Special Issue "State-of-the-Art Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe"

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Konstantinos Kontis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mechan Chair of Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, James Watt Building South, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK
Tel. +441413304337
Interests: aerodynamic technologies; flow and flight control systems; shock physics; aerospace design and optimization; flow diagnostics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe. We invite full research articles and review manuscripts that will consolidate our understanding in the following (but not limited to) topics:

  • aerodynamics and fluid dynamics
  • unmanned aerial systems and vehicles
  • aircraft or spacecraft design, optimization and methodology
  • aerospace propulsion including alternative fuels and novel propulsion concepts
  • advances in space navigation and control
  • aerospace sensors, devices and engine integration
  • smart materials and structures
  • energy harvesting and combustion
  • flow and flight control systems
  • air-traffic management
  • mission design and analysis
  • modeling and simulation techniques
  • flight testing
  • intelligent radar

Prof. Dr. Konstantinos Kontis
Prof. Dr. Mário M. G. Costa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Development of Hollow Cathodes for Space Electric Propulsion at Sitael
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4020026 - 06 May 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Hollow cathodes are electron sources used for the gas ionization and the beam neutralization in both ion and Hall effect thrusters (HETs). A reduction of power and propellant consumption from the cathode is particularly needed in small satellite applications, where power and mass [...] Read more.
Hollow cathodes are electron sources used for the gas ionization and the beam neutralization in both ion and Hall effect thrusters (HETs). A reduction of power and propellant consumption from the cathode is particularly needed in small satellite applications, where power and mass budgets are inherently limited. Concurrently, the interest in high-power HETs is increasingly fostered for a number of space applications, including final positioning and station-keeping of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, spacecraft transfers from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to GEO, and deep-space exploration missions. As such, several hollow cathodes have been developed and tested at Sitael, each conceived for a specific power class of thrusters. A numerical model was used during the cathode design to define the geometry, in accordance with the thruster unit specifications in terms of discharge current, mass flow rate, and lifetime. Lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) hollow cathodes were successfully developed for HETs with discharge power ranging from 100 W to 20 kW. Experimental campaigns were carried out in both stand-alone and coupled configurations, to verify the operation of the cathodes and validate the numerical model. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results are presented, offering a sound framework to drive the design of future hollow cathodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle
Vortex Lattice Simulations of Attached and Separated Flows around Flapping Wings
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4020022 - 18 Apr 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Flapping flight is an increasingly popular area of research, with applications to micro-unmanned air vehicles and animal flight biomechanics. Fast, but accurate methods for predicting the aerodynamic loads acting on flapping wings are of interest for designing such aircraft and optimizing thrust production. [...] Read more.
Flapping flight is an increasingly popular area of research, with applications to micro-unmanned air vehicles and animal flight biomechanics. Fast, but accurate methods for predicting the aerodynamic loads acting on flapping wings are of interest for designing such aircraft and optimizing thrust production. In this work, the unsteady vortex lattice method is used in conjunction with three load estimation techniques in order to predict the aerodynamic lift and drag time histories produced by flapping rectangular wings. The load estimation approaches are the Katz, Joukowski and simplified Leishman–Beddoes techniques. The simulations’ predictions are compared to experimental measurements from wind tunnel tests of a flapping and pitching wing. Three types of kinematics are investigated, pitch-leading, pure flapping and pitch lagging. It is found that pitch-leading tests can be simulated quite accurately using either the Katz or Joukowski approaches as no measurable flow separation occurs. For the pure flapping tests, the Katz and Joukowski techniques are accurate as long as the static pitch angle is greater than zero. For zero or negative static pitch angles, these methods underestimate the amplitude of the drag. The Leishman–Beddoes approach yields better drag amplitudes, but can introduce a constant negative drag offset. Finally, for the pitch-lagging tests the Leishman–Beddoes technique is again more representative of the experimental results, as long as flow separation is not too extensive. Considering the complexity of the phenomena involved, in the vast majority of cases, the lift time history is predicted with reasonable accuracy. The drag (or thrust) time history is more challenging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Aerodynamics, Including Dynamic Stall, for Comprehensive Analysis of Helicopter Rotors
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4020021 - 14 Apr 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
To fulfill the objective of a predictive tool for rotorcraft, comprehensive analysis (CA) needs to be capable of providing both accurate and time-efficient predictions of rotor air loads and structural loads. The more recent methodology based on comprehensive analysis coupled with high-fidelity computational [...] Read more.
