Special Issue "Design and Analysis of Wind-Tunnel Models and Fluidic Measurements"

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Hossein Zare-Behtash
Website
Guest Editor
Aerospace Sciences Division, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK
Interests: fluid–thermal–structure interactions; nanophotonic fluid sensor, flow control; compressible flows; advanced flow diagnostics; shock physics; shock–vortex interactions; wind tunnel testing; engineering optimisation; unsteady aerodynamics; energy deposition; bio-inspired engineering; unconventional wing planforms
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Shaun N. Skinner
Website
Guest Editor
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD USA
Interests: fluid-structure interactions; aerodynamic optimisation; optimisation algorithms; unconventional wing planforms; advances flow diagnostics; wind tunnel testing; passive/active flow control; compressible flows; shock physics; supersonic film-cooling; boundary layer transition; high-altitude flow physics and behaviors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wind tunnel testing has always played a key role in the design, testing, and optimization of fluidic components ranging from aircraft wings to compressor blades, from understanding nature-inspired bird flight to hypersonic reentry of manned vehicle returning from off-planetary missions. Today, wind tunnel testing continues to have a critical role in numerous sectors of society: Aerospace, automotive, renewable energies, etc. With the advent of higher computing power, wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing were at the brink of abandonment. However, as our knowledge and understanding of fluidic phenomena grew, we realized that flow interactions and phenomena are even more complex than once thought and that a synergetic numerical and experimental approach is key to unlocking the fundamental physics.

Dr. Hossein Zare-Behtash
Dr. Shaun N. Skinner
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wind tunnel testing
  • Wind tunnel model design
  • Wind tunnel and model interactions
  • Flow diagnostics
  • Measurement errors and uncertainties
  • Steady/unsteady measurements
  • Subsonic/supersonic/hypersonic wind tunnel testing
  • Cryogenic wind tunnels
  • Flow control
  • Turbulence
  • Static/dynamic tests

