Special Issue "Fluid-Structure Interactions"

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Hossein Zare-Behtash
Website
Guest Editor
Aerospace Sciences Division, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK
Interests: fluid–thermal–structure interactions; nanophotonic fluid sensor, flow control; compressible flows; advanced flow diagnostics; shock physics; shock–vortex interactions; wind tunnel testing; engineering optimisation; unsteady aerodynamics; energy deposition; bio-inspired engineering; unconventional wing planforms
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Kiran Ramesh
Website
Guest Editor
Aerospace Sciences Division, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK
Interests: Fluid–Structure Interaction; Unsteady Aerodynamics; Vortex Particle Methods; Flapping flight; Dynamic Stall

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Various specialist groups around the world have dedicated much computational and experimental resources to the understanding of the challenging and exciting topic of fluid-structure interactions (FSI). FSI’s are prevalent in a wide range of problems in nature and engineering. These include dynamic stall in rotorcraft and wind turbines, micro air vehicles, and flow control. Such flows are characterized by rapid changes in flow circulation, flow separation, and vortices. While much of research in the past decades has focused on the mitigation of adverse FSI effects, recent studies have attempted to achieve aeroelastic benefits using FSI.

This drive to understand has led to many advances in numerical and experimental capabilities within this field. It is these innovations, which provide the motivation behind this Special Issue.

We invite papers addressing both the advances in our fundamental understanding of incompressible FSI phenomena and also the latest in numerical and experimental tools and techniques which are currently being used for this purpose.

Examples of the key areas, which are covered by this Special Issue, include, but are not limited to:

  • Animal flight
  • Flexible aircraft – conventional/unconventional configurations
  • HALE and MALE vehicles

We wish all the researchers active in this field the greatest of luck.

