed index, plant height, chlorophyll, first pod height insertion, plant population, thousand-grain weight and yield. The initial weed management caused changes in the composition of the weed community. The managements weeded throughout the cycle and weeded up until 20 DAE provided higher levels of chlorophyll and grain yield. The management without weeding during the entire cycle negatively influenced yield components. Late interventions in weed control, regardless of the soybean variety, result in yield losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Weeds and Herbicide Resistance)
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11 pages, 3462 KiB  
Article
Stimulation of Early Post-Emergence Growth of Alopecurus myosuroides and Apera spica-venti Following Spray Application of ACCase Inhibitors
by Mariola Wrochna, Marta Stankiewicz-Kosyl and Marzena Wińska-Krysiak
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020483 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Resistance of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) and silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti (L.) P. Beauv.) to ACCase inhibitors is a serious issue in winter cereals throughout Europe, especially as hormesis induced by herbicides has been observed in some populations. According to the [...] Read more.
Resistance of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) and silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti (L.) P. Beauv.) to ACCase inhibitors is a serious issue in winter cereals throughout Europe, especially as hormesis induced by herbicides has been observed in some populations. According to the literature, growth-stimulating herbicide rates are on the rise. The aim of this study was to assess the responses of A. myosuroides and A. spica-venti, which are potentially resistant to ACCase inhibitors, to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and pinoxaden applied at rates up to 8 times greater than their registered rates. The reaction of A. myosuroides to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and pinoxaden resulted in an increase in biomass gain in six and four populations, respectively. In one population of A. myosuroides, this increase was statistically significant (46.4% and 55.3%). All three potentially resistant A. spica-venti populations tested were at least partially stimulated by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, while pinoxaden only stimulated the APSII population (significant increase of 43.8%). Predictions of the possible impact of herbicides on the reproductive potential of the tested populations allow genotypes to be identified whose reproduction may be stimulated by the herbicides. The results of this study indicate that the tested populations can induce mechanisms that reduce the negative impact of the applied herbicides, with some populations demonstrating the effect of stimulating the accumulation of biomass in the treated plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Weeds and Herbicide Resistance)
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15 pages, 2966 KiB  
Article
Genetic Variations among Fleabane (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist) Populations in Jordan and Their Susceptibility Levels to Contact Herbicides
by Jamal Ragheb Qasem, Ayoob Obaid Alfalahi, Moodi Saham Alsubeie, Ali Fadaam Almehemdi and Agnieszka Synowiec
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020435 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
A field demonstration and pot experiments were implemented to assess the effect of paraquat, oxadiazon, and oxyfluorfen herbicides in controlling selected populations of fleabane Conyza bonariensis (L.), grown in the central valley of Jordan. Conyza mature seeds were collected from six investigated sites [...] Read more.
A field demonstration and pot experiments were implemented to assess the effect of paraquat, oxadiazon, and oxyfluorfen herbicides in controlling selected populations of fleabane Conyza bonariensis (L.), grown in the central valley of Jordan. Conyza mature seeds were collected from six investigated sites (five from Jordan valley named P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, and one from the University of Jordan Campus named P6). Only populations proved to be C. bonariensis via ITS assessment were involved in the glasshouse experiments at the University of Jordan in 2017 and 2019. Results showed that recommended or two-fold higher rates (2.5 and 5 kg ha−1) of paraquat failed to affect weed plants in a date palm orchard located at Tal-al-Ramel in the Central Jordan Valley. Paraquat, oxyfluorfen, and oxadiazon (2.5, 3.3, and 5 kg ha−1, respectively), failed to control plants of the same weed population grown in pot experiments. Treated plants at Tal-al-Ramel grew similarly to untreated control, mostly due to different genetic backgrounds. The other C. bonariensis populations (University Research Station, al-Twal, and University Campus) were effectively controlled with all herbicides. The application of recommended or 10-fold higher rates of herbicides failed to control or slightly injured the resistant population. Seed DNA analysis of the ITS region showed genetic differences among the investigated populations. It indicated that four populations are C. bonariensis (P1, P3, P4, and P6). At the same time, two are C. canadensis (a closely related species) collected from the University Research Station (P2) and al-Twal sites (P5), and also that the population of C. bonariensis in the date palm orchard was genetically distinct from the other C. bonariensis populations. It is concluded that C. bonariensis population in the Tal-al-Ramel site developed resistance to paraquat, oxadiazon, and oxyfluorfen herbicides. Thus, novel alternative practices in controlling the resistant weed population are necessary to prevent its possible spread to other regions in the country and obstruct the development of new herbicide-resistance weed populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Weeds and Herbicide Resistance)
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7 pages, 350 KiB  
Communication
Case Report of Avena sterilis subsp. sterilis ACCase Herbicide Resistance in Southern Spain
by Carlos Sousa-Ortega, José Luis Fernandez and Mino Sportelli
Agriculture 2023, 13(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13010085 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Wild oats are worldwide grassy weeds that cause substantial yield losses, particularly in winter cereal crops. In addition, wild oat herbicide resistant cases have increased; indeed, up to 52 cases have been registered. Despite this, no wild oat herbicide resistant cases have been [...] Read more.