To fulfill the objective of a predictive tool for rotorcraft, comprehensive analysis (CA) needs to be capable of providing both accurate and time-efficient predictions of rotor air loads and structural loads. The more recent methodology based on comprehensive analysis coupled with high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has shown improved predictions of air loads, but it has not the strength of computational efficiency and the versatility of stand-alone CA. The present article is concerned with modeling aerodynamics about helicopter rotors for CA. The aerodynamics about rotors are very complex, encompassing subsonic to transonic flow with unsteady, stalled behavior and 3D effects. CA treats aerodynamics as separated into local and global flows. Semi-empirical models of dynamic stall were created in the 1970s–1990s for modeling unsteady local aerodynamics, including stalled flow. Most of them fail to provide good predictions of experimental results and also suffer problems of numerical convergence. The main effort in this study is about modeling local aerodynamics based on the revised “ONERA–Hopf bifurcation model”. It is implemented in the comprehensive analysis code of ONERA according to a scheme that ensures numerical convergence. The experimental results obtained in the Wind Tunnel S1 of Modane (France) in 1991 on the Rotor 7A are considered for validation of the analysis under three flight test conditions: high-speed test, high-thrust tests with light stall and deep stall, respectively. There is a reasonable agreement between the predictions of CA with experimental results. The distinct features of the stall model are the modeling of the boundary-layer effects and the vortex-shedding phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle
A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part Two: Multi-Dimensional Analysis
Aerospace 2016, 3(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace3040045 - 14 Dec 2016
Cited by 15
Abstract
hy2Foam is a newly-coded open-source two-temperature computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver that has previously been validated for zero-dimensional test cases. It aims at (1) giving open-source access to a state-of-the-art hypersonic CFD solver to students and researchers; and (2) providing a foundation for [...] Read more.
hy2Foam is a newly-coded open-source two-temperature computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver that has previously been validated for zero-dimensional test cases. It aims at (1) giving open-source access to a state-of-the-art hypersonic CFD solver to students and researchers; and (2) providing a foundation for a future hybrid CFD-DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) code within the OpenFOAM framework. This paper focuses on the multi-dimensional verification of hy2Foam and firstly describes the different models implemented. In conjunction with employing the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV) chemistry–vibration model, novel use is made of the quantum-kinetic (QK) rates in a CFD solver. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with previously published data for a Mach 11 nitrogen flow over a blunted cone and with the dsmcFoam code for a Mach 20 cylinder flow for a binary reacting mixture. This latter case scenario provides a useful basis for other codes to compare against. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle
Wing Tip Drag Reduction at Nominal Take-Off Mach Number: An Approach to Local Active Flow Control with a Highly Robust Actuator System
Aerospace 2016, 3(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace3040036 - 19 Oct 2016
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper discusses wind tunnel test results aimed at advancing active flow control technology to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of an aircraft during take-off. A model of the outer section of a representative civil airliner wing was equipped with two-stage fluidic actuators between [...] Read more.
This paper discusses wind tunnel test results aimed at advancing active flow control technology to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of an aircraft during take-off. A model of the outer section of a representative civil airliner wing was equipped with two-stage fluidic actuators between the slat edge and wing tip, where mechanical high-lift devices fail to integrate. The experiments were conducted at a nominal take-off Mach number of M = 0.2. At this incidence velocity, separation on the wing section, accompanied by increased drag, is triggered by the strong slat edge vortex at high angles of attack. On the basis of global force measurements and local static pressure data, the effect of pulsed blowing on the complex flow is evaluated, considering various momentum coefficients and spanwise distributions of the actuation effort. It is shown that through local intensification of forcing, a momentum coefficient of less than c μ = 0.6 % suffices to offset the stall by 2.4°, increase the maximum lift by more than 10% and reduce the drag by 37% compared to the uncontrolled flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle
A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part One: Zero-Dimensional Analysis
Aerospace 2016, 3(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace3040034 - 18 Oct 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed [...] Read more.
A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed within the framework of the open-source CFD platform OpenFOAM for the prediction of hypersonic reacting flows. This solver makes the distinct juncture between the trans-rotational and multiple vibrational-electronic temperatures. hy2Foam has the capability to model vibrational-translational and vibrational-vibrational energy exchanges in an eleven-species air mixture. It makes use of either the Park TTv model or the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV) model to handle chemistry-vibration coupling and it can simulate flows with or without electronic energy. Verification of the code for various zero-dimensional adiabatic heat baths of progressive complexity has been carried out. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with those given by the CFD code LeMANS (The Michigan Aerothermodynamic Navier-Stokes solver) and previously published data. A comparison is also performed with the open-source DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) code dsmcFoam. It has been demonstrated that the use of the CVDV model and rates derived from Quantum-Kinetic theory promote a satisfactory consistency between the CFD and DSMC chemistry modules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe)
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