Crop Antioxidant System and Its Responses to Stress

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Ecosystem, Environment and Climate Change in Agriculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2023) | Viewed by 11184

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biology, Division of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Marulićev trg 9a, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: polyphenols; antioxidants; abiotic stress; biological activity
Department of Biology, Division of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Marulićev trg 9a, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: phytochemistry; plant specialized metabolites; plant extract bioactivity; biotic stress; abiotic stress
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate change is a global problem with various negative effects on plants and animals as well as the production of food supplies, which causes changes in the nutritional and biological activity of cereals, fruits and vegetables. Due to climate change, plants are more often exposed to abiotic (high temperature, draught, salinity, cold) and biotic stress (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses, ...). Furthermore, plants can be exposed to a combination of abiotic stressors, such as drought/heat, drought/cold, salinity/heat and/or to a combination of various abiotic stressors with pathogen infection. Plant responses to stress conditions involve numerous physiological, biochemical, molecular and cellular changes. An example of a response to stress is the increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to oxidative stress. The antioxidant defense system of plant includes enzymatic (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) and non-enzymatic mediators (ascorbic acid, b-carotene, glutathione, polyphenols, proline, a-tocopherols). Changes in plant biochemical pathways, with an emphasis on antioxidants, can significantly change their biopotential for future human and animal use.

This Special Issue focuses on the plant antioxidant system and its response to stress. The goal is to gain an insight into changes in the nutritional value and biological activity of plants that are exposed to stress and are used in human and animal nutrition. Original research articles and reviews are welcome.

Dr. Valerija Vujčić Bok
Dr. Ivana Sola
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • climate change
  • abiotic stress
  • biotic stress
  • antioxidants
  • antioxidative enzymes
  • nutritional value