Wild oats are worldwide grassy weeds that cause substantial yield losses, particularly in winter cereal crops. In addition, wild oat herbicide resistant cases have increased; indeed, up to 52 cases have been registered. Despite this, no wild oat herbicide resistant cases have been described in Spain, where farmers and technicians have reported poor herbicide efficacy in sterile oats (Avena sterilis subsp. sterilis L.). A dose-response experiment was conducted comparing the behavior of two populations of A. sterilis from southern Spain to a susceptible population. These populations were collected from two commercial farms where a low efficacy of chemical control had been described. Clodinafop-propargyl and Pinoxaden were tested as active ingredients in the dose-response experiment. Additionally, an alternative herbicide, which consisted of a mixture of Mesosulfuron-methyl and Propoxycarbazone-Na, was also tested at a field dose. The two populations of A. sterilis studied provided a resistant factor higher than 10 for Clodinafop-propargyl and higher than 4 for Pinoxaden. A total control was achieved for plants treated with Mesosulfuron-methyl and Propoxycarbazone-Na. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Weeds and Herbicide Resistance)
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15 pages, 1563 KiB  
Article
Occurrence and Mechanism of Papaver rhoeas ALS Inhibitors Resistance in Poland
by Marta Stankiewicz-Kosyl, Małgorzata Haliniarz, Mariola Wrochna, Aleksandra Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Piotr Kuc, Justyna Łukasz, Marzena Wińska-Krysiak, Barbara Wrzesińska-Krupa, Joanna Puła, Cezary Podsiadło, Krzysztof Domaradzki, Mariusz Piekarczyk, Marcin Bednarczyk and Katarzyna Marcinkowska
Agriculture 2023, 13(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13010082 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Herbicide resistance in weeds, including corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.), is an increasing problem compromising global crop production. The aims of this study were to evaluate the susceptibility of P. rhoeas populations in Poland to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors and elucidate their [...] Read more.