Dr. Hossein Zare-Behtash
Dr. Kiran Ramesh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of CFD Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Laminar Boundary Layer Interactions
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4020025 - 25 Apr 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
The goal of this study is to assess CFD capability for the prediction of shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions at hypersonic velocities. More specifically, the flow field over a double-cone configuration is simulated using both perfect gas and non-equilibrium Navier–Stokes models. Computations [...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to assess CFD capability for the prediction of shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions at hypersonic velocities. More specifically, the flow field over a double-cone configuration is simulated using both perfect gas and non-equilibrium Navier–Stokes models. Computations are compared with recent experimental data obtained from measurements conducted in the LENS XX (Large Energy National Shock Expansion Tunnel Version 2) at the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC). Four separate cases of freestream conditions are simulated to examine the models for a range of stagnation enthalpies from 5.44 MJ/kg to 21.77 MJ/kg and Mach numbers from 10.9 to 12.82. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Structure Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Control of Triple-Shock Configurations and Vortex Structures Forming in High Speed Flows of Gaseous Media past an AD Body under the Action of External Energy Sources
Aerospace 2017, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4010009 - 20 Feb 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
The problem of supersonic streamlining of an aerodynamic (AD) body, “a plate blunted by a cylinder”, by a flow with the freestream Mach number M = 4 containing an external energy source has been studied, taking into account physicochemical transformations. The results of [...] Read more.
The problem of supersonic streamlining of an aerodynamic (AD) body, “a plate blunted by a cylinder”, by a flow with the freestream Mach number M = 4 containing an external energy source has been studied, taking into account physicochemical transformations. The results of the effect of the ratio of specific heats γ changing in the range from 1.1 to 1.4 on the dynamics of triple-shock configurations and vortex-contact structures are presented for the interaction of an energy source with the bow shock wave. The energy source is modeled via the heated rarefied layer (filament). The angles in the triple-shock configurations, the stagnation pressure, together with the frontal drag force, have been studied dependent on the specific heats ratio γ, the characteristics of the energy source, and also on the angle of the incident shock. Vortex-contact structures have been researched for the Mach numbers 7, 8, 9, as well as the generation of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability accompanying the formation of a triple-shock configuration. The results show a strong influence of the specific heats ratio of the gas medium and the parameters of the energy source on the triple-shock configuration and aerodynamic characteristics of the body. This conclusion can be useful for aerospace applications in the area of the design of nozzles, intakes, and high speed flying vehicles. Additionally, the results show the possibility of flow control in the atmospheres of other planets using external energy deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Structure Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
On Multirate GARK Schemes with Adaptive Micro Step Sizes for Fluid–Structure Interaction: Order Conditions and Preservation of the Geometric Conservation Law
Aerospace 2017, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4010008 - 14 Feb 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
The application of partitioned schemes to fluid–structure interaction (FSI) allows the use of already developed solvers specifically designed for the efficient solution of the corresponding subproblems. In this work, we propose and describe a loosely coupled partitioned scheme based on the recently introduced [...] Read more.
The application of partitioned schemes to fluid–structure interaction (FSI) allows the use of already developed solvers specifically designed for the efficient solution of the corresponding subproblems. In this work, we propose and describe a loosely coupled partitioned scheme based on the recently introduced generalized-structure additively partitioned Runge-Kutta (GARK) framework. The resulting scheme combines implicit-explicit (IMEX) and multirate approaches while coupling of the subproblems is realized both on the level of the discrete time steps and at the level of interior Runge-Kutta stages. Specifically, we allow for varying micro step sizes for the fluid subproblem and therefore extend the multirate GARK framework based on constant micro steps. Furthermore, we derive the order conditions for this extension allowing for coupled time integration schemes of up to third order and discuss specific choices of the Runge-Kutta coefficients complying with the geometric conservation law. Finally, numerical experiments are carried out for uniform flow on a moving grid as well as the classical FSI test case of a moving piston. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Structure Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Gaskinetic Model to Analyze Background Flow Effects on Weak Gaseous Jet Flows from Electric Propulsion Devices
Aerospace 2017, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4010005 - 27 Jan 2017
Abstract
Recent work on studying rarefied background and jet flow interactions is reported. A new gaskinetic method is developed to investigate two closely related problems. The first problem is how a collisionless background flow can affect a highly rarefied jet flow. The rarefied jet [...] Read more.
Recent work on studying rarefied background and jet flow interactions is reported. A new gaskinetic method is developed to investigate two closely related problems. The first problem is how a collisionless background flow can affect a highly rarefied jet flow. The rarefied jet and background flow conditions are assumed available and described with seven parameters. Gaskinetic theories are applied and formulas are obtained for the mixture properties. Simulations are performed to validate these expressions, and excellent agreement is obtained. The second problem is to recover the collisionless background and jet flow parameters with limited measurements. A group of linearized equations are derived for the flowfield properties. The solving process includes initial estimations on the seven parameters, followed with iterations. Numerical tests are performed and the results indicate the procedure is accurate and efficient. The new method and expressions can reduce the amount of experimental work and numerical simulations to analyze facility effects. Parameter studies with particle simulations may require several months; however, the new methods may require minutes. These methods can be used to quantify and predict jet performance, vacuum chamber designs and optimization. Applications may be for many societies using vacuum conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Structure Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Gaskinetic Modeling on Dilute Gaseous Plume Impingement Flows
Aerospace 2016, 3(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace3040043 - 09 Dec 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper briefly reviews recent work on gaseous plume impingement flows. As the major part of this paper, also included are new comprehensive studies on high-speed, collisionless, gaseous, circular jet impinging on a three-dimensional, inclined, diffuse or specular flat plate. Gaskinetic theories are [...] Read more.
This paper briefly reviews recent work on gaseous plume impingement flows. As the major part of this paper, also included are new comprehensive studies on high-speed, collisionless, gaseous, circular jet impinging on a three-dimensional, inclined, diffuse or specular flat plate. Gaskinetic theories are adopted to study the problems, and several crucial geometry-location and velocity-direction relations are used. The final complete results include impingement surface properties such as pressure, shear stress, and heat flux. From these surface properties, averaged coefficients of pressure, friction, heat flux, moment over the entire flat plate, and the distance from the moment center to the flat plate center are obtained. The final results include accurate integrations involving the geometry and specific speed ratios, inclination angle, and the temperature ratio. Several numerical simulations with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method validate these analytical results, and the results are essentially identical. The gaskinetic method and processes are heuristic and can be used to investigate other external high Knudsen (Kn) number impingement flow problems, including the flow field and surface properties for a high Knudsen number jet from an exit and flat plate of arbitrary shapes. The results are expected to find many engineering applications, especially in aerospace and space engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Structure Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of a Human-Powered Aircraft Using Fluid–Structure Interaction Simulations
Aerospace 2016, 3(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace3030026 - 26 Aug 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
The special type of aircrafts in which the human power of the pilot is sufficient to take off and sustain flight are known as Human-Powered Aircrafts (HPAs). To explore the peculiarities of these aircrafts, the aerodynamic performance of an existing design is evaluated [...] Read more.
The special type of aircrafts in which the human power of the pilot is sufficient to take off and sustain flight are known as Human-Powered Aircrafts (HPAs). To explore the peculiarities of these aircrafts, the aerodynamic performance of an existing design is evaluated first, using both the vortex lattice method and computational fluid dynamics. In a second step, it is attempted to design and optimize a new HPA capable of winning the Kremer International Marathon Competition. The design will be special in that it allows one to include a second pilot on board the aircraft. As the structural deflection of the wing is found to be a key aspect during design, fluid–structure interaction simulations are performed and included in the optimization procedure. To assess the feasibility of winning the competition, the physical performance of candidate pilots is measured and compared with the predicted required power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Structure Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
On a Non-Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem Governing Interior Structural–Acoustic Vibrations
Aerospace 2016, 3(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace3020017 - 17 Jun 2016
Abstract
Small amplitude vibrations of a structure completely filled with a fluid are considered. Describing the structure by displacements and the fluid by its pressure field, the free vibrations are governed by a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem. This survey reports on a framework for taking [...] Read more.
Small amplitude vibrations of a structure completely filled with a fluid are considered. Describing the structure by displacements and the fluid by its pressure field, the free vibrations are governed by a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem. This survey reports on a framework for taking advantage of the structure of the non-symmetric eigenvalue problem allowing for a variational characterization of its eigenvalues. Structure-preserving iterative projection methods of the the Arnoldi and of the Jacobi–Davidson type and an automated multi-level sub-structuring method are reviewed. The reliability and efficiency of the methods are demonstrated by a numerical example. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Structure Interactions)
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