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 6194 KiB  
Article
Photosynthetic and Physiological Responses to Combined Drought and Low–Temperature Stress in Poa annua Seedlings from Different Provenances
by Juanxia Li, Xiaoming Bai, Fu Ran, Ping Li, Mahran Sadiq and Hui Chen
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13091781 - 8 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Combined drought and low–temperature stress is a crucial factor affecting turfgrass establishment and limiting the sustainability of the turfgrass industry in drought– and cold–prone regions. In this context, we evaluated the effects of regular watering (the soil water content was 80% of the [...] Read more.
Combined drought and low–temperature stress is a crucial factor affecting turfgrass establishment and limiting the sustainability of the turfgrass industry in drought– and cold–prone regions. In this context, we evaluated the effects of regular watering (the soil water content was 80% of the maximum water–holding capacity of the field) at room temperature (25 °C) and combined drought (the soil water content was 30% of the maximum water–holding capacity of the field) and low–temperature (0 °C) stress on the morphology, photosynthesis, and physiology of wild Poa annua seedlings from different provenances (‘PA’, ‘WY’, ‘NX’ and ‘YC’). Results indicated that the combined drought and low–temperature stress changed the morphological and growth indicators of seedlings in four provenances to different extents. Moreover, combined drought and low–temperature stress reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), and chlorophyll content in seedlings from four provenances. However, intertemporal CO2 concentration (Ci), relative electrical conductivity (REC), the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), proline (Pro), soluble sugars (SS), the superoxide anion (O2•−) production rate, the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (·OH), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were all increased. The increase in ‘PA’ was much greater than that in ‘NX.’ The comprehensive evaluation results showed that the order of combined drought and low–temperature resistance of seedlings from the four provenances was ‘PA’ > ‘YC’ > ‘WY’ > ‘NX’, which corresponded to the order of the morphological damage symptoms. In conclusion, ‘PA’ may maintain stronger combined drought and low–temperature resistance by improving the cellular water absorption and retention capacity, enhancing the function of the antioxidant defense system, and maintaining the integrity of the cell membrane, which is a crucial germplasm resource for breeding combined drought and low–temperature resistance in Poa annua. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Antioxidant System and Its Responses to Stress)
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13 pages, 1655 KiB  
Article
Positive Interaction of Selenium Nanoparticles and Olive Solid Waste on Vanadium-Stressed Soybean Plant
by Mha Albqmi, Mohammad Yaghoubi Khanghahi, Samy Selim, Mohammad M. Al-Sanea, Taghreed S. Alnusaire, Mohammed S. Almuhayawi, Soad K. Al Jaouni, Shaimaa Hussein, Mona Warrad and Hamada AbdElgawad
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020426 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
The purpose of the current study was to determine the possible improvement in soybean plants’ tolerance against vanadium-induced stress in response to the application of olive solid waste (OSW) and selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs), by assessing metabolites and plant defense systems. Drawing upon this [...] Read more.
The purpose of the current study was to determine the possible improvement in soybean plants’ tolerance against vanadium-induced stress in response to the application of olive solid waste (OSW) and selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs), by assessing metabolites and plant defense systems. Drawing upon this aim, a pot experiment was performed where the soybean plants were grown with a fertilization treatment (including, control, OSW, Se-NPs, and Se-NPs + OSW) under vanadium stress (including non-stress and 350 mg sodium orthovanadate per kg of soil). Enhancement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in vanadium-stressed plants confirmed the oxidative damage in unfertilized plants. Results indicated the positive effects of the combined treatment (Se-NPs + OSW) in improving the plant stress tolerance by causing a balance in the produced ROS and detoxified ROS in the plant. It was mainly stimulated through the improvement of the photosynthetic parameters, anthocyanin metabolism pathway, phenylpropanoid pathway, non-enzymatic antioxidant metabolites (tocopherols, malondialdehyde, polyphenols, and flavonoids), antioxidant enzymes, and biochemical components involved in the ASC/GSH cycle (ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase), and antioxidant direct scavenging enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase), which finally resulted in higher plant biomass. In conclusion, the simultaneous application of OSW and Se-NPs treatments provided a reliable protection for soybean plants in vanadium-contaminated soils through the activation of antioxidant and non-antioxidant defense mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Antioxidant System and Its Responses to Stress)
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20 pages, 4847 KiB  
Article
Regulating Enzymatic Antioxidants, Biochemical and Physiological Properties of Tomato under Cold Stress: A Crucial Role of Ethylene
by Yousry Bayoumi, Sabah Osman, Abdelwahab Etman, El-Samahy El-Semellawy, Svein Ø. Solberg and Hassan El-Ramady
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020266 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3450
Abstract
The production of tomato under low-temperature stress in the open fields is a challenge faced by many farmers. The current study compares the use of different ethylene treatments to accelerate the fruit ripening of tomato during two successive seasons under cold stress. The [...] Read more.
The production of tomato under low-temperature stress in the open fields is a challenge faced by many farmers. The current study compares the use of different ethylene treatments to accelerate the fruit ripening of tomato during two successive seasons under cold stress. The treatments included foliar application of ethrel (2500, 5000, and 7500 ppm) in the open field at the mature green stage, dipping collected fruits in ethrel solution (1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm) right after harvest, and application of gaseous ethylene (100, 200, and 300 ppm) to the harvested fruits. The effects were compared to untreated fruits (control). Characteristics, such as physical properties (ripening, weight loss, firmness, decay, and fruit color), chemical properties (ascorbic acid, acidity, total soluble sugars, and pigments), and enzymatic activities (polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase), were sampled throughout the storage period. In general, the ethylene gas application was the most effective method in accelerating the fruit ripening process compared to the other methods applied. The highest vitamin C total soluble solid contents and redness parameters were found after applying the highest dose of ethylene gas (300 ppm). This indicates that the ripening of tomato fruits, which are cultivated under cold stress conditions as found during the early summer season in a Mediterranean climate, might be harvested at a mature green stage and exposed to ethylene application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Antioxidant System and Its Responses to Stress)