Herbicide resistance in weeds, including corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.), is an increasing problem compromising global crop production. The aims of this study were to evaluate the susceptibility of P. rhoeas populations in Poland to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors and elucidate their mechanisms of resistance. Between 2017 and 2020, 157 seed samples were collected nationwide and a dose-response study with various ALS-inhibiting herbicides was performed in glasshouses. This revealed 14 resistant populations with R/S ranges of 2.3–1450.2, 9.5–398.5 and 2–2.5 for tribenuron, iodosulfuron and florasulam, respectively. Eight of them were cross-resistant to both tribenuron and iodosulfuron, three and one populations were singly resistant to tribenuron and iodosulfuron, respectively, and one population had reduced susceptibility to florasulam only. In one population, cross-resistance to tribenuron, iodosulfuron and florasulam was identified. The ED50 of many populations susceptible to ALS inhibitors was close to half the recommended dose of the herbicides tested. In seven out of eight resistant P. rhoeas populations analysed, target-site resistance was identified. Six amino acid replacements were found (Ala197, Arg197, His197, Leu197, Ser197 and Thr197). In one population resistant to ALS inhibitors, no mutations in the ALS gene were detected. An efficient anti-resistance strategy is needed to reduce the development of herbicide resistance in P. rhoeas in Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Weeds and Herbicide Resistance)
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12 pages, 1076 KiB  
Article
Autumn Application of Synthetic Auxin Herbicide for Weed Control in Cereals in Poland and Germany
by Łukasz Sobiech, Andrzej Joniec, Barbara Loryś, Janusz Rogulski, Monika Grzanka and Robert Idziak
Agriculture 2023, 13(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13010032 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
The biological efficacy of herbicides MCPA+tribenuron-methyl (code name: MT-565 SG) and diflufenican+chlorotoluron (Legato Pro 425 SC) was estimated in eighteen field experiments on winter cereals in Poland and Germany to control broadleaf weeds. Postemergence application of tribenuron-methyl in combination with MCPA, applied at [...] Read more.
The biological efficacy of herbicides MCPA+tribenuron-methyl (code name: MT-565 SG) and diflufenican+chlorotoluron (Legato Pro 425 SC) was estimated in eighteen field experiments on winter cereals in Poland and Germany to control broadleaf weeds. Postemergence application of tribenuron-methyl in combination with MCPA, applied at the 3-leaf stage to 3 tillers detectable in autumn in winter cereals, resulted in the majority of weed species occurring in autumn being effectively eliminated with MCPA+tribenuron-methyl applied at 1.0 kg∙ha–1. It also provided an acceptable (82.4–94.1%) and comparable level of control to commonly occurring weeds Brassica napus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Centaurea cyanus, Lamium purpureum, Tripleurospermum inodorum, Stellaria media, and Thlaspi arvense. A satisfactory level of control of 66.3 to 88.3% was confirmed for Veronica persica, Viola arvensis, and Galium aparine. According to these results, the formulation of tribenuron-methyl combined with MCPA can be recommended for application in winter cereals in the autumn as an alternative to commonly available herbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Weeds and Herbicide Resistance)
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21 pages, 3458 KiB  
Article
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. (Poaceae) Differentially Responds to Pre- and Post-Emergence Herbicides through Micro-Structural Alterations
by Sidra Riaz, Sana Basharat, Farooq Ahmad, Mansoor Hameed, Sana Fatima, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad, Syed Mohsan Raza Shah, Ansa Asghar, Mohamed A. El-Sheikh and Prashant Kaushik
Agriculture 2022, 12(11), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12111831 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2313
Abstract
Herbicides are widely used to kill weeds and increase crop production all over the world. Nevertheless, some weeds show certain structural modifications in response to herbicide application that impart mostly partial or sometimes complete tolerance to these noxious plants. The present study was [...] Read more.
Herbicides are widely used to kill weeds and increase crop production all over the world. Nevertheless, some weeds show certain structural modifications in response to herbicide application that impart mostly partial or sometimes complete tolerance to these noxious plants. The present study was focused on morpho-anatomical modifications in the root, stem, and leaves of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. treated with different herbicides and to examine whether it possesses tolerance against herbicides. Two pre- and four post-emergence herbicides were applied to D. aegyptium at the recommended dose in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Pre-emergence herbicide Bromoxynil enhanced root growth (30%), leaves per plant (3%), and leaf fresh weight (17.2%). Increased stem epidermal thickness (100%) was the most notable feature among anatomical attributes. Post-emergence herbicides generally increased stem epidermal thickness 33–56%), leaf sheath thickness (5%), and root area in roots. Other modifications included increased sclerenchymatous thickness in the stem (133–255%), and epidermal thickness (100–200%) in the leaf blade. These characters assisted D. aegyptium to cope with herbicide toxicity. Collectively, pre-emergence herbicides more effectively controlled D. aegyptium compared with post-emergence herbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Weeds and Herbicide Resistance)
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