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Design and Validation of a New Morphing Camber System by Testing in the Price—Païdoussis Subsonic Wind Tunnel
Aerospace 2020, 7(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace7030023 - 07 Mar 2020
Abstract
This paper presents the design and wind tunnel testing of a morphing camber system and an estimation of performances on an unmanned aerial vehicle. The morphing camber system is a combination of two subsystems: the morphing trailing edge and the morphing leading edge. [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and wind tunnel testing of a morphing camber system and an estimation of performances on an unmanned aerial vehicle. The morphing camber system is a combination of two subsystems: the morphing trailing edge and the morphing leading edge. Results of the present study show that the aerodynamics effects of the two subsystems are combined, without interfering with each other on the wing. The morphing camber system acts only on the lift coefficient at a 0° angle of attack when morphing the trailing edge, and only on the stall angle when morphing the leading edge. The behavior of the aerodynamics performances from the MTE and the MLE should allow individual control of the morphing camber trailing and leading edges. The estimation of the performances of the morphing camber on an unmanned aerial vehicle indicates that the morphing of the camber allows a drag reduction. This result is due to the smaller angle of attack needed for an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with the morphing camber system than an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with classical aileron. In the case study, the morphing camber system was found to allow a reduction of the drag when the lift coefficient was higher than 0.48. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Analysis of Wind-Tunnel Models and Fluidic Measurements)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Additively Manufactured Wind Tunnel Models with Integrated Pressure Taps for Vortex Flow Analysis
Aerospace 2019, 6(10), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6100113 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Wind tunnel models are traditionally machined from high-quality metal material; this condition reduces the possibility to test different geometric variations or models as it corresponds to incremental cost. In the last decade, the quality of additive manufacturing techniques has been progressively increasing, while [...] Read more.
Wind tunnel models are traditionally machined from high-quality metal material; this condition reduces the possibility to test different geometric variations or models as it corresponds to incremental cost. In the last decade, the quality of additive manufacturing techniques has been progressively increasing, while the cost has been decreasing. The utilization of 3D-printing techniques suggests the possibility to improve the cost, time, and flexibility of a wind tunnel model production. Possible disadvantages in terms of quality of the model finishing, stiffness, and geometric accuracy are investigated, to understand if the production technique is capable of providing a suitable test device. Additionally, pressure taps for steady surface pressure measurements are integrated during the printing procedure and the production of complex three-dimensional highly swept wings have been selected as targets. Computational fluid dynamics tools are exploited to confirm the experimental results in accordance with the best practice approaches characterizing flow patterns dominated by leading-edge vortices. The fidelity level of the experimental data for scientific research of the described flow fields is investigated. An insight of the most important guidelines and the possible improvements is provided as well as the main features of the approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Analysis of Wind-Tunnel Models and Fluidic Measurements)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Piezo-Embedded Inverted Flag in Free Shear Layer Wake
Aerospace 2019, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6030033 - 07 Mar 2019
Abstract
The use of flexible inverted piezo embedded Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) as a simultaneous energy harvester and as a wake sensor is explored. The oscillation amplitude (characterized by voltage output) and oscillation frequency of the piezo-embedded PDVF was quantified in the wake of a [...] Read more.
The use of flexible inverted piezo embedded Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) as a simultaneous energy harvester and as a wake sensor is explored. The oscillation amplitude (characterized by voltage output) and oscillation frequency of the piezo-embedded PDVF was quantified in the wake of a 2D NACA 0012 model and SD7003 model at a Reynolds number of 100,000 and 67,000, respectively. The performance of the sensor was also quantified in the freestream without the presence of the wing. In order to quantify the sensor response to angle of attack and downstream distance, the amplitude and frequency of oscillations were recorded in the wing wake. Increase in angle of attack of the wing resulted in increase in oscillation frequency and amplitude of the PVDF. The results also indicated that the inverted flag configuration performed better in the wake under unsteady conditions when compared to freestream conditions. The results from Particle Image Velocimetry indicated that the wake signature was not affected by the presence of the PVDF in the wake. The root mean square voltage contours in the wake of SD7003 airfoil show remarkable free shear layer wake features such as upper and lower surface stratification and downwash angle which shows the sensitivity of the sensor to the unsteadiness in the wake. The capability of this device to act as a potential energy harvester and as a sensor has serious implications in extending the mission capabilities of small UAVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Analysis of Wind-Tunnel Models and Fluidic Measurements)
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Open AccessArticle
Practical Approach for Absolute Density Field Measurement Using Background-Oriented Schlieren
Aerospace 2018, 5(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace5040129 - 17 Dec 2018
Abstract
A practical approach for deriving the absolute density field based on the background-oriented schlieren method in a high-speed flowfield was implemented. The flowfield of interest was a two-dimensional compressible flowfield created by two supersonic streams to simulate a linear aerospike nozzle operated under [...] Read more.
A practical approach for deriving the absolute density field based on the background-oriented schlieren method in a high-speed flowfield was implemented. The flowfield of interest was a two-dimensional compressible flowfield created by two supersonic streams to simulate a linear aerospike nozzle operated under a supersonic in-flight condition. The linear aerospike nozzle had a two-dimensional cell nozzle with a design Mach number of 3.5, followed by a spike nozzle. The external flow simulating the in-flight condition was 2.0. The wall density distribution used as the wall boundary condition for Poisson’s equation to solve the density field was derived by a simplified isentropic assumption based on the measured wall pressure distribution, and its validity was evaluated by comparing with that predicted by numerical simulation. Unknown coefficients in Poisson’s equation were determined by comparing the wall density distribution with that predicted by the model. By comparing the derived density field based on the background-oriented schlieren method to that predicted by the model and numerical simulation, the absolute density field was derived within an error of 10% on the wall distribution. This practical approach using a simplified isentropic assumption based on measured pressure distribution thus provided density distribution with sufficient accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Analysis of Wind-Tunnel Models and Fluidic Measurements)
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Open AccessArticle
Active Control of Laminar Separation: Simulations, Wind Tunnel, and Free-Flight Experiments
Aerospace 2018, 5(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace5040114 - 30 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
When a laminar boundary layer is subjected to an adverse pressure gradient, laminar separation bubbles can occur. At low Reynolds numbers, the bubble size can be substantial, and the aerodynamic performance can be reduced considerably. At higher Reynolds numbers, the bubble bursting can [...] Read more.
When a laminar boundary layer is subjected to an adverse pressure gradient, laminar separation bubbles can occur. At low Reynolds numbers, the bubble size can be substantial, and the aerodynamic performance can be reduced considerably. At higher Reynolds numbers, the bubble bursting can determine the stall characteristics. For either setting, an active control that suppresses or delays laminar separation is desirable. A combined numerical and experimental approach was taken for investigating active flow control and its interplay with separation and transition for laminar separation bubbles for chord-based Reynolds numbers of Re ≈ 64,200–320,000. Experiments were carried out both in the wind tunnel and in free flight using an instrumented 1:5 scale model of the Aeromot 200S, which has a modified NACA 643-618 airfoil. The same airfoil was also used in the simulations and wind tunnel experiments. For a wide angle of attack range below stall, the flow separates laminar from the suction surface. Separation control via a dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator and unsteady blowing through holes were investigated. For a properly chosen actuation amplitude and frequency, the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability results in strong disturbance amplification and a “roll-up” of the separated shear layer. As a result, an efficient and effective laminar separation control is realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Analysis of Wind-Tunnel Models and Fluidic Measurements)
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