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15 pages, 3076 KiB  
Article
Shrimp-Waste-Derived Biochar Induces Metal Toxicity Tolerance of Wastewater-Irrigated Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)
by Magdi A. A. Mousa, Kamal A. M. Abo-Elyousr, Omer H. M. Ibrahim, Nouf Owdah Alshareef and Mamdouh A. Eissa
Agriculture 2022, 12(11), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12111748 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
The scarcity of high-quality water resources may lead to the use of lower quality water for plant production. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) plants have great potential for human nutrition, but poor water quality, such as metal contamination in wastewater, affects the seed [...] Read more.
The scarcity of high-quality water resources may lead to the use of lower quality water for plant production. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) plants have great potential for human nutrition, but poor water quality, such as metal contamination in wastewater, affects the seed quality. This study aims to investigate the effects of shrimp-waste-derived biochar (SWB) on the uptake of toxic metals from wastewater by quinoa plants. Additionally, the study investigates how quinoa plants’ antioxidant defenses respond to wastewater and SWB treatments. Shrimp-waste-derived biochar (SWB) was prepared by pyrolysis at 350 °C for 3 h and added to the soil at the levels of 0, 1, and 2% (based on soil weight), which are namely C, SWB1, and SWB2, respectively. SWB was applied to quinoa plants cultivated in pots filled with sandy soil and irrigated with fresh or wastewater for a continuous 90 days. The wastewater was contaminated with manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Quinoa seeds that were irrigated with wastewater had Cd and Pb concentrations that were above the allowable levels (for human consumption) in the absence of biochar (C) or addition of SWB1. Wastewater significantly reduced quinoa growth and photosynthetic pigments, while SWB significantly mitigated the metal toxicity and improved growth. SWB2 significantly reduced the Pb and Cd concentrations in quinoa leaves by 29 and 30% compared with C. The Cd and Pb concentrations in quinoa seeds were safe for human consumption and below the maximum allowable limits when the soil was amended with SWB2. SWB improved the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. SWB reduced the toxic metal availability and uptake, mitigated the oxidative stress, and minimized the levels of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide. The SWB addition stimulated quinoa’s antioxidant defense and protected plant cells by eliminating reactive oxygen species. The addition of 2% (w/w) shrimp waste biochar improved the quality of quinoa seeds irrigated with wastewater and decreased their toxic metal content. The obtained results contribute to sustainable development and the exploitation of wastewater to irrigate quinoa plants in arid degraded soil; additionally, it also helps in the recycling of shrimp waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Antioxidant System and Its Responses to Stress)
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20 pages, 3743 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Capacity of Chitosan on Sorghum Plants under Salinity Stress
by Takalani Mulaudzi, Mulisa Nkuna, Gershwin Sias, Ibrahima Zan Doumbia, Njagi Njomo and Emmanuel Iwuoha
Agriculture 2022, 12(10), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12101544 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
Salinity stress is one of the major environmental constraints responsible for the reductions in agricultural productivity. Salinity affects crop growth, by causing osmotic and ionic stresses, which induce oxidative damage due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exogenous application of natural compounds can [...] Read more.
Salinity stress is one of the major environmental constraints responsible for the reductions in agricultural productivity. Salinity affects crop growth, by causing osmotic and ionic stresses, which induce oxidative damage due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exogenous application of natural compounds can reduce the negative impacts of salinity stress on plants. This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of chitosan, a biopolymer to reduce the salt-induced oxidative damage on sorghum plants. Morpho-physiological and biochemical attributes of sorghum plants stressed with 300 mM NaCl, in combination with chitosan (0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL), were assayed. Salt stress decreased growth, fresh (66.92%) and dry (48.26%) weights, affected the shape and size of the stomata, caused deformation of the xylem and phloem layers, and increased the Na+/K+ (1.3) and Na+/Si+ (5.4) ratios. However, chitosan effectively reversed these negative effects, as supported by decreased Na+/Si+ ratio (~0.9) and formed silica phytoliths. Oxidative stress was exerted as observed by increased H2O2 (44%) and malondialdehyde (125%) contents under salt stress, followed by their reduction in chitosan-treated sorghum plants. Salt increased proline (318.67%), total soluble sugars (44.69%), and activities of SOD (36.04%) and APX (131.58%), indicating sorghum’s ROS scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of chitosan was measured by determining its ability to reduce oxidative damage and minimizing the induction of the antioxidant defense system. Chitosan reduced oxidative stress markers, proline, total soluble sugars, and the antioxidant enzyme activities by more than 50%. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of chitosan-treated samples confirmed a reduction in the degradation of biomolecules, and this correlated with reduced oxidative stress. The results suggest that chitosan’s antioxidant capacity to alleviate the effects of salt stress is related to its role in improving silicon accumulation in sorghum plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Antioxidant System and Its Responses to Stress